Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.522
Filtrar
1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20181371, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491139

RESUMO

The formononetin biostimulant may be an option for reducing P fertilization once it stimulates mycelial growth of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and increases plant ability to take up nutrients through the roots, especially phosphorus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of formononetin associated with phosphorus fertilization in maize. Field experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement (0, 50 or 70, and 140 kg ha-1 P2O5; and formononetin application rates: 0, 25, 50, and 100 g ha-1), with four replications. Formononetin (100 g ha-1) increased the mycorrhizal colonization rate up to 30% in maize in the first four weeks after emergence when no P fertilizer was applied, and to 17% when 50 or 70 kg ha-1 of P2O5 were applied. The application of 50 and 100 g ha-1 of formononetin significantly increased plant height, ear height, and grain yield (22% - 76%) when no P fertilizer was applied. The use of formononetin in the field stimulates mycorrhizal colonization, has a positive effect on maize yield, and reduces the need for P fertilizer application in maize. However, this effect was evident only at low P soil contents.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Fósforo/análise , Solo/química , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 182(23)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515339

RESUMO

The importance of venous thromboembolism (VTE) as a major complication in patients with severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is becoming increasingly evident. In this review, we describe the proposed pathophysiology of the prothrombotic coagulation changes observed in patients with COVID-19. Further, based on a review of the currently available evidence on VTE prevalence in patients with COVID-19, we present and discuss the recommendations from the Danish Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis on the use of thromboprophylaxis in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Isoflavonas , Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Anticoagulantes , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
3.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(2): 174-179, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although estrogen therapy is widely used against post-menopausal symptoms, it can present adverse effects, including endometrial cancer. Soy isoflavones are considered a possible alternative to estrogen therapy. However, there are still concerns whether isoflavones exert trophic effects on the uterine cervix. To evaluate the histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in the uterine cervix of ovariectomized rats treated with soy isoflavones (Iso). METHODS: Fifteen adult Wistar rats were ovariectomized (Ovx) and divided into three groups: Group I (Ovx), administered with vehicle solution; Group II (OVX-Iso), administered with concentrated extract of Iso (150 mg/kg) by gavage; and Group III (OVX-E2), treated with 17ß-estradiol (10 µg/kg), subcutaneously. After 30 days of treatments, the uterine cervix was fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin-embedding. Sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin for morphological and morphometric studies or subjected to immunohistochemistry for detections of Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A). The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: We noted an atrophic uterine cervix in GI, whereas it was more voluminous in GII and even more voluminous in GIII. The thickness of the cervical mucosa was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to GI and GII. The cell proliferation (Ki-67) was significantly elevated in the estradiol and isoflavones treated groups, whereas Vegf-A immunoexpression was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to groups GII and GI. CONCLUSIONS: Soy isoflavones cause less trophic and proliferative effects in the uterine cervix of rats as compared to estrogen.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo do Útero/patologia , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Antígeno Ki-67/análise , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovariectomia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(4): e8882, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294699

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common primary malignant tumors of the liver worldwide. Liver resection and transplantation are currently the only effective treatments; however, recurrence and metastasis rates are still high. Previous studies have shown that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step in HCC invasion and metastasis. Inhibition of EMT has become a new therapeutic strategy for tumors. Recently, puerarin, a well-characterized component of traditional Chinese medicine, has been isolated from Pueraria radix and exerts positive effects on many diseases, particularly cancers. In this study, CCK-8, EdU immunofluorescence, colony formation, wound healing, and migration assays were used to detect the effects of puerarin on HCC cells. We further analyzed the relationship between puerarin and miR-21/PTEN/EMT markers in HCC cell lines. Our results showed that HCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion, tumor formation, and metastasis were reduced by puerarin in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, puerarin inhibited the EMT process of HCC by affecting the expression of Slug and Snail. Moreover, oncogenic miR-21 was inhibited by puerarin, coupled with an increase in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN. Increasing miR-21 expression or decreasing PTEN expression reversed the inhibition effects of puerarin in HCC. These data confirmed that puerarin affects HCC through the miR-21/PTEN/EMT regulatory axis. Overall, puerarin may represent a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent for HCC treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Pirróis
5.
Phytochemistry ; 175: 112376, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304910

RESUMO

Three undescribed isoflavones, derriscandenon A, B, and C, together with seven known isoflavones were isolated and structurally characterized during a study of the chemical constituents in the leaves of Derris scandens (Roxb.) Benth (Leguminosae, Fabaceae) collected in Bangladesh. The inhibitory activity of the compounds against activation of Epstein-Barr virus antigen (EBV-EA) by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbo-13-acetate (TPA) was measured to identify possible chemopreventive agents. Mild inhibitory effects (IC50 278-290 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA) against EBV-EA induction compared with curcumin (IC50 341 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA) were observed for four known compounds (lupalbigenin, isopalbigenin, glyurallin, and isangustone A). Next, we focused on antitumor effects and investigated cell viability, cell proliferation, and mitochondria membrane potential by using an MTT assay, a live cell monitoring system, and fluorescence staining. Of the seven isoflavones tested for cell viability, a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed for four isoflavones (derriscandenon B and C, derrubone, and glyurallin) in KB cells and two compounds (derriscandenon B and isochandaisone) in NALM6-MSH+ cells. In addition, the proliferation of KB cells was significantly inhibited by these four compounds at a concentration of 5 µM. The mitochondria membrane potentials of KB cells treated with derriscandenon C, derrubone, and glyurallin at the IC50 concentration were decreased by about 55%, whereas undescribed compound derriscandenon B had no effect. Our results show that some of the compounds isolated from D. scandens may be suitable as seed compounds for cancer prevention and therapy.


Assuntos
Derris , Fabaceae , Isoflavonas , Neoplasias , Bangladesh , Humanos
6.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(3): e9201, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130294

RESUMO

Methylophiopogonanone A (MO-A), a homoisoflavonoid extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been shown to attenuate myocardial apoptosis and improve cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the hypolipidemic effects remain unknown. This study was performed to investigate a potential hypolipidemic effect of MO-A in hyperlipidemia rats, as well as its underlying mechanism of action. A rat model of hyperlipidemia was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals were randomly divided into three groups (n=8/group): normal control group (NC), HFD group, and HFD+MO-A (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) treatment group. The effects of MO-A on serum lipids, body weight, activity of lipoprotein metabolism enzyme, and gene expression of lipid metabolism were evaluated in HFD-induced rats. In HFD-induced rats, pretreatment with MO-A decreased the body weight gain and reduced serum and hepatic lipid levels. In addition, pretreatment with MO-A improved the activities of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase in serum and liver, down-regulated mRNA expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and up-regulated mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in the liver. Our results indicated that MO-A showed strong ability to ameliorate the hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced rats. MO-A might be a potential candidate for prevention of overweight and dyslipidemia induced by HFD.


Assuntos
Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Ophiopogon/química , Animais , Benzodioxóis/isolamento & purificação , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/química , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
7.
Food Chem ; 319: 126552, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151898

RESUMO

The resource utilization of soybean seed coats is currently poor. In this study, steam flash explosion (SFE) pretreatment was performed to extract valuable phytochemicals from soybean seed coats. The total content of phytochemicals and the antioxidant activity of extracts from SFE-treated soybean seed coat were systematically evaluated. On the basis of the application value of antioxidant activity, we optimized the process parameters of SFE-pretreated soybean seed coat to maximize the antioxidant activity. Additionally, the subsequently obtained ethyl acetate fraction with the highest antioxidant activity was analysed using HPLC-DAD-Q-Orbitrap HRMS/MS analysis. The results indicated that SFE could enhance the release of both aglycone and acetylglucoside forms of isoflavones from the cellular structure and enhance the antioxidant activity of soybean seed coats. This study provides evidence that SFE is a novel thermal processing technology with high efficiency and low energy consumption that improves the phytochemical composition and bioactivity of soybean seed coats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Fenóis/química , Soja/química , Vapor , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Explosões , Manipulação de Alimentos , Isoflavonas/análise , Fenóis/análise , Sementes/química
8.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(1): 64-70, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the in vitro study model of osteoclasts induced by RANKL, to elaborate the effect of formononetin (FO) , an effective component of Caulis Spatholobi, on the differentiation and function of bone marrow mononuclear macrophages (BMMs) into osteoclasts, and to explore the molecular mechanism of its inhibition. METHODS: The BMMs in femur and tibia were isolated from 20 clean C57/BL6 mice of 4 to 6 weeks old, 10 males and 10 females, each weighing (20± 2) g. The BMMs in femur and tibia were cultured and proliferated in vitro with α-MEM medium. BMMs were cultured with MCSF and different concentrations of anthocyanin (5 to 50 µm) respectively for 4 days, and CCK8 of cell proliferation and toxicity was detected. BMMs in good growth condition were added to M-CSF and RANKL to induce osteoclast differentiation in turn. There was no special treatment in the control group. DMSO was added to the control group with DMSO solvent. Each observation group was added with different concentrations of awnasin (1 to 20 µm) . After 6 days of culture, the osteoclasts were counted and statistically analyzed. The expression of NFATc1, c-Fos and ERK, the key transcription factors in osteoclast differentiation, were detected by Western blot, RNA was extracted at 4 days, and the activity of ctsk, trap, MMP9 and Car2 were detected by real time PCR. RESULTS: CCK8 test results showed that awnstein could inhibit the activity of BMMs in a dose-dependent manner, and had no significant toxic effect on the growth of bmms within the safe concentration range of ≤20 µM (P= 0.278>0.05) . The results of trap staining showed that awnstein could inhibit osteoclast production in a dose-dependent manner in the concentration range of (1 to 20 µM) , especially in 10 µM (P=0.000<0.05) . Western blot showed that 10 µ m could significantly inhibit the expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos, but not the expression of ERK. In terms of osteoclast function, the expression of ctsk (P=0.000<0.05) , trap (P=0.000<0.05) , MMP9 (P=0.000<0.05) and Car2 (P=0.000<0.05) related to osteoclast function were detected by real time PCR. CONCLUSION: The effective component of Caulis Spatholobi can inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of primary mononuclear macrophages into osteoclasts, and down regulate the expression of osteoclast bone resorption related proteins and genes, which may be one of the mechanisms of its prevention and treatment of bone destruction and collapse in osteonecrosis of femoral head.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea , Feminino , Isoflavonas , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteoclastos , Ligante RANK
9.
Food Chem ; 318: 126521, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151927

RESUMO

Isoflavones intake is associated with health benefits. The metabolism of isoflavones by bacteria plays a key role in their biotransformation. Therefore, commercial soy drink was fermented by 11 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 9 bifidobacteria strains. The majority of the strains showed deglycosylation of the isoflavone glycosides present in soy drink and appearance of the aglycones daidzein, genistein and glycitein. Moreover, we observed the further transformation of daidzein into O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) and tetrahydrodaidzein, alongside with dihydrodaidzein (DHD) and a putative isomer of DHD. On the other hand, genistein was transformed by nearly all strains into 6-hydroxy-O-desmethylangolensin (6-hydroxy-O-DMA), but no dihydrogenistein production was registered. A high concentration of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid was observed, suggesting the degradation of O-DMA and 6-hydroxy-O-DMA. The potential of LAB and Bifidobacterium strains to produce functional soy drink enriched with bioactive isoflavones is demonstrated in this work.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Leite de Soja/metabolismo , Genisteína/metabolismo , Humanos , Propionatos/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168321

RESUMO

Biochanin A, an isoflavone present in the pasture legume red clover (Trifloium pratense L.), alters fermentation in the rumen of cattle and other ruminants. Biochanin A inhibits hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria and promotes cellulolytic bacteria and fiber catalysis in vitro and ex vivo. Consequently, biochanin A supplementation improves weight gain in grazing steers. Red clover contains biologically active isoflavones that may act synergistically. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effect of two levels of red clover hay on growth performance and the microbial community in growing steers grazing mixed grass pastures. A grazing experiment was conducted over 2 early growing seasons (2016 and 2017) with 36 cross-bred steers and twelve rumen-fistulated, growing Holstein steers for evaluation of average daily gain and rumen microbiota, respectively. Steers were blocked by body weight and assigned to pastures with one of four treatments: 1) pasture only, 2) pasture + dry distillers' grains (DDG), 3) pasture + DDG + low level of red clover hay (~15% red clover diet), or 4) pasture + DDG + high level of red clover hay (~30% red clover diet). DDG were added to treatments to meet protein requirements and to balance total protein supplementation between treatments. All supplementation strategies (DDG ± red clover hay) increased average daily gains in comparison to pasture-only controls (P < 0.05), with a low level of red clover supplementation being the most effective (+0.17 kg d-1 > DDG only controls; P < 0.05). Similarly, hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria inhibition (10-100-fold; P < 0.05), fiber catalysis (+10-25%; P < 0.05) and short chain fatty acid concentrations were greatest with the low red clover supplement (+~25%; P < 0.05). These results provide evidence that lower levels or red clover supplementation may be optimal for maximizing overall microbial community function and animal performance in grazing steers.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Rúmen/microbiologia , Trifolium/química , Ganho de Peso , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catálise , Bovinos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hibridização Genética , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166330

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the effects of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection and dietary soy isoflavone (ISF) supplementation on carcass cutability and meat quality of commercial pigs. Barrows (21 d of age) were randomly allotted to experimental treatments that were maintained throughout the study: noninfected pigs received an ISF-devoid control diet (CON, n = 22) and infected pigs received either the control diet (PRRSV-CON, n = 20) or that supplemented with total ISF in excess of 1,500 mg/kg (PRRSV-ISF, n = 25). Pigs were penned by treatment, with six pigs within a pen. Following a 7-d adaptation, weanling pigs were inoculated once intranasally with either a sham-control (phosphate buffered saline [PBS]) or live PRRSV (1 × 105 tissue culture infective dose [TCID]50/mL, strain NADC20). Pigs were maintained on experimental diets for 166 d after inoculation and then slaughtered (192 or 194 d of age; approximately 120 kg body weight [BW]). At 1-d postmortem, left sides were separated between the 10th and 11th rib for the determination of loin eye area (LEA), backfat (BF) thickness, and loin quality (ultimate pH, instrumental color, drip loss, visual color, marbling, and firmness). Loin chops were aged 14 d postmortem prior to Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determination. Belly width, length, thickness, and flop distance were determined. Data were analyzed as a one-way ANOVA with pig as the experimental unit. Carcass yield, LEA, BF, and estimated lean percentage did not differ (P > 0.26) among treatments. Loins from CON pigs had increased ultimate pH (P = 0.01), reduced L* scores (P = 0.005) coupled with darker visual color scores (P = 0.004), were firmer (P < 0.0001), and exhibited reduced drip loss (P = 0.01) compared with PRRSV-CON and PRRSV-ISF pigs. However, WBSF did not differ (P = 0.51) among treatments after 14 d of aging. Bellies from CON pigs were more firm compared with bellies from PRRSV-CON and ISF pigs (P < 0.01). These data suggest PRRSV infection did not alter carcass characteristics but may have marginally reduced loin and belly quality. Supplementation with dietary soy isoflavones did nothing to mitigate the detrimental effects of PRRSV infection.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patologia , Carne de Porco/normas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Masculino , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Suínos
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(17): 2606-2609, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016210

RESUMO

In this work we highlight two new methods for the synthesis of isoflavones through consecutive domino arylation of ortho-hydroxyarylenaminones with in situ photogenerated aryl radicals. As precursors for aryl radicals we used aryl onium reagents such as diazonium and diaryliodonium salts. Notably, the photo-Meerwein arylation by aryl diazonium tetrafluoroborates demonstrated high efficiency in terms of yields and can be considered as a method of choice for the straightforward assembly of 3-aryl-substituted chromones. Ultimately, 26 compounds were prepared in good to excellent yields using the developed synthetic protocols.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Isoflavonas/química , Luz , Cromonas/química , Estrutura Molecular
13.
Life Sci ; 245: 117387, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007575

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of daidzein or/and regular exercise on breast cancer and to reveal the potential biological mechanisms. BALB/c mice pretreated with regular exercise training for 20 days (15 m/min, 60 min/d) were orthotopically transplanted with mouse breast cancer cells (4T1), and then treated with daidzein (145 mg/kg) by gavage for another 22 days. Results showed that exercise or daidzein inhibited tumor growth in mice to a different degree. Particularly, co-treatment with exercise and daidzein showed an obviously synergistic inhibition on the tumor growth (P < 0.01), compared with the tumor control. Further researches indicated that the combination of exercise and daidzein synergistically mobilized and redistributed natural killer cells through upregulating the level of epinephrine and interleukin-6. Moreover, exercise combined with daidzein induces apoptosis in cancer cells via Fas/FasL-initiated mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway. These results suggested that regular exercise combined with daidzein may explore a candidate way to prevent and treat the breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Isoflavonas/uso terapêutico , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Transplante de Neoplasias
14.
Food Chem ; 317: 126373, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087514

RESUMO

Over 3200 discrete soybean samples were obtained from production locations around the United States during the years 2012-2016. Ground samples were scanned on near infrared spectrometers (NIRS) and analyzed by HPLC for total isoflavone and total saponin composition, as well as total carbohydrate composition. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analysis of preprocessed spectral data was used to develop optimized models to predict isoflavone content. The selection of a suitable calibration model was based on a high regression coefficient (R2), and lower standard error of calibration (SEC) values. Robust validated predictions were obtained for isoflavones, however less than robust calibrations were obtained for the total saponins. The correlations were not as robust for predicting the carbohydrate composition. NIRS is a suitable, rapid, nondestructive method to determine isoflavone composition in ground soybeans. Useful isoflavone composition predictions for large numbers of soybean samples can be obtained from quickly obtained NIRS scans.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas/análise , Saponinas/análise , Soja/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Carboidratos/análise , Modelos Lineares , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/metabolismo
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960037

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important disease, and ingestion of soy isoflavones (ISF) may benefit PRRSV-infected pigs due to demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. The objective of this experiment was to recreate immunological effects previously observed in young pigs infected with PRRSV receiving ISF and determine how those effects influence growth performance during the entire growth period from weaning to market. In total, 96 weaned barrows were group housed in a biosafety level-2 containment facility and allotted to 1 of 3 experimental treatments that were maintained throughout the study: noninfected pigs received an ISF-devoid control diet (NEG, n = 24), and infected pigs received either the control diet (POS, n = 36) or that supplemented with total ISF in excess of 1,600 mg/kg (ISF, n = 36). Following a 7-d adaptation, weanling pigs were inoculated intranasally with either a sham-control (PBS) or live PRRSV (1 × 105 TCID50/mL, strain NADC20). After inoculation, individual blood samples (n = 8 to 12/treatment) were routinely collected to monitor viral clearance and hematological parameters, including serum neutralizing anti-PRRSV antibody production. Pen-based oral fluids were used to monitor PRRSV clearance at later growth stages. A 1- or 2-way ANOVA was performed to compare experimental treatments depending on whether the outcome was repeatedly measured. In general, PRRSV infection decreased performance during early growth phases, resulting in 5.4% lower final BW for POS vs. NEG pigs (P < 0.05). Dietary ISF elicited inconsistent effects on growth performance, increased (P < 0.05) neutrophil cell counts and the relative proportion of memory T-cells, and decreased (P < 0.05) the time to full PRRSV clearance from oral fluids. Dietary ISF also elicited earlier, more robust anti-PRRSV neutralizing antibody production when compared with POS pigs. Additionally, and most notably, POS pigs experienced ~50% greater infection-related mortality rate vs. ISF pigs (P < 0.05), which may have significant economic implications for producers. Overall, dietary ISF ingestion supported immune responses and reduced mortality in PRRSV-infected pigs when fed to growing pigs though the biological mechanism of these effects remains unclear.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/fisiologia , Soja/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Suínos , Desmame
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110126, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918251

RESUMO

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is a dithiocarbamate pesticide used for crop protection and storage. But, it's widespread utilization is associated with deleterious growth plate cartilage disorder in broilers termed as avian tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). TD results in non-mineralized and less vascularized proximal tibial growth plate cartilage causing lameness and poor growth performance. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of puerarin against thiram toxicity in TD affected chickens. One-day-old broiler chickens (n = 240) were alienated into three equal groups i.e. control, TD and puerarin (n = 80) and were offered standard feed. Additionally, TD and puerarin groups were offered thiram at 50 mg/kg of feed from 4 to 7 days for TD induction followed by puerarin therapy at 120 mg/kg to puerarin group only from 8 to 18 days for TD treatment. Thiram feeding to TD and puerarin group chickens caused lameness, mortality, and increased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and growth plate (GP) size and upregulated HIF-1α expression. Besides, the production parameters, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels and the expressions of TIMP-3 and BCL-2 were decreased (p < 0.05). Puerarin alleviated lameness, enhanced angiogenesis and growth performance and serum and antioxidant enzymes, decreased apoptosis and recuperated GP width by significantly downregulating HIF-1α and upregulating the TIMP-3 and BCL-2 mRNA and protein expressions in puerarin group chickens (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the toxic effects associated with thiram can be mitigated using puerarin.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Tiram/toxicidade , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0223699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914457

RESUMO

Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) is a diploid self-pollinated annual pasture legume native to the Mediterranean region and widely sown in southern Australia and other countries with Mediterranean-type climates. This study utilised a core collection of 97 lines, representing around 80% of the genetic diversity of the species, to examine morphological diversity within subterranean clover. A total of 23 quantitative agro-morphological and 13 semi-quantitative morphological marker traits were assayed on the core collection and 28 diverse Australian cultivars as spaced plants in a replicated common garden experiment. Relationships between these traits and 24 climatic and edaphic parameters at their sites of origin were also examined within the core collection. Significant diversity was present for all traits. The Australian cultivars had similar levels of diversity to the core collection for several traits. Among the agro-morphological traits, time to flowering, leaf size and petiole diameter in mid-winter, plant area in late winter, maximum stem length, content of the oestogenic isoflavone biochanin A and total isoflavone content, were correlated with seven or more environmental variables. These can be considered highly adaptive, being the result of strong environmental selection pressure over time. For the first time in a clover species, morphological markers, including leaf mark, anthocyanin pigmentation and pubescence traits, have been associated with rainfall and soil parameters. This suggests they either have an adaptive role or the genes controlling them may be linked to other genes controlling adaptive traits. This study demonstrated the value of core collections to examine diversity within much larger global collections. It also identified adaptive traits from wild plants that can be utilised to develop more productive and persistent subterranean clover cultivars. The high heritability of these traits indicates that selection gains can be readily made.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Trifolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Austrália do Sul , Trifolium/anatomia & histologia
18.
Food Chem ; 313: 126095, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923873

RESUMO

Core-shell hydrogel beads were successfully produced from soybean hull polysaccharides (SHP). Using electron microscopy, the beads were found to be spherical with smooth surfaces and have tight gel network internal structures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the interaction between soy isoflavone and SHP in the gel beads mesh-like structure. Furthermore, the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of gel beads for soy isoflavone are 66.90% and 4.67%, respectively, and have the ability of pH-responsive release in vitro. Through the mathematical model of kinetics, we found that the release of soy isoflavone from gel beads showed Fickian diffusion in release media (pH 2.0 and 7.4), but showed non-Fickian diffusion at pH 4.0 and 6.8. This polymer can be extended to prepare more versatile delivery and controlled release system, appealing for food, pharmaceutical, biomedicine and cosmetics applications.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/química , Isoflavonas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Soja/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Cinética
19.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(4): e4796, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960437

RESUMO

Microglia are the primary immune cells in the central nervous system with functional plasticity. They can be activated into M1 and M2 phenotypes when neuroinflammation-related diseases occur. M1 phenotype cells produce pro-inflammatory mediators that cause neuroinflammation and the M2 phenotype can secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines that protect neurons from damage. Therefore, inhibiting the M1 phenotype while stimulating the M2 phenotype has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach for treating neuroinflammation-related diseases. Puerarin has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the role of puerarin in regulating microglia polarization and its reaction mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this paper, a metabolomics approach with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed to investigate the metabolic changes of BV-2 cells in different phenotypes and test the effects of puerarin on polarization. Thirty-nine metabolites were identified as the biomarkers related to the polarization of BV-2 cells and puerarin intervention reverted the content of most of the biomarkers. Our study demonstrated that puerarin could play a key role in M1/M2 polarization of BV-2 cells from a perspective of metabolomics, and it could regulate the balance between promotion and suppression of inflammation.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Glicerofosfolipídeos/análise , Glicerofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/análise , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo
20.
Molecules ; 25(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906359

RESUMO

Isoflavones in soybeans are well-known phytoestrogens. Soy isoflavones present in conjugated forms are converted to aglycone forms during processing and storage. Isoflavone aglycones (IFAs) of soybeans in human diets have poor solubility in water, resulting in low bioavailability and bioactivity. Enzyme-mediated glycosylation is an efficient and environmentally friendly way to modify the physicochemical properties of soy IFAs. In this study, we determined the optimal reaction conditions for Deinococcus geothermalis amylosucrase-mediated α-1,4 glycosylation of IFA-rich soybean extract to improve the bioaccessibility of IFAs. The conversion yields of soy IFAs were in decreasing order as follows: genistein > daidzein > glycitein. An enzyme quantity of 5 U and donor:acceptor ratios of 1000:1 (glycitein) and 400:1 (daidzein and genistein) resulted in high conversion yield (average 95.7%). These optimal reaction conditions for transglycosylation can be used to obtain transglycosylated IFA-rich functional ingredients from soybeans.


Assuntos
Deinococcus/enzimologia , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Soja/química , beta-Glucanas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli/genética , Vetores Genéticos , Genisteína/química , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glicosilação , Isoflavonas/biossíntese , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Isoflavonas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas , Fitoestrógenos/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , beta-Glucanas/farmacocinética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA