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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1164: 73-87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576541

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the roles of alcohol (ethanol) and related compounds in promoting cancer and inflammatory injury in many tissues. Long-term chronic heavy alcohol exposure is known to increase the chances of inflammation, oxidative DNA damage, and cancer development in many organs. The rates of alcohol-mediated organ damage and cancer risks are significantly elevated in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as poor nutrition, unhealthy diets, smoking, infection with bacteria or viruses, and exposure to pro-carcinogens. Chronic ingestion of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may initiate and/or promote the development of cancer in the liver, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, prostate, and female breast. In this chapter, we summarize the important roles of ethanol/acetaldehyde in promoting inflammatory injury and carcinogenesis in several tissues. We also review the updated roles of the ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) and other cytochrome P450 isozymes in the metabolism of various potentially toxic substrates, and consequent toxicities, including carcinogenesis in different tissues. We also briefly describe the potential implications of endogenous ethanol produced by gut bacteria, as frequently observed in the experimental models and patients of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, in promoting DNA mutation and cancer development in the liver and other tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Carcinogênese , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1 , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Etanol , Acetaldeído/toxicidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/fisiopatologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/patologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Etanol/toxicidade , Humanos , Isoformas de Proteínas
2.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 54(7): 464-469, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365959

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effects of parthenolide on estradiol-synthesizing enzyme, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and ER isoforms,VEGF in human endometriotic stromal cells. Methods: Primary endometriotic stromal cells were treated with different concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 20 µmol/L) of parthenolide. The mRNA of StAR, ER isoforms (ERα and ERß), PR, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 1, TNFR2 were measured by real-time PCR. The levels of estradiol and progesterone in the cell supernatant were measured by ELISA. Results: Different concentrations of parthenolide could up-regulate the mRNA of StAR in primary endometriotic stromal cells (F=5.722, P<0.05); the mRNA of StAR in the group of 20 µmol/L was significantly higher than that of the control group [2.6±0.3 versus 1.0, P<0.01]. Different concentrations of parthenolide could down-regulate the mRNA of ERα (F=6.921, P<0.01); the mRNA of ERα in the group of 20 µmol/L and 10 µmol/L were significantly lower than those of the control group [0.2±0.3 versus 0.3±0.3 versus 1.0, all P<0.05]. Different concentrations of parthenolide could down-regulate the ratios of ERα/ERß mRNA levels (F=4.209, P<0.05). Different concentrations of parthenolide could up-regulate the mRNA of VEGF and TNFR1 (F=10.964, P<0.01; F=7.286, P<0.01). There were no statiscal significances with different concentrations of parthenolide on the mRNA of ERß, PR, IL-6, TNFα and TNFR2, and the levels of estradiol and progesterone in the cell supernatant (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Parthenolide may regulate the expression of estradiol-synthesizing enzyme, ER isoforms and angiogenesis in endometriotic stromal cells. Parthenolide may promote the development of endometriosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Endometriose , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endometriose/induzido quimicamente , Endometriose/genética , Endométrio/metabolismo , Endométrio/patologia , Estradiol , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isoformas de Proteínas , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 486(1): 224-228, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367827

RESUMO

TRF2 protein (TBP-related factor 2) can substitute for TBP forming alternative transcription initiation complexes on TATA-less promoters, including the promoters of histone H1 and piRNA clusters required for transposon repression. The Drosophilatrf2 gene codes for two isoforms: a "short" and a "long" one, in which the same short TRF2 sequence is preceded by a long N-terminal domain. Here, we demonstrated that the long TFR2 isoform has a greater functional activity than the short isoform by expressing each of them at a reduced rate under the endogenous promoters. Expression of the long isoform alone affects neither the flies' viability nor the sex ratio. Expression of the short isoform alone leads to the phenotype described for the trf2 gene insufficiency and derepression of transposable elements, that is, decreased viability, disturbance of homologous chromosome pairing and segregation, and apparent female-biased sex ratio.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Repetições Teloméricas/química , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Repetições Teloméricas/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Mutação , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Repetições Teloméricas/genética
5.
Life Sci ; 234: 116768, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445027

RESUMO

In prostate cancer development, the androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a crucial role during both formation of early prostate lesions and progression to the lethal, incurable castration resistant stage. Accordingly, numerous approaches have been developed to inhibit AR activity including androgen deprivation therapy, application of the AR antagonists as well as the use of taxanes. However, these treatments, although effective initially, resistance inevitably occur for most of the patients within several years and limiting the therapeutic efficacy. Of note, alterations and reactivation of the AR signaling pathway have been demonstrated as the major reasons for the observed resistance. Accumulating evidences have suggested that synthesis of AR splicing variants, in particular, the constitutively active AR-V7, is one of the most important mechanisms that contribute to the abnormal AR signaling. In addition, clinical data also highlight the potential of using AR-V7 as a predictive biomarker and a therapeutic target in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In this review, we summarize the recent findings concerning the specific role of AR-V7 in CRPC progression, drug resistance and its potential value in clinical assessment.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxoides/farmacologia
6.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2793-2797, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440811

RESUMO

The DC-SIGN glycoprotein is responsible for the initial adhesion of dengue virus (DENV) to immune cells by the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). There are thirteen soluble and membrane-bound DC-SIGN isoforms, but the role of soluble isoforms in the DENV internalization process is not known. Five isoforms with an altered or absent CRD were identified, and three different soluble isoforms were used to confirm the interactions with mannose residues. The results show the loss of binding ability of one soluble isoform and binding ability of two of them. All of them will be used to verify their role in the DENV internalization process.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Vírus da Dengue/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Manose/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Ligação Viral , Internalização do Vírus , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Ligantes , Ligação Proteica/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
7.
Biomed Khim ; 65(4): 263-276, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436168

RESUMO

Protein p53 is one of the most studied proteins. This attention is primarily due to its key role in the cellular mechanisms associated with carcinogenesis. Protein p53 is a transcription factor involved in a wide variety of processes: cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, signaling inside the cell, DNA repair, coordination of metabolic processes, regulation of cell interactions, etc. This multifunctionality is apparently determined by the fact that p53 is a vivid example of how the same protein can be represented by numerous proteoforms bearing completely different functional loads. By alternative splicing, using different promoters and translation initiation sites, the TP53 gene gives rise to at least 12 isoforms, which can additionally undergo numerous (>200) post-translational modifications. Proteoforms generated due to numerous point mutations in the TP53 gene are adding more complexity to this picture. The proteoforms produced are involved in various processes, such as the regulation of p53 transcriptional activity in response to various factors. This review is devoted to the description of the currently known p53 proteoforms, as well as their possible functionality.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Genes p53 , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/química , Humanos , Mutação Puntual , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Gene ; 714: 144004, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351124

RESUMO

Calreticulin (CRT) is calcium binding protein of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) which performs plethora of functions besides it's role as molecular chaperone. Among the three different isoforms of this protein, CRT3 is most closely related to primitive CRT gene of higher plants. Based on their distinct structural and functional organisation, the plant CRTs have been known to contain three different domains: N, P and the C domain. The domain organisation and various biochemical characterstics of plant and animal CRTs are common with the exception of some differences. In plant calreticulin, the important N-glycosylation site(s) are replaced by the glycan chain(s) and several consensus sequences for in vitro phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase-2), are also present unlike the animal calreticulin. Biotic and abiotic stresses play a significant role in bringing down the crop production. The role of various phytohormones in defense against fungal pathogens is well documented. CRT3 has been reported to play important role in protecting the plants against fungal and bacterial pathogens and in maintaining plant innate immunity. There is remarkable crosstalk between CRT mediated signalling and biotic, abiotic stress, and phytohormone mediated signalling pathways The role of CRT mediated pathway in mitigating biotic and abiotic stress can be further explored in plants so as to strategically modify it for development of stress tolerant plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Calreticulina/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
9.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 183-202, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286324

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Isoforms of 2-OGDH E1 subunit are not functionally redundant in plant growth and development of A. thaliana. The tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (2-OGDH) converts 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) to succinyl-CoA concomitant with the reduction of NAD+. 2-OGDH has an essential role in plant metabolism, being both a limiting step during mitochondrial respiration as well as a key player in carbon-nitrogen interactions. In Arabidopsis thaliana two genes encode for E1 subunit of 2-OGDH but the physiological roles of each isoform remain unknown. Thus, in the present study we isolated Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion knockout mutant lines for each of the genes encoding the E1 subunit of 2-OGDH enzyme. All mutant plants exhibited substantial reduction in both respiration and CO2 assimilation rates. Furthermore, mutant lines exhibited reduced levels of chlorophylls and nitrate, increased levels of sucrose, malate and fumarate and minor changes in total protein and starch levels in leaves. Despite the similar metabolic phenotypes for the two E1 isoforms the reduction in the expression of each gene culminated in different responses in terms of plant growth and seed production indicating distinct roles for each isoform. Collectively, our results demonstrated the importance of the E1 subunit of 2-OGDH in both autotrophic and heterotrophic tissues and suggest that the two E1 isoforms are not functionally redundant in terms of plant growth in A. thaliana.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Complexo Cetoglutarato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Complexo Cetoglutarato Desidrogenase/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mutagênese Insercional , Nitratos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isoformas de Proteínas , Subunidades Proteicas , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107721, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan able to infect humans and it is common in pregnant women. During pregnancy and lactation, there are changes in the concentration of 17ß-estradiol (E2), progesterone (Prg), and prolactin (PRL). It is known that a proinflamatory response reduces the susceptibility to be infected, and this response may change according to hormonal impairment. Monocytes and macrophages are the main barrier against many intracellular microorganisms, due to their ability to produce cytokines. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of E2, progesterone, and PRL on the infective capacity of T. gondii, proinflamatory immune response modulation and the expression of hormonal receptors on THP-1 cell stimulated with T. gondii. METHODS: The THP-1 cells were infected with 1500 T. gondii tachyzoites, of RH strain. Stimuli were conducted with recombinant PRL (200 ng/mL), E2 (40 nM) y Prg (40 nM). MTT assays were performed to evaluate cellular viability. Western blot assays were carried out to evaluate the expression of the hormonal receptors (PRLR, ERα, and ERß). Cytokines produced were measured with a magnetic bead kit directed to 17 cytokines. RESULTS: Stimuli with E2 and Prg increased T. gondii infection in monocytes after 48 h; however, no differences in infection were observed in PRL stimulus. The E2 decreased the secretion of IL-12 and IL-1ß and PRL did not modify the production of these cytokines in THP-1 cells stimulated with T. gondii; however, both hormones increased the production of IL-10. Besides, PRL augmented the production of IL-4 and IL-13. In contrast, Prg reduced these cytokines. Our results show that T. gondii induces the expression of ERα and ERß and lowers PRLR. The hormones modify the expression of the receptors of other hormones: Prg decreases PRLR, ERß and increases ERα; E2 diminishes PRLR; and PRL decreases ERα and ERß expression. CONCLUSION: The hormones can increase T. gondii infection and could be mediating an anti-inflammatory response in THP-1 cells. T. gondii induces changes in the expression of hormonal receptors.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/metabolismo , Células THP-1/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Animais , Corantes , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Progesterona/metabolismo , Prolactina/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Células THP-1/imunologia , Células THP-1/parasitologia , Sais de Tetrazólio , Tiazóis , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1078: 189-199, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358219

RESUMO

Silica-based lectin microcolumns were developed and optimized for the separation and analysis of glycoform fractions in alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) based on both the degree of branching and level of fucosylation. Concanavalin A (Con A) and Aleuria Aurantia lectin (AAL) were immobilized onto HPLC-grade silica by reductive amination and packed into 2.1 mm i.d. × 5.0 cm microcolumns. Factors examined for these microcolumns include their protein content, binding capacity, binding strength and band-broadening under isocratic conditions (Con A) or step elution conditions (AAL) and in the presence of various flow rates or temperatures. These factors were examined by using experiments based on frontal analysis, zonal elution, peak profiling and peak decay analysis. Up to 200 µg AGP could be loaded onto a Con A microcolumn and provide linear elution conditions, and 100 µg AGP could be applied to an AAL microcolumn. The final conditions for separating retained and non-retained AGP glycoform fractions on a Con A microcolumn used a flow rate of 50 µL min-1 and a temperature of 50 °C, which gave a separation of these fractions within 20 min or less. The final conditions for an AAL microcolumn included a flow rate of 0.75 mL min-1, a temperature of 50 °C, and the use of 2.0 mM l-fucose as a competing agent for elution, giving a separation of non-retained and retained AGP glycoforms in 6 min or less. The inter-day precisions were ±0.7-4.0% or less for the retention times of the AGP glycoforms and ±2.2-3.0% or less for their peak areas.


Assuntos
Orosomucoide/análise , Isoformas de Proteínas/análise , Agaricales/química , Cromatografia de Afinidade/instrumentação , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Concanavalina A/química , Humanos , Proteínas Imobilizadas/química , Lectinas/química , Orosomucoide/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dióxido de Silício/química
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1140: 1-26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347039

RESUMO

Within the past years, we have witnessed a great improvement is mass spectrometry (MS) and proteomics approaches in terms of instrumentation, protein fractionation, and bioinformatics. With the current technology, protein identification alone is no longer sufficient. Both scientists and clinicians want not only to identify the proteins, but also to identify the protein's post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein isoforms, protein truncation, protein-protein interactions (PPI), and protein quantitation. Here, we describe the principle of MS and proteomics, and strategies to identify proteins, protein's PTMs, protein isoforms, protein truncation, PPIs, and protein quantitation. We also discuss the strengths and weaknesses within this field. Finally, in our concluding remarks we assess the role of mass spectrometry and proteomics in the scientific and clinical settings, in the near future. This chapter provides an introduction and overview for subsequent chapters that will discuss specific MS proteomic methodologies and their application to specific medical conditions. Other chapters will also touch upon areas that expand beyond proteomics, such as lipidomics and metabolomics.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas , Proteômica , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Isoformas de Proteínas , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3004, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285436

RESUMO

Identity determining transcription factors (TFs), or core regulatory (CR) TFs, are governed by cell-type specific super enhancers (SEs). Drugs to selectively inhibit CR circuitry are of high interest for cancer treatment. In alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, PAX3-FOXO1 activates SEs to induce the expression of other CR TFs, providing a model system for studying cancer cell addiction to CR transcription. Using chemical genetics, the systematic screening of chemical matter for a biological outcome, here we report on a screen for epigenetic chemical probes able to distinguish between SE-driven transcription and constitutive transcription. We find that chemical probes along the acetylation-axis, and not the methylation-axis, selectively disrupt CR transcription. Additionally, we find that histone deacetylases (HDACs) are essential for CR TF transcription. We further dissect the contribution of HDAC isoforms using selective inhibitors, including the newly developed selective HDAC3 inhibitor LW3. We show HDAC1/2/3 are the co-essential isoforms that when co-inhibited halt CR transcription, making CR TF sites hyper-accessible and disrupting chromatin looping.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina/metabolismo , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/química , Histona Desacetilases/química , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Sondas Moleculares/química , Sondas Moleculares/farmacologia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Isoformas de Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Rabdomiossarcoma/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(4): 329-345, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228925

RESUMO

The review describes functional and structural features of different isoforms of prolactin receptor, mechanisms of signaling pathway activation, and molecular messengers involved in the transmission and termination of signal from the prolactin receptor isoforms. Changes in the ratio between prolactin receptor isoforms, key mediators of prolactin signal transduction and termination in various organs and tissues, are analyzed. Special attention is given to the role of molecular mediators and the ratio between the isoforms in normal physiological functions and pathologies. Approaches for therapeutic correction of prolactin signaling impairments are discussed.


Assuntos
Prolactina/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteínas Inibidoras de STAT Ativados/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/genética , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2767, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235694

RESUMO

The coactivator PGC-1α1 is activated by exercise training in skeletal muscle and promotes fatigue-resistance. In exercised muscle, PGC-1α1 enhances the expression of kynurenine aminotransferases (Kats), which convert kynurenine into kynurenic acid. This reduces kynurenine-associated neurotoxicity and generates glutamate as a byproduct. Here, we show that PGC-1α1 elevates aspartate and glutamate levels and increases the expression of glycolysis and malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS) genes. These interconnected processes improve energy utilization and transfer fuel-derived electrons to mitochondrial respiration. This PGC-1α1-dependent mechanism allows trained muscle to use kynurenine metabolism to increase the bioenergetic efficiency of glucose oxidation. Kat inhibition with carbidopa impairs aspartate biosynthesis, mitochondrial respiration, and reduces exercise performance and muscle force in mice. Our findings show that PGC-1α1 activates the MAS in skeletal muscle, supported by kynurenine catabolism, as part of the adaptations to endurance exercise. This crosstalk between kynurenine metabolism and the MAS may have important physiological and clinical implications.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Carbidopa/farmacologia , Respiração Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Respiração Celular/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/fisiologia , Malatos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transaminases/antagonistas & inibidores , Transaminases/metabolismo
16.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol ; 57(2): 84-93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198984

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: WNT5A (Wnt family member 5A) belongs to the WNT family of secreted signaling glycoproteins that play essential role in developmental, physiological and pathological processes. WNT5A was shown to take part in carcinogenesis process playing both oncogenic and suppressor functions in various types of human malignancies. This study aimed to assess the expression of the WNT5A gene at the mRNA and protein levels in the specimens derived from endometrial cancer (EC) or unchanged control endometrium. The associations between the WNT5A expression levels and clinicopathological characteristics and survival of EC patients were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA was isolated in order to assess the relative amounts of WNT5A mRNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) in samples of unchanged endometrial control (n = 8) and tumor samples of EC patients (n = 28). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to determine the presence of WNT5A protein in the sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens derived from unchanged endome-trial controls (n = 6) and EC tumors (n = 19). Significance of differences in WNT5A expression levels between the studied groups of EC patients and correlations between the WNT5A and demographic data, pathological features, hematological parameters and overall survival of the patients were evaluated by statistical analysis. RESULTS: The level of WNT5A mRNA was decreased in EC in comparison to unchanged endometrium. WNT5A expression was associated with primary tumor invasion status exhibiting reduced level of transcripts in EC that involved organs beyond the uterus when compared to the uterus-confined cancers. WNT5A immunoreactivity was visualized in the cytoplasm and nuclei of EC cells as well as in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells of unchanged endometrium. WNT5A mRNA expression levels correlated negatively with cytoplasmic, and positively with nuclear immunoreactivity of the WNT5A protein in the EC cells. In addition, the relationships between blood leucocyte count (in particular granulocytes and lymphocytes) of patients with EC and their WNT5A mRNA and protein expression levels were established. A positive correlation between the nuclear immunoexpression of WNT5A protein in the cancer cells in cell nuclei and mean platelet volume in blood was also found. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the first study of WNT5A expression at the transcript and protein levels indicate that it could be considered as a potential marker of molecular changes that take place during EC development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteína Wnt-5a/genética , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/imunologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteína Wnt-5a/imunologia
17.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(3): 747-752, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for detecting the exosomal PML-RARA fusion gene expression by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). METHODS: By using Taqman probe-based ddPCR technique, the method that able to detect both long and short isoforms of PML-RARA fusion gene transcripts was established. RNA from PML-RARA negative cell line HL-60 as negative control was used to set the limit of blank (LOB), while the RNA from PML-RARA positive cell line NB4 and the recombinant plasmid pSG5-PML-RARA(S) were used to set the limit of detection (LOD) for long and short PML-RARA transcripts, respectively. Furtherly, the expression of exosomal PML-RARA fusion gene in NB4 cell culture supernatant and serum of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was analyzed by ddPCR technique. RESULTS: The LOB of ddPCR assay for long and short PML-RARA transcripts were 0.0725 and 0.083 copies per microliter of PCR reaction system, respectively, while the LOD of long and short PML-RARA transcripts were 0.19 and 0.21 copies per microliter of PCR reaction system, respectively. In addition, the expression of exosomal PML-RARA fusion gene derived from both NB4 cell culture supernatant and serum of APL patients was successfully detected. CONCLUSION: A ddPCR-based technique for detecting fusion gene transcripts has been established, which can be used to analyze absolute quantification in the minimal quantity of PML-RARA transcripts derived from exosomes. It suggests the possibility of this technique to non-invasively and dynamicly monitore the exosomal PML-RARA transcripts from APL patients' serum.


Assuntos
Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/análise , Exossomos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Isoformas de Proteínas
18.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(6): 583-592, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238858

RESUMO

Actin plays an important role in cellular adhesion, muscle and non-muscle contractility, migration, polarization, mitosis, and meiosis. Investigation of specific mechanisms underlying these processes is essential not only for fundamental research but also for clinical applications, since modulations of actin isoforms are directly or indirectly correlate with severe pathologies. In this review we summarize the isoform-specific functions of actin associated with adhesion structures, motility and division of normal and tumor cells; alterations of the expression and structural organization of actin isoforms in normal and tumor cells. Selective regulation of cytoplasmic ß- or γ-actin expression determines functional diversity between isoforms: ß-actin plays the predominant role in contraction and intercellular adhesion, and γ-actin is responsible for the cellular plasticity and motility. Similar data were obtained in different epithelial and mesenchymal neoplastic cell cultures, as well as in immunomorphological comparison of normal human tissues with tumor analogues. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell-cell contacts is essential for proliferation control and acquisition of invasiveness in epithelial tumors.


Assuntos
Actinas/fisiologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/fisiologia , Actinas/química , Animais , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Humanos , Mamíferos , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Microbiol Res ; 223-225: 137-143, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178047

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen with high clinical relevance for hospital infections of patients. Accumulating DNA sequencing results of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates have revealed frequent mutations in lasR gene, which encodes the highest arches component of quorum-sensing system (QS). We analyzed the sequencing data of lasR gene from a large collection of cystic fibrosis (CF) P. aeruginosa isolates. Our systematical analyses revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selection in lasR gene were largely constrained by codon-usage frequency. As a whole, SNP-substituted codons encoding unconserved amino acid resulted in unfavored codons with relatively low codon-usage frequency, while those associating with conserved amino acid were not strictly regulated in such way. These SNPs substitutions gives rise to diverse functional LasR isoforms and contributes to the relative growth fitness of recombinant lasR variant strains. Our survey reveals a novel pattern of SNPs selections in lasR gene of CF isolates. Our findings could be served as a powerful resource for understanding adaptive mechanism of clinical isolates under environmental constrains and developing anti-bacteria drugs for CF patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Códon/genética , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Transativadores/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Isoformas de Proteínas , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Percepção de Quorum/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Cancer Res ; 79(11): 2810-2811, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160309

RESUMO

High-grade glioma is the most common primary brain cancer type and is characterized by invasive and fast growth. In a previous issue of Cancer Research, Simone and colleagues show that the two isoforms of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel may determine the fate of gliomas. Glioma cell lines expressing the M23-AQP4 isoform, which forms large aggregates of orthogonal arrays of particles, shrink and undergo apoptosis, whereas cell lines expressing the tetramer-forming M1-AQP4 isoform display higher activity of matrix metalloproteinases, making them more invasive. This study provides new insight on the role of AQP4 isoforms in the biology of gliomas.See related article by Simone and colleagues; Cancer Res 79(9):2182-94.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4 , Glioma , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular , Humanos , Isoformas de Proteínas
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