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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5545-5556, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The p38 family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) includes four isoforms: p38α, -ß, -γ and -δ. The aim of this study was to elucidate possible functions of p38α and p38ß in human pancreatic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isoform expression was determined in seven human pancreatic cancer cell lines. After shRNA based selective knockdown of p38α and p38ß, in vitro growth and migration as well as in vivo tumorigenicity were assessed. RESULTS: All pancreatic cancer cells expressed p38 isoforms. Knockdown of p38α and p38ß inhibited in vitro growth. Migration was markedly reduced in p38α shRNA expressing clones, but not altered by p38ß knockdown. While in vivo inhibition of p38ß decreased tumor formation and growth, the knockdown of p38α significantly enhanced tumorigenicity. CONCLUSION: p38 MAPKs may exert isoform specific functions in pancreatic cancer. Selective targeting may contribute to individualized treatment of pancreatic cancer in the future.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase 11 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fosforilação , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
2.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847031

RESUMO

Following influenza infection, rs2248374-G ERAP2 expressing cells may transcribe an alternative spliced isoform: ERAP2/Iso3. This variant, unlike ERAP2-wt, is unable to trim peptides to be loaded on MHC class I molecules, but it can still dimerize with both ERAP2-wt and ERAP1-wt, thus contributing to profiling an alternative cellular immune-peptidome. In order to verify if the expression of ERAP2/Iso3 may be induced by other pathogens, PBMCs and MDMs isolated from 20 healthy subjects were stimulated with flu, LPS, CMV, HIV-AT-2, SARS-CoV-2 antigens to analyze its mRNA and protein expression. In parallel, Calu3 cell lines and PBMCs were in vitro infected with growing doses of SARS-CoV-2 (0.5, 5, 1000 MOI) and HIV-1BAL (0.1, 1, and 10 ng p24 HIV-1Bal/1 × 106 PBMCs) viruses, respectively. Results showed that: (1) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression can be prompted by many pathogens and it is coupled with the modulation of several determinants (cytokines, interferon-stimulated genes, activation/inhibition markers, antigen-presentation elements) orchestrating the anti-microbial immune response (Quantigene); (2) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA is translated into a protein (western blot); (3) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression is sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 concentration. Considering the key role played by ERAPs in antigen processing and presentation, it is conceivable that these enzymes may be potential targets and modulators of the pathogenicity of infectious diseases and further analyses are needed to define the role played by the different isoforms.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Imunização/métodos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Doadores de Sangue , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/imunologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750050

RESUMO

Computational algorithms are often used to assess pathogenicity of Variants of Uncertain Significance (VUS) that are found in disease-associated genes. Most computational methods include analysis of protein multiple sequence alignments (PMSA), assessing interspecies variation. Careful validation of PMSA-based methods has been done for relatively few genes, partially because creation of curated PMSAs is labor-intensive. We assessed how PMSA-based computational tools predict the effects of the missense changes in the APC gene, in which pathogenic variants cause Familial Adenomatous Polyposis. Most Pathogenic or Likely Pathogenic APC variants are protein-truncating changes. However, public databases now contain thousands of variants reported as missense. We created a curated APC PMSA that contained >3 substitutions/site, which is large enough for statistically robust in silico analysis. The creation of the PMSA was not easily automated, requiring significant querying and computational analysis of protein and genome sequences. Of 1924 missense APC variants in the NCBI ClinVar database, 1800 (93.5%) are reported as VUS. All but two missense variants listed as P/LP occur at canonical splice or Exonic Splice Enhancer sites. Pathogenicity predictions by five computational tools (Align-GVGD, SIFT, PolyPhen2, MAPP, REVEL) differed widely in their predictions of Pathogenic/Likely Pathogenic (range 17.5-75.0%) and Benign/Likely Benign (range 25.0-82.5%) for APC missense variants in ClinVar. When applied to 21 missense variants reported in ClinVar and securely classified as Benign, the five methods ranged in accuracy from 76.2-100%. Computational PMSA-based methods can be an excellent classifier for variants of some hereditary cancer genes. However, there may be characteristics of the APC gene and protein that confound the results of in silico algorithms. A systematic study of these features could greatly improve the automation of alignment-based techniques and the use of predictive algorithms in hereditary cancer genes.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Genes APC , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Algoritmos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Evolução Molecular , Éxons , Variação Genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Alinhamento de Sequência/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4067, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792493

RESUMO

The brain is organized morphologically and functionally into a columnar structure. According to the radial unit hypothesis, neurons from the same lineage form a radial unit that contributes to column formation. However, the molecular mechanisms that link neuronal lineage and column formation remain elusive. Here, we show that neurons from the same lineage project to different columns under control of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) in the fly brain. Dscam1 is temporally expressed in newly born neuroblasts and is inherited by their daughter neurons. The transient transcription of Dscam1 in neuroblasts enables the expression of the same Dscam1 splice isoform within cells of the same lineage, causing lineage-dependent repulsion. In the absence of Dscam1 function, neurons from the same lineage project to the same column. When the splice diversity of Dscam1 is reduced, column formation is significantly compromised. Thus, Dscam1 controls column formation through lineage-dependent repulsion.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
5.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008923, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735630

RESUMO

Mitochondrial translation defects can be due to mutations affecting mitochondrial- or nuclear-encoded components. The number of known nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial translation has significantly increased in the past years. RCC1L (WBSCR16), a putative GDP/GTP exchange factor, has recently been described to interact with the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit. In humans, three different RCC1L isoforms have been identified that originate from alternative splicing but share the same N-terminus, RCC1LV1, RCC1LV2 and RCC1LV3. All three isoforms were exclusively localized to mitochondria, interacted with its inner membrane and could associate with homopolymeric oligos to different extent. Mitochondrial immunoprecipitation experiments showed that RCC1LV1 and RCC1LV3 associated with the mitochondrial large and small ribosomal subunit, respectively, while no significant association was observed for RCC1LV2. Overexpression and silencing of RCC1LV1 or RCC1LV3 led to mitoribosome biogenesis defects that resulted in decreased translation. Indeed, significant changes in steady-state levels and distribution on isokinetic sucrose gradients were detected not only for mitoribosome proteins but also for GTPases, (GTPBP10, ERAL1 and C4orf14), and pseudouridylation proteins, (TRUB2, RPUSD3 and RPUSD4). All in all, our data suggest that RCC1L is essential for mitochondrial function and that the coordination of at least two isoforms is essential for proper ribosomal assembly.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Ribossomos Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
6.
Gene ; 760: 145021, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763489

RESUMO

Human B cell activating factor (TNFSF13B, BAFF) is a tumor necrosis factor superfamily member. Binding its unique receptor (TNFRSF13C, BAFF-R) mediates gene expression and cell survival in B cells via activation of NFκB pathway. Furthermore, there is data indicating a role in T cell function. A functionally inhibitory isoform (ΔBAFF) resulting from the deletion of exon 3 in the TNFSF13B pre-RNA has already been reported. However, data on the complexity of post-transcriptional regulation is scarce. Here, we report molecular cloning of nine TNFSF13B transcript variants resulting from alternative splicing of the TNFSF13B pre-mRNA including BAFFX1. This variant is characterized by a partial retention of intron 3 of the TNFSF13B gene causing the appearance of a premature stop codon. We demonstrate the expression of the corresponding BAFFX1 protein in Jurkat T cells, in ex vivo human immune cells and in human tonsillar tissue. Thereby we contribute to the understanding of TNFSF13B gene regulation and reveal that BAFF is regulated through a post-transcriptional mechanism to a greater extent than reported to date.


Assuntos
Fator Ativador de Células B/genética , Fator Ativador de Células B/imunologia , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Fator Ativador de Células B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Éxons , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
7.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(8): 763-767, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647346

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have emerged from bats, possibly via a secondary host. Here, we investigate the relationship of spike (S) glycoprotein from SARS-CoV-2 with the S protein of a closely related bat virus, RaTG13. We determined cryo-EM structures for RaTG13 S and for both furin-cleaved and uncleaved SARS-CoV-2 S; we compared these with recently reported structures for uncleaved SARS-CoV-2 S. We also biochemically characterized their relative stabilities and affinities for the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2. Although the overall structures of human and bat virus S proteins are similar, there are key differences in their properties, including a more stable precleavage form of human S and about 1,000-fold tighter binding of SARS-CoV-2 to human receptor. These observations suggest that cleavage at the furin-cleavage site decreases the overall stability of SARS-CoV-2 S and facilitates the adoption of the open conformation that is required for S to bind to the ACE2 receptor.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Receptores Virais/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Animais , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/ultraestrutura , Sítios de Ligação , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Evolução Molecular , Furina/química , Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16391-16400, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601196

RESUMO

Master splicing regulator MBNL1 shapes large transcriptomic changes that drive cellular differentiation during development. Here we demonstrate that MBNL1 is a suppressor of tumor dedifferentiation. We surveyed MBNL1 expression in matched tumor/normal pairs across The Cancer Genome Atlas and found that MBNL1 was down-regulated in several common cancers. Down-regulation of MBNL1 predicted poor overall survival in breast, lung, and stomach adenocarcinomas and increased relapse and distant metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer. Down-regulation of MBNL1 led to increased tumorigenic and stem/progenitor-like properties in vitro and in vivo. A discrete set of alternative splicing events (ASEs) are shared between MBNL1-low cancers and embryonic stem cells including a MAP2K7∆exon2 splice variant that leads to increased stem/progenitor-like properties via JNK activation. Accordingly, JNK inhibition is capable of reversing MAP2K7∆exon2-driven tumor dedifferentiation in MBNL1-low cancer cells. Our work elucidates an alternative-splicing mechanism that drives tumor dedifferentiation and identifies biomarkers that predict enhanced susceptibility to JNK inhibition.


Assuntos
MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 7/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase 7/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Processamento de RNA , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20139-20148, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727899

RESUMO

Lung cancer causes more deaths annually than any other malignancy. A subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is driven by amplification and overexpression or activating mutation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) ERBB2 In some contexts, notably breast cancer, alternative splicing of ERBB2 causes skipping of exon 16, leading to the expression of an oncogenic ERBB2 isoform (ERBB2ΔEx16) that forms constitutively active homodimers. However, the broader implications of ERBB2 alternative splicing in human cancers have not been explored. Here, we have used genomic and transcriptomic analysis to identify elevated ERBB2ΔEx16 expression in a subset of NSCLC cases, as well as splicing site mutations facilitating exon 16 skipping and deletions of exon 16 in a subset of these lung tumors and in a number of other carcinomas. Supporting the potential of ERBB2ΔEx16 as a lung cancer driver, its expression transformed immortalized lung epithelial cells while a transgenic model featuring inducible ERBB2ΔEx16 specifically in the lung epithelium rapidly developed lung adenocarcinomas following transgene induction. Collectively, these observations indicate that ERBB2ΔEx16 is a lung cancer oncogene with potential clinical importance for a proportion of patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
10.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 425-442.e7, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615088

RESUMO

Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious DNA lesions, which, if left unrepaired, may lead to genome instability or cell death. Here, we report that, in response to DSBs, the RNA methyltransferase METTL3 is activated by ATM-mediated phosphorylation at S43. Phosphorylated METTL3 is then localized to DNA damage sites, where it methylates the N6 position of adenosine (m6A) in DNA damage-associated RNAs, which recruits the m6A reader protein YTHDC1 for protection. In this way, the METTL3-m6A-YTHDC1 axis modulates accumulation of DNA-RNA hybrids at DSBs sites, which then recruit RAD51 and BRCA1 for homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair. METTL3-deficient cells display defective HR, accumulation of unrepaired DSBs, and genome instability. Accordingly, depletion of METTL3 significantly enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells and murine xenografts to DNA damage-based therapy. These findings uncover the function of METTL3 and YTHDC1 in HR-mediated DSB repair, which may have implications for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Bleomicina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/patologia , Fosforilação , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Ribonuclease H/genética , Ribonuclease H/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
RNA ; 26(10): 1464-1480, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631843

RESUMO

Many eukaryotes use RNA processing, including alternative splicing, to express multiple gene products from the same gene. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been successfully used to study the mechanism of splicing and the splicing machinery, but alternative splicing in yeast is relatively rare and has not been extensively studied. Alternative splicing of SKI7/HBS1 is widely conserved, but yeast and a few other eukaryotes have replaced this one alternatively spliced gene with a pair of duplicated, unspliced genes as part of a whole genome doubling (WGD). We show that other examples of alternative splicing known to have functional consequences are widely conserved within Saccharomycotina. A common mechanism by which alternative splicing has disappeared is by replacement of an alternatively spliced gene with duplicate unspliced genes. This loss of alternative splicing does not always take place soon after duplication, but can take place after sufficient time has elapsed for speciation. Saccharomycetaceae that diverged before WGD use alternative splicing more frequently than S. cerevisiae, suggesting that WGD is a major reason for infrequent alternative splicing in yeast. We anticipate that WGDs in other lineages may have had the same effect. Having observed that two functionally distinct splice-isoforms are often replaced by duplicated genes allowed us to reverse the reasoning. We thereby identify several splice isoforms that are likely to produce two functionally distinct proteins because we find them replaced by duplicated genes in related species. We also identify some alternative splicing events that are not conserved in closely related species and unlikely to produce functionally distinct proteins.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Proteoma/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomycetales/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Genoma/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479530

RESUMO

Conversion of cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the pathogenic isoform of prion protein (PrPSc) in neurons is one of the key pathophysiological events in prion diseases. However, the molecular mechanism of neurodegeneration in prion diseases has yet to be fully elucidated because of a lack of suitable experimental models for analyzing neuron-autonomous responses to prion infection. In the present study, we used neuron-enriched primary cultures of cortical and thalamic mouse neurons to analyze autonomous neuronal responses to prion infection. PrPSc levels in neurons increased over the time after prion infection; however, no obvious neuronal losses or neurite alterations were observed. Interestingly, a finer analysis of individual neurons co-stained with PrPSc and phosphorylated protein kinase RNA-activated-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (p-PERK), the early cellular response of the PERK-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) pathway, demonstrated a positive correlation between the number of PrPSc granular stains and p-PERK granular stains, in cortical neurons at 21 dpi. Although the phosphorylation of PERK was enhanced in prion-infected cortical neurons, there was no sign of subsequent translational repression of synaptic protein synthesis or activations of downstream unfolded protein response (UPR) in the PERK-eIF2α pathway. These results suggest that PrPSc production in neurons induces ER stress in a neuron-autonomous manner; however, it does not fully activate UPR in prion-infected neurons. Our findings provide insights into the autonomous neuronal responses to prion propagation and the involvement of neuron-non-autonomous factor(s) in the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in prion diseases.


Assuntos
Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas PrPSc/metabolismo , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Crescimento Neuronal , Neurônios/citologia , Fosforilação , Proteínas PrPSc/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15554-15564, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561649

RESUMO

The serum haptoglobin protein (Hp) scavenges toxic hemoglobin (Hb) leaked into the bloodstream from erythrocytes. In humans, there are two frequently occurring allelic forms of Hp, resulting in three genotypes: Homozygous Hp 1-1 and Hp 2-2, and heterozygous Hp 2-1. The Hp genetic polymorphism has an intriguing effect on the quaternary structure of Hp. The simplest form, Hp 1-1, forms dimers consisting of two α1ß units, connected by disulfide bridges. Hp 2-1 forms mixtures of linear (α1)2(α2)n-2(ß)n oligomers (n > 1) while Hp 2-2 occurs in cyclic (α2)n(ß)n oligomers (n > 2). Different Hp genotypes bind Hb with different affinities, with Hp 2-2 being the weakest binder. This behavior has a significant influence on Hp's antioxidant capacity, with potentially distinctive personalized clinical consequences. Although Hp has been studied extensively in the past, the finest molecular details of the observed differences in interactions between Hp and Hb are not yet fully understood. Here, we determined the full proteoform profiles and proteoform assemblies of all three most common genetic Hp variants. We combined several state-of-the-art analytical methods, including various forms of chromatography, mass photometry, and different tiers of mass spectrometry, to reveal how the tens to hundreds distinct proteoforms and their assemblies influence Hp's capacity for Hb binding. We extend the current knowledge by showing that Hb binding does not just depend on the donor's genotype, but is also affected by variations in Hp oligomerization, glycosylation, and proteolytic processing of the Hp α-chain.


Assuntos
Haptoglobinas/genética , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Alelos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Haptoglobinas/química , Haptoglobinas/isolamento & purificação , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/toxicidade , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Polimorfismo Genético , Ligação Proteica , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15702-15711, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576691

RESUMO

Mammalian cells contain two isoforms of RNA polymerase III (Pol III) that differ in only a single subunit, with POLR3G in one form (Pol IIIα) and the related POLR3GL in the other form (Pol IIIß). Previous research indicates that POLR3G and POLR3GL are differentially expressed, with POLR3G expression being highly enriched in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and tumor cells relative to the ubiquitously expressed POLR3GL. To date, the functional differences between these two subunits remain largely unexplored, especially in vivo. Here, we show that POLR3G and POLR3GL containing Pol III complexes bind the same target genes and assume the same functions both in vitro and in vivo and, to a significant degree, can compensate for each other in vivo. Notably, an observed defect in the differentiation ability of POLR3G knockout ESCs can be rescued by exogenous expression of POLR3GL. Moreover, whereas POLR3G knockout mice die at a very early embryonic stage, POLR3GL knockout mice complete embryonic development without noticeable defects but die at about 3 wk after birth with signs of both general growth defects and potential cerebellum-related neuronal defects. The different phenotypes of the knockout mice likely reflect differential expression levels of POLR3G and POLR3GL across developmental stages and between tissues and insufficient amounts of total Pol III in vivo.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase III/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Cerebelo/patologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/patologia , Ligação Proteica/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/genética
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2653, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461551

RESUMO

The transcriptome of the preimplantation mouse embryo has been previously annotated by short-read sequencing, with limited coverage and accuracy. Here we utilize a low-cell number transcriptome based on the Smart-seq2 method to perform long-read sequencing. Our analysis describes additional novel transcripts and complexity of the preimplantation transcriptome, identifying 2280 potential novel transcripts from previously unannotated loci and 6289 novel splicing isoforms from previously annotated genes. Notably, these novel transcripts and isoforms with transcription start sites are enriched for an active promoter modification, H3K4me3. Moreover, we generate a more complete and precise transcriptome by combining long-read and short-read data during early embryogenesis. Based on this approach, we identify a previously undescribed isoform of Kdm4dl with a modified mRNA reading frame and a novel noncoding gene designated XLOC_004958. Depletion of Kdm4dl or XLOC_004958 led to abnormal blastocyst development. Thus, our data provide a high-resolution and more precise transcriptome during preimplantation mouse embryogenesis.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Histonas/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Camundongos , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2086, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350249

RESUMO

Gain of function (GOF) DNA binding domain (DBD) mutations of TP53 upregulate chromatin regulatory genes that promote genome-wide histone methylation and acetylation. Here, we therapeutically exploit the oncogenic GOF mechanisms of p53 codon 158 (Arg158) mutation, a DBD mutant found to be prevalent in lung carcinomas. Using high throughput compound screening and combination analyses, we uncover that acetylating mutp53R158G could render cancers susceptible to cisplatin-induced DNA stress. Acetylation of mutp53R158G alters DNA binding motifs and upregulates TRAIP, a RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase which dephosphorylates IĸB and impedes nuclear translocation of RelA (p65), thus repressing oncogenic nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-ĸB) signaling and inducing apoptosis. Given that this mechanism of cytotoxic vulnerability appears inapt in p53 wild-type (WT) or other hotspot GOF mutp53 cells, our work provides a therapeutic opportunity specific to Arg158-mutp53 tumors utilizing a regimen consisting of DNA-damaging agents and mutp53 acetylators, which is currently being pursued clinically.


Assuntos
Códon/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Camundongos SCID , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Topotecan/farmacologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2589, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444691

RESUMO

RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription converts the DNA sequence of a single gene into multiple transcript isoforms that may carry alternative functions. Gene isoforms result from variable transcription start sites (TSSs) at the beginning and polyadenylation sites (PASs) at the end of transcripts. How alternative TSSs relate to variable PASs is poorly understood. Here, we identify both ends of RNA molecules in Arabidopsis thaliana by transcription isoform sequencing (TIF-seq) and report four transcript isoforms per expressed gene. While intragenic initiation represents a large source of regulated isoform diversity, we observe that ~14% of expressed genes generate relatively unstable short promoter-proximal RNAs (sppRNAs) from nascent transcript cleavage and polyadenylation shortly after initiation. The location of sppRNAs correlates with the position of promoter-proximal RNAPII stalling, indicating that large pools of promoter-stalled RNAPII may engage in transcriptional termination. We propose that promoter-proximal RNAPII stalling-linked to premature transcriptional termination may represent a checkpoint that governs plant gene expression.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Terminação da Transcrição Genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Fator Estimulador de Clivagem/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Poliadenilação , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , RNA de Plantas , Tabaco/genética , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2326, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393825

RESUMO

Most human protein-coding genes are expressed as multiple isoforms, which greatly expands the functional repertoire of the encoded proteome. While at least one reliable open reading frame (ORF) model has been assigned for every coding gene, the majority of alternative isoforms remains uncharacterized due to (i) vast differences of overall levels between different isoforms expressed from common genes, and (ii) the difficulty of obtaining full-length transcript sequences. Here, we present ORF Capture-Seq (OCS), a flexible method that addresses both challenges for targeted full-length isoform sequencing applications using collections of cloned ORFs as probes. As a proof-of-concept, we show that an OCS pipeline focused on genes coding for transcription factors increases isoform detection by an order of magnitude when compared to unenriched samples. In short, OCS enables rapid discovery of isoforms from custom-selected genes and will accelerate mapping of the human transcriptome.


Assuntos
Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Humanos , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Padrões de Referência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2395, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409656

RESUMO

Pollen tubes are highly polarized tip-growing cells that depend on cytosolic pH gradients for signaling and growth. Autoinhibited plasma membrane proton (H+) ATPases (AHAs) have been proposed to energize pollen tube growth and underlie cell polarity, however, mechanistic evidence for this is lacking. Here we report that the combined loss of AHA6, AHA8, and AHA9 in Arabidopsis thaliana delays pollen germination and causes pollen tube growth defects, leading to drastically reduced fertility. Pollen tubes of aha mutants had reduced extracellular proton (H+) and anion fluxes, reduced cytosolic pH, reduced tip-to-shank proton gradients, and defects in actin organization. Furthermore, mutant pollen tubes had less negative membrane potentials, substantiating a mechanistic role for AHAs in pollen tube growth through plasma membrane hyperpolarization. Our findings define AHAs as energy transducers that sustain the ionic circuit defining the spatial and temporal profiles of cytosolic pH, thereby controlling downstream pH-dependent mechanisms essential for pollen tube elongation, and thus plant fertility.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Tubo Polínico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polinização/fisiologia , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Germinação/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Mutação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/genética , Análise Espaço-Temporal
20.
RNA ; 26(9): 1086-1093, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471818

RESUMO

The Drosophila melanogaster gene Dscam1 potentially generates 38,016 distinct isoforms via mutually exclusive splicing, which are required for both nervous and immune functions. However, the mechanism underlying splicing regulation remains obscure. Here we show apparent evolutionary signatures characteristic of competing RNA secondary structures in exon clusters 6 and 9 of Dscam1 in the two midge species (Belgica antarctica and Clunio marinus). Surprisingly, midge Dscam1 encodes only ∼6000 different isoforms through mutually exclusive splicing. Strikingly, the docking site of the exon 6 cluster is conserved in almost all insects and crustaceans but is specific in the midge; however, the docking site-selector base-pairings are conserved. Moreover, the docking site is complementary to all predicted selector sequences downstream from every variable exon 9 of the midge Dscam1, which is in accordance with the broad spectrum of their isoform expression. This suggests that these cis-elements mainly function through the formation of long-range base-pairings. This study provides a vital insight into the evolution and mechanism of Dscam1 alternative splicing.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , RNA/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Éxons/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
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