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1.
J Evol Biol ; 35(5): 693-707, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411988

RESUMO

Speciation is driven by traits that can act to prevent mating between nascent lineages, including male courtship and female preference for male traits. Mating barriers involving these traits evolve quickly because there is strong selection on males and females to maximize reproductive success, and the tight co-evolution of mating interactions can lead to rapid diversification of sexual behaviour. Populations of Drosophila melanogaster show strong asymmetrical reproductive isolation that is correlated with geographic origin. Using strains that capture natural variation in mating traits, we ask two key questions: which specific male traits are females selecting, and are these traits under divergent sexual selection? These questions have proven extremely challenging to answer, because even in closely related lineages males often differ in multiple traits related to mating behaviour. We address these questions by estimating selection gradients for male courtship and cuticular hydrocarbons for two different female genotypes. We identify specific behaviours and particular cuticular hydrocarbons that are under divergent sexual selection and could potentially contribute to premating reproductive isolation. Additionally, we report that a subset of these traits are plastic; males adjust these traits based on the identity of the female genotype they interact with. These results suggest that even when male courtship is not fixed between lineages, ongoing selection can act on traits that are important for reproductive isolation.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Animais , Corte , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos , Masculino , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Comportamento Sexual Animal
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(13): e2121822119, 2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320043

RESUMO

SignificanceWhether sympatric speciation (SS) is rare or common is still debated. Two populations of the spiny mouse, Acomys cahirinus, from Evolution Canyon I (EC I) in Israel have been depicted earlier as speciating sympatrically by molecular markers and transcriptome. Here, we investigated SS both genomically and methylomically, demonstrating that the opposite populations of spiny mice are sister taxa and split from the common ancestor around 20,000 years ago without an allopatric history. Mate choice, olfactory receptors, and speciation genes contributed to prezygotic/postzygotic reproductive isolation. The two populations showed different methylation patterns, facilitating adaptation to their local environment. They cope with abiotic and biotic stresses, due to high solar interslope radiation differences. We conclude that our new genomic and methylomic data substantiated SS.


Assuntos
Isolamento Reprodutivo , Simpatria , Animais , Especiação Genética , Genoma , Israel , Murinae/genética , Simpatria/genética
3.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(4)2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35356979

RESUMO

Speciation plays a central role in evolutionary studies, and particularly how reproductive isolation (RI) evolves. The origins and persistence of RI are distinct processes that require separate evaluations. Treating them separately clarifies the drivers of speciation and then it is possible to link the processes to understand large-scale patterns of diversity. Recent genomic studies have focused predominantly on how species or RI originate. However, we know little about how species persist in face of gene flow. Here, we evaluate a contact zone of two closely related toad-headed lizards (Phrynocephalus) using a chromosome-level genome assembly and population genomics. To some extent, recent asymmetric introgression from Phrynocephalus putjatai to P. vlangalii reduces their genomic differences. However, their highly divergent regions (HDRs) have heterogeneous distributions across the genomes. Functional gene annotation indicates that many genes within HDRs are involved in reproduction and RI. Compared with allopatric populations, contact areas exhibit recent divergent selection on the HDRs and a lower population recombination rate. Taken together, this implies that divergent selection and low genetic recombination help maintain RI. This study provides insights into the genomic mechanisms that drive RI and two species persistence in the face of gene flow during the late stage of speciation.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Lagartos , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Lagartos/genética , Recombinação Genética , Isolamento Reprodutivo
4.
Gene ; 824: 146389, 2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257790

RESUMO

Mechanisms of reproductive isolation between closely related sympatric species are of high evolutionary significance as they may function as initial drivers of speciation and protect species integrity afterwards. Proteins involved in the establishment of reproductive barriers often evolve fast and may be key players in cessation of gene flow between the incipient species. The five Atlantic Littorina (Neritrema) species represent a notable example of recent radiation. The geographic ranges of these young species largely overlap and the mechanisms of reproductive isolation are poorly understood. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis of the reproductive protein LOSP, previously identified in Littorina. We showed that this protein is evolutionary young and taxonomically restricted to the genus Littorina. It has high sequence variation both within and between Littorina species, which is compatible with its presumable role in the reproductive isolation. The strongest differences in the LOSP structure were detected between Littorina subgenera with distinctive repetitive motifs present exclusively in the Neritrema species, but not in L. littorea. Moreover, the sequence of these repetitive structural elements demonstrates a high homology with genetic elements of bacteria, identified as components of Littorina associated microbiomes. We suggest that these elements were acquired from a symbiotic bacterial donor via horizontal genetic transfer (HGT), which is indirectly confirmed by the presence of multiple transposable elements in the LOSP flanking and intronic regions. Furthermore, we hypothesize that this HGT-driven evolutionary innovation promoted LOSP function in reproductive isolation, which might be one of the factors determining the intensive cladogenesis in the Littorina (Neritrema) lineage in contrast to the anagenesis in the L. littorea clade.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Caramujos , Animais , Bactérias , Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Caramujos/genética
5.
PLoS Genet ; 18(3): e1010120, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344560

RESUMO

Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (DMIs) are a major component of reproductive isolation between species. DMIs imply negative epistasis and are exposed when two diverged populations hybridize. Mapping the locations of DMIs has largely relied on classical genetic mapping. Approaches to date are hampered by low power and the challenge of identifying DMI loci on the same chromosome, because strong initial linkage of parental haplotypes weakens statistical tests. Here, we propose new statistics to infer negative epistasis from haplotype frequencies in hybrid populations. When two divergent populations hybridize, the variance in heterozygosity at two loci decreases faster with time at DMI loci than at random pairs of loci. When two populations hybridize at near-even admixture proportions, the deviation of the observed variance from its expectation becomes negative for the DMI pair. This negative deviation enables us to detect intermediate to strong negative epistasis both within and between chromosomes. In practice, the detection window in hybrid populations depends on the demographic scenario, the recombination rate, and the strength of epistasis. When the initial proportion of the two parental populations is uneven, only strong DMIs can be detected with our method unless migration prevents parental haplotypes from being lost. We use the new statistics to infer candidate DMIs from three hybrid populations of swordtail fish. We identify numerous new DMI candidates, some of which are inferred to interact with several loci within and between chromosomes. Moreover, we discuss our results in the context of an expected enrichment in intrachromosomal over interchromosomal DMIs.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Animais , Haplótipos/genética , Heterozigoto , Hibridização Genética , Isolamento Reprodutivo
6.
Mol Ecol ; 31(8): 2384-2399, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191134

RESUMO

The process of species formation is characterized by the accumulation of multiple reproductive barriers. The evolution of hybrid male sterility, or Haldane's rule, typically characterizes later stages of species formation, when reproductive isolation is strongest. Yet, understanding how quickly reproductive barriers evolve and their consequences for maintaining genetic boundaries between emerging species remains a challenging task because it requires studying taxa that hybridize in nature. Here, we address these questions using the meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus, where populations that show multiple reproductive barriers, including hybrid male sterility, hybridize in two natural hybrid zones. Using mitochondrial data, we infer that such populations diverged some 100,000 years ago, at the beginning of the last glacial cycle in Europe. Nuclear data show that contractions at multiple glacial refugia, and post-glacial expansions have facilitated genetic differentiation between lineages that today interact in hybrid zones. We find extensive introgression throughout the sampled species range, irrespective of the current strength of reproductive isolation. Populations exhibiting hybrid male sterility in two hybrid zones show repeatable patterns of genomic differentiation, consistent with shared genomic constraints affecting ancestral divergence or with the role of those regions in reproductive isolation. Together, our results suggest that reproductive barriers that characterize late stages of species formation can evolve relatively quickly, particularly when associated with strong demographic changes. Moreover, we show that such barriers persist in the face of extensive gene flow, allowing future studies to identify associated genomic regions.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Infertilidade Masculina , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Gafanhotos/genética , Hibridização Genética , Masculino , Isolamento Reprodutivo
7.
Evolution ; 76(4): 722-736, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166383

RESUMO

Migratory divides are contact zones between breeding populations with divergent migratory strategies during the nonbreeding season. These locations provide an opportunity to evaluate the role of seasonal migration in the maintenance of reproductive isolation, particularly the relationship between population structure and features associated with distinct migratory strategies. We combine light-level geolocators, genomic sequencing, and stable isotopes to investigate the timing of migration and migratory routes of individuals breeding on either side of a migratory divide coinciding with genomic differentiation across a hybrid zone between barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) subspecies in China. Individuals west of the hybrid zone, with H. r. rustica ancestry, had comparatively enriched stable-carbon and hydrogen isotope values and overwintered in eastern Africa, whereas birds east of the hybrid zone, with H. r. gutturalis ancestry, had depleted isotope values and migrated to southern India. The two subspecies took divergent migratory routes around the high-altitude Karakoram Range and arrived on the breeding grounds over 3 weeks apart. These results indicate that assortative mating by timing of arrival and/or selection against hybrids with intermediate migratory traits may maintain reproductive isolation between the subspecies, and that inhospitable geographic features may have contributed to the diversification of Asian avifauna by influencing migratory patterns.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Andorinhas , Animais , Genômica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Estações do Ano
8.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 169: 107436, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131426

RESUMO

Early stages of speciation in plants might involve genetic incompatibilities between plastid and nuclear genomes, leading to inter-lineage hybrid breakdown due to the disruption between co-adapted plastid and nuclear genes encoding subunits of the same plastid protein complexes. We tested this hypothesis in Silene nutans, a gynodioecious Caryophyllaceae, where four distinct genetic lineages exhibited strong reproductive isolation among each other, resulting in chlorotic or variegated hybrids. By sequencing the whole gene content of the four plastomes through gene capture, and a large part of the nuclear genes encoding plastid subunits from RNAseq data, we searched for non-synonymous substitutions fixed in each lineage on both genomes. Lineages of S. nutans exhibited a high level of dN/dS ratios for plastid and nuclear genes encoding most plastid complexes, with a strong pattern of coevolution for genes encoding the subunits of ribosome and cytochrome b6/f that could explain the chlorosis of hybrids. Overall, relaxation of selection due to past bottlenecks and positive selection have driven the diversity pattern observed in S. nutans plastid complexes, leading to plastid-nuclear incompatibilities. We discuss the possible role of gynodioecy in the evolutionary dynamics of the plastomes through linked selection.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Genomas de Plastídeos , Silene , Caryophyllaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Silene/genética
9.
Am Nat ; 199(3): 362-379, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175897

RESUMO

AbstractTheoretical models indicate that speciation, especially when the scope for gene flow is great (e.g., sympatric speciation), is most likely when strong performance trade-offs coincide with reproduction. We tested this classic hypothesis using measures of the strength of three prezygotic reproductive isolating barriers (habitat isolation, reduced immigrant fecundity, and behavioral isolation) between two young (~2,000 years) and sympatric red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) ecotypes. All three isolating barriers increased with increases in performance trade-offs, with total reproductive isolation varying between 0.72 and 1 (0 represents random mating, and 1 represents complete reproductive isolation). Strong trade-offs led to strong habitat isolation, an inability to breed in the "wrong" habitat, and more assortative flocks, with the latter leading to stronger behavioral isolation. Reproductive isolation decreased as resource availability increased relative to the demands of breeding, with higher resource availabilities eliminating the positive relationship between reproductive isolation and performance trade-offs. This latter result is consistent with previous work suggesting that increasing resource abundance dampens the effect of strong performance trade-offs on evolutionary divergence. Because many organisms, with the notable exception of host-specific phytophagous insects, rely on abundant food resources with weak performance trade-offs while breeding, our results may explain why sympatric speciation is uncommon.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Passeriformes/genética , Reprodução
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1967): 20212561, 2022 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078356

RESUMO

In the mitochondrial genome, sexual asymmetry in transmission allows the accumulation of male-harming mutations since selection acts only on the effect of the mutation in females. Called the 'Mother's Curse', this phenomenon induces a selective pressure for nuclear variants that compensate for this reduction in male fitness. Previous work has demonstrated the existence of these interactions and their potential to act as Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities, contributing to reproductive isolation between populations. However, it is not clear how readily they would give rise to and sustain hybrid incompatibilities. Here, we use computer simulations in SLiM 3 to investigate the consequences of sexually antagonistic mitochondrial-nuclear interactions in a subdivided population. We consider distinct migration schemes and vary the chromosomal location, and consequently the transmission pattern, of nuclear restorers. Disrupting these co-evolved interactions results in less-fit males, skewing the sex ratio toward females. Restoration of male fitness depends on both the chromosomal location of nuclear restorer loci and the migration scheme. Our results show that these interactions may act as Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities, but their strength is not enough to drive population isolation. Overall, this model shows the varied ways in which populations can respond to migration's disruption of co-evolved mitochondrial-nuclear interactions.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Núcleo Celular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mutação , Isolamento Reprodutivo
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(4)2022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058358

RESUMO

Rates of species formation vary widely across the tree of life and contribute to massive disparities in species richness among clades. This variation can emerge from differences in metapopulation-level processes that affect the rates at which lineages diverge, persist, and evolve reproductive barriers and ecological differentiation. For example, populations that evolve reproductive barriers quickly should form new species at faster rates than populations that acquire reproductive barriers more slowly. This expectation implicitly links microevolutionary processes (the evolution of populations) and macroevolutionary patterns (the profound disparity in speciation rate across taxa). Here, leveraging extensive field sampling from the Neotropical Cerrado biome in a biogeographically controlled natural experiment, we test the role of an important microevolutionary process-the propensity for population isolation-as a control on speciation rate in lizards and snakes. By quantifying population genomic structure across a set of codistributed taxa with extensive and phylogenetically independent variation in speciation rate, we show that broad-scale patterns of species formation are decoupled from demographic and genetic processes that promote the formation of population isolates. Population isolation is likely a critical stage of speciation for many taxa, but our results suggest that interspecific variability in the propensity for isolation has little influence on speciation rates. These results suggest that other stages of speciation-including the rate at which reproductive barriers evolve and the extent to which newly formed populations persist-are likely to play a larger role than population isolation in controlling speciation rate variation in squamates.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Especiação Genética , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Répteis/genética , Animais , Biodiversidade , Evolução Molecular , Genética Populacional , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Répteis/classificação , Serpentes/classificação , Serpentes/genética
12.
Fly (Austin) ; 16(1): 85-104, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060806

RESUMO

Living in high latitudes and altitudes sets specific requirements on species' ability to forecast seasonal changes and to respond to them in an appropriate way. Adaptation into diverse environmental conditions can also lead to ecological speciation through habitat isolation or by inducing changes in traits that influence assortative mating. In this review, we explain how the unique time-measuring systems of Drosophila virilis group species have enabled the species to occupy high latitudes and how the traits involved in species reproduction and survival exhibit strong linkage with latitudinally varying photoperiodic and climatic conditions. We also describe variation in reproductive barriers between the populations of two species with overlapping distributions and show how local adaptation and the reinforcement of prezygotic barriers have created partial reproductive isolation between conspecific populations. Finally, we consider the role of species-specific chromosomal inversions and the X chromosome in the development of reproductive barriers between diverging lineages.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Especiação Genética , Fotoperíodo , Reprodução
13.
Mol Ecol ; 31(6): 1666-1681, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034406

RESUMO

Investigating the spatial distribution of genetic and phenotypic variation can provide insights into the evolutionary processes that shape diversity in natural systems. We characterized patterns of genetic and phenotypic diversity to learn about drivers of colour-pattern diversification in red-eyed treefrogs (Agalychnis callidryas) in Costa Rica. Along the Pacific coast, red-eyed treefrogs have conspicuous leg colour patterning that transitions from orange in the north to purple in the south. We measured phenotypic variation of frogs, with increased sampling at sites where the orange-to-purple transition occurs. At the transition zone, we discovered the co-occurrence of multiple colour-pattern morphs. To explore possible causes of this variation, we generated a single nucleotide polymorphism data set to analyse population genetic structure, measure genetic diversity and infer the processes that mediate genotype-phenotype dynamics. We investigated how patterns of genetic relatedness correspond to individual measures of colour pattern along the coast, including testing for the role of hybridization in geographic regions where orange and purple phenotypic groups co-occur. We found no evidence that colour-pattern polymorphism in the transition zone arose through recent hybridization. Instead, a strong pattern of genetic isolation by distance indicates that colour-pattern variation was either retained through other processes such as ancestral colour polymorphisms or ancient secondary contact, or else it was generated by novel mutations. We found that phenotype changes along the Pacific coast more than would be expected based on genetic divergence and geographic distance alone. Combined, our results suggest the possibility of selective pressures acting on colour pattern at a small geographic scale.


La investigación de la distribución espacial de la variación genética y fenotípica puede proporcionar información sobre los procesos evolutivos que dan forma a la diversidad en los sistemas naturales. Caracterizamos patrones de diversidad genética y fenotípica para conocer los impulsores de la diversificación de patrones de color en ranas con ojos rojos (Agalychnis callidryas) en Costa Rica. A lo largo de la costa del Pacífico, las ranas con ojos rojos tienen un patrón de color llamativo en las patas que cambia de naranja en el norte a púrpura en el sur. Medimos la variación fenotípica de las ranas en los sitios del Pacífico, con un mayor muestreo en los sitios donde ocurre la transición de naranja a púrpura. En la zona de transición, descubrimos la co-ocurrencia de múltiples morfos de patrones de color. Para explorar las posibles causas de esta variación, generamos un conjunto de datos SNP con secuenciación RAD para analizar la estructura genética de la población, medir la diversidad genética e inferir los procesos que median la dinámica genotipo-fenotipo. Investigamos cómo los patrones de parentesco genético se corresponden con medidas individuales de patrón de color a lo largo de la costa, incluidas las pruebas del papel de la hibridación en regiones geográficas donde coexisten grupos fenotípicos naranja y morado. No encontramos evidencia de que el polimorfismo del patrón de color en la zona de transición surgiera a través de una hibridación o introgresión reciente. En cambio, un fuerte patrón de aislamiento genético por distancia indica que la variación del patrón de color se retuvo a través de otros procesos, como los polimorfismos de color ancestrales, el contacto secundario antiguo o la generada por mutaciones novedosas. Descubrimos que el fenotipo de color cambia a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico más de lo que se esperaría solo por la divergencia genética y la distancia geográfica. Combinados, nuestros resultados sugieren la posibilidad de que las presiones selectivas actúen sobre el patrón de color a pequeña escala geográfica.


Assuntos
Anuros , Deriva Genética , Animais , Anuros/genética , Cor , Variação Genética/genética , Fenótipo , Isolamento Reprodutivo
14.
Genome Biol Evol ; 14(1)2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999784

RESUMO

Cryptic speciation may occur when reproductive isolation is recent or the accumulation of morphological differences between sister lineages is slowed by stabilizing selection preventing phenotypic differentiation. In North America, Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli) and its sister species, the Gray-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus), are parapatrically breeding migratory songbirds, distinguishable in nature only by subtle differences in song and coloration, and were recognized as distinct species only in the 1990s. Previous molecular studies have estimated that the species diverged approximately 120,000-420,000 YBP and found very low levels of introgression despite their similarity and sympatry in the spring (prebreeding) migration. To further clarify the history, genetic divergence, genomic structure, and adaptive processes in C. bicknelli and C. minimus, we sequenced and assembled high-coverage reference genomes of both species and resequenced genomes from population samples of C. bicknelli, C. minimus, and two individuals of the Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus). The genome of C. bicknelli exhibits markedly higher abundances of transposable elements compared with other Catharus and chicken. Demographic and admixture analyses confirm moderate genome-wide differentiation (Fst ≈ 0.10) and limited gene flow between C. bicknelli and C. minimus, but suggest a more recent divergence than estimates based on mtDNA. We find evidence of rapid evolution of the Z-chromosome and elevated divergence consistent with natural selection on genomic regions near genes involved with neuronal processes in C. bicknelli. These genomes are a useful resource for future investigations of speciation, migration, and adaptation in Catharus thrushes.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Aves Canoras , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Genômica , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Aves Canoras/genética
15.
Mol Ecol ; 31(2): 498-511, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699656

RESUMO

The sympatric existence of genetically distinguishable populations of the same species remains a puzzle in ecology. Coexisting salmonid fish populations are known from over 100 freshwater lakes. Most studies of sympatric populations have used limited numbers of genetic markers making it unclear if genetic divergence involves certain parts of the genome. We returned to the first reported case of salmonid sympatry, initially detected through contrasting homozygosity at a single allozyme locus (coding for lactate dehydrogenase A) in brown trout in the small Lakes Bunnersjöarna, Sweden. First, we verified the existence of the two coexisting demes using a 96-SNP fluidigm array. We then applied whole-genome resequencing of pooled DNA to explore genome-wide diversity within and between these demes; nucleotide diversity was higher in deme I than in deme II. Strong genetic divergence is observed with genome-wide FST  ≈ 0.2. Compared with data from populations of similar small lakes, this divergence is of similar magnitude as that between reproductively isolated populations. Individual whole-genome resequencing of two individuals per deme suggests higher inbreeding in deme II versus deme I, indicating different degree of isolation. We located two gene-copies for LDH-A and found divergence between demes in a regulatory section of one of these genes. However, we did not find a perfect fit between the sequence data and previous allozyme results, and this will require further research. Our data demonstrates genome-wide divergence governed mostly by genetic drift but also by diversifying selection in coexisting populations. This type of hidden biodiversity needs consideration in conservation management.


Assuntos
Isolamento Reprodutivo , Simpatria , Animais , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Isoenzimas , Truta/genética
16.
Ann Bot ; 129(2): 171-184, 2022 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Arctic tundra, with its extreme temperatures and short growing season, is evolutionarily young and harbours one of the most species-poor floras on Earth. Arctic species often show little phenotypic and genetic divergence across circumpolar ranges. However, strong intraspecific post-zygotic reproductive isolation (RI) in terms of hybrid sterility has frequently evolved within selfing Arctic species of the genus Draba. Here we assess whether incipient biological species are common in the Arctic flora. METHODS: We conducted an extensive crossing experiment including six species representing four phylogenetically distant families collected across the circumpolar Arctic. We crossed conspecific parental populations representing different spatial scales, raised 740 F1 hybrids to maturity and measured fertility under laboratory conditions. We examined genetic divergence between populations for two of these species (Cardamine bellidifolia and Ranunculus pygmaeus). KEY RESULTS: In five of the six species, we find extensive reduction in pollen fertility and seed set in F1 hybrids; 219 (46 %) of the 477 F1 hybrids generated between parents separated by ≥427 km had <20 % pollen fertility. Isolation with migration (IM) and *BEAST analyses of sequences of eight nuclear genes in C. bellidifolia suggests that reproductively isolated populations of this species diverged during, or even after, the last glaciation. Likewise, Arctic populations of R. pygmaeus were genetically very similar despite exhibiting strongly reduced fertility in crosses, suggesting that RI evolved recently also in this species. CONCLUSION: We show that post-zygotic RI has developed multiple times within taxonomically recognized Arctic species belonging to several distantly related lineages, and that RI may have developed over just a few millennia. Rapid and widespread evolution of incipient biological species in the Arctic flora might be associated with frequent bottlenecks due to glacial cycles, and/or selfing mating systems, which are common in the harsh Arctic environment where pollinators are scarce.


Assuntos
Cardamine , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Hibridização Genética , Plantas , Pólen/genética , Reprodução
17.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(1)2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865126

RESUMO

Chromosome rearrangements can result in the rapid evolution of hybrid incompatibilities. Robertsonian fusions, particularly those with monobrachial homology, can drive reproductive isolation amongst recently diverged taxa. The recent radiation of rock-wallabies (genus Petrogale) is an important model to explore the role of Robertsonian fusions in speciation. Here, we pursue that goal using an extensive sampling of populations and genomes of Petrogale from north-eastern Australia. In contrast to previous assessments using mitochondrial DNA or nuclear microsatellite loci, genomic data are able to separate the most closely related species and to resolve their divergence histories. Both phylogenetic and population genetic analyses indicate introgression between two species that differ by a single Robertsonian fusion. Based on the available data, there is also evidence for introgression between two species which share complex chromosomal rearrangements. However, the remaining results show no consistent signature of introgression amongst species pairs and where evident, indicate generally low introgression overall. X-linked loci have elevated divergence compared with autosomal loci indicating a potential role for genic evolution to produce reproductive isolation in concert with chromosome change. Our results highlight the value of genome scale data in evaluating the role of Robertsonian fusions and structural variation in divergence, speciation, and patterns of molecular evolution.


Assuntos
Macropodidae , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Animais , Cromossomos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Macropodidae/genética , Filogenia
18.
Evolution ; 76(2): 225-235, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877658

RESUMO

The strength of mate choice (choosiness) often varies with age, but theory to understand this variation is scarce. Additionally, theory has investigated the evolution of choosiness in speciation scenarios but has ignored that most organisms have overlapping generations. We investigate whether speciation can result in variation of choosiness with age, and whether such variation can in turn affect speciation. We develop a population-genetic model of the evolution of choosiness in organisms with overlapping generations in the context of secondary contact between two divergent populations. We assume that females choose males that match their phenotype, such that choosiness evolves by sexual selection. We demonstrate that speciation can result in the evolution of age-specific choosiness when the mating trait is under divergent ecological selection and age is not used as a mating cue. The cause of this result is that allele frequencies differ between choosy females and males. However, we find that the evolution of age-specific choosiness does not affect the overall level of reproductive isolation compared to a case without age-structure, supporting previous speciation theory. Overall, our results connect life history and speciation theory, and the mechanisms that we highlight have implications for the understanding of the role of sex-specific selection in the evolution of choosiness.


Assuntos
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodução
19.
Mol Ecol ; 31(2): 407-410, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882877

RESUMO

In 1859, Charles Darwin proposed that species are not fundamentally different from subspecies or the varieties from which they evolve. A century later, Dobzhansky (1958) suggested that many such lineages are ephemeral and are likely to reverse differentiation through introgression (Figure 1a); only a few evolve complete reproductive isolation and persist in sympatry. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Bouzid et al. (2021) showed how new analytical methods, when applied to genomic data, allow us to more precisely determine whether or not species formation follows the paths outlined by Darwin and Dobzhansky (Figure 1b). The authors studied the diversification of the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis, finding a continuum of genetic interactions between the preservation of genetic identity to genetic merger, analogous to what is exemplified by ring species. In doing so, they teach us two tales about species formation: that lineages are fractal byproducts of evolutionary processes such as genetic drift and selection, and that lineages are often ephemeral and do not always progress into fully reproductively isolated taxa. Studying ephemeral lineages like those in S. occidentalis allows us to capture divergence at its earliest stages, and potentially to determine the factors that allow lineages to remain distinct despite pervasive gene flow. These lineages thus serve as a natural laboratory to address long standing hypotheses about species formation.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fluxo Gênico , Lagartos/genética , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Simpatria
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7248, 2021 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903755

RESUMO

The coexistence of closely-related species in sympatry is puzzling because ecological niche proximity imposes strong competition and reproductive interference. A striking example is the widespread wing pattern convergence of several blue-banded Morpho butterfly species with overlapping ranges of distribution. Here we perform a series of field experiments using flying Morpho dummies placed in a natural habitat. We show that similarity in wing colour pattern indeed leads to interspecific territoriality and courtship among sympatric species. In spite of such behavioural interference, demographic inference from genomic data shows that sympatric closely-related Morpho species are genetically isolated. Mark-recapture experiments in the two most closely-related species unravel a strong temporal segregation in patrolling activity of males. Such divergence in phenology reduces the costs of reproductive interference while simultaneously preserving the benefits of convergence in non-reproductive traits in response to common ecological pressures. Henceforth, the evolution of multiple traits may favour species diversification in sympatry by partitioning niche in different dimensions.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Especiação Genética , Simpatria , Animais , Mimetismo Biológico , Borboletas/classificação , Corte , Ecossistema , Masculino , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Territorialidade , Asas de Animais
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