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1.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104801, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some research suggests social isolation and loneliness are important risk factors for reduced successful aging and cognitive health. However, findings are inconsistent and no prior systematic review has investigated whether social isolation and loneliness are associated with the memory domain of cognition. This review examined whether social isolation and loneliness individually and jointly affected the memory of middle- and older-aged adults. METHODS: We used PubMed, PsycInfo, and Scopus to search for comparative studies that examined the impact of both loneliness and social isolation (e.g., social activity, social networks) on memory (including all subtypes) in populations aged ≥ 45 years. Three raters performed data extraction and risk of bias assessment using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist. Data were synthesized narratively following the Synthesis without Meta-Analysis guideline. RESULTS: In 12 included articles, higher levels of loneliness and social isolation (combining a range of different indicators) were associated with lower memory performance, where the interaction between loneliness and social isolation had the largest adverse effect on memory, followed by social isolation alone, and followed by loneliness alone. However, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the composition of the two most common indicators of social isolation (social network size, social activity participation), with the magnitude of most results being clinically non-important. Most articles had moderate risk of bias. CONCLUSION: This review found an inverse association between social isolation/loneliness and memory, and outlines future steps to systematically combine the two constructs and measure social isolation in a consistent, multi-modal format.


Assuntos
Solidão , Isolamento Social , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Solidão/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Envelhecimento , Cognição
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276590, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327259

RESUMO

Prolonged periods of social isolation are known to have significant negative health consequences and reduce quality of life, an effect that is particularly pronounced in older populations. Despite the known deleterious effects of social isolation, a key component of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been the issuance of stay at home and/or shelter in place orders. Relatively little is known about the potential effects these periods of social isolation could have on older adults, and less still is known about potential risk factors or protective factors that modulate these effects. Here, we describe results from a longitudinal study in which we measured quality of life both prior to and immediately following a one-month period of social isolation associated with the issuance and revocation of a shelter in place order (April 6, 2020 through May 4, 2020) in the state of South Carolina. Healthy adult participants (N = 62) between the ages of 60 and 80 who had already completed quality of life questionnaires prior to isolation again completed the questionnaires following a one-month order to shelter in place. Quality of life significantly decreased during the social isolation period, with older participants showing the greatest declines. Participants with higher levels of physical activity and better physical/mental health going into the isolation period tended to show greater decreases in quality of life over time. These results highlight the negative consequences of even short bouts of social isolation for the elderly and suggest that reductions in social contact related to COVID-19 may have significant effects on mental health and emotional well-being, at least among older individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Depressão/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia
3.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364807

RESUMO

Social isolation (SI) is a major risk factor for mood disorders in adolescents. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an important reward center implicated in psychiatric disorders. Resveratrol (RSV) is one of the most effective natural polyphenols with anti-anxiety and depression effects. However, little is known about the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of RSV on behavioral abnormality of adolescent social stress. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of RSV on the amelioration of SI-induced behavioral abnormality. We found that SI induced anxiety-like behavior and social dysfunction in isolated female rats. Moreover, SI reduced mitochondrial number and ATP levels and increased thin spine density in the NAc. RNA sequencing results showed that SI changed the transcription pattern in the NAc, including 519 upregulated genes and 610 downregulated genes, especially those related to mitochondrial function. Importantly, RSV ameliorated behavioral and spine abnormalities induced by SI and increased NAc ATP levels and mitochondria number. Furthermore, RSV increased the activity of cytochrome C oxidase (COX) and upregulated mRNA levels of Cox5a, Cox6a1 and Cox7c. These results demonstrate that the modulation of spine plasticity and mitochondrial function in the NAc by RSV has a therapeutic effect on mood disorders induced by social isolation.


Assuntos
Núcleo Accumbens , Isolamento Social , Animais , Ratos , Feminino , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Mitocôndrias , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19088, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352002

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing social restrictions disrupted young people's social interactions and resulted in several periods during which school closures necessitated online learning. We hypothesised that digitally excluded young people would demonstrate greater deterioration in their mental health than their digitally connected peers during this time. We analysed representative mental health data from a sample of UK 10-15-year-olds (N = 1387) who completed a mental health inventory in 2017-2019 and thrice during the pandemic (July 2020, November 2020 and March 2021). We employed longitudinal modelling to describe trajectories of adolescent mental health for participants with and without access to a computer or a good internet connection for schoolwork. Adolescent mental health symptoms rose early in the COVID-19 pandemic, with the highest mean Total Difficulties score around December 2020. The worsening and subsequent recovery of mental health during the pandemic was greatly pronounced among those without access to a computer, although we did not find evidence for a similar effect among those without a good internet connection. We conclude that lack of access to a computer is a tractable risk factor that likely compounds other adversities facing children and young people during periods of social isolation or educational disruption.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Saúde Mental , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 770, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to identify the nature and extent of the available published research on the impact of social isolation, on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, who had to quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Design. Scoping review. SEARCH STRATEGY: The PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews), guideline, was used to structure this study. A search strategy was carried out across six bibliographic databases. PubMed, Embase, ERIC, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Web of Science. The following search terms were used, "medical student*" AND "impact" AND "quarantine" AND "COVID-19". Searches were initially confined to articles published (excluding conference abstracts) between 1 January 2019- 21 August 2021 but updated in September 2022 with the original search terms expanded to include "isolation" or "lockdown" as well as "quarantine" and the period of search extended to 21 August 2022. A search of secondary references was conducted. Data from the selected studies were extracted, and the following variables recorded; first author and year of publication, country of study, study design, sample size, participants, mode of analysing impact of quarantine from COVID-19 on mental health and results of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 223 articles were identified in the original search in 2021 and 387 articles, in the updated search in 2022. Following the exclusion of duplicates and application of the agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria, 31 full-text articles were identified for the final review, most of which were cross sectional studies. Sample sizes ranged from 13 to 4193 students and most studies used a variety of self-administered questionnaires to measure psychological wellbeing. Overall, 26 of the 31 articles showed that quarantine had a negative impact on the psychological well-being of medical students. However, two studies showed no impact, and three studies showed an improvement. CONCLUSION: The evidence is growing. Quarantine because of the COVID-19 pandemic may have had a negative impact on the psychological wellbeing of medical students, but this is not certain. There is therefore a need for more studies to further evaluate this research question.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294128

RESUMO

A serious form of social withdrawal, initially described within Japan as hikikomori, has received increasing attention from the international scientific community during the last decade. The 25-item Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25) was initially developed and validated in Japan. To date, data on its psychometric properties in other populations where cases of hikikomori have been described are still scarce. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) translate, adapt, and validate the Italian version of the HQ-25 analyzing its psychometric properties; and (2) verify the association between hikikomori and personality functioning, social support, and problematic Internet use. A sample of 372 Italian adults aged 18 to 50 years completed the HQ-25 and measures of psychoticism, personality dysfunction, social support, and problematic Internet use were employed to test the convergent validity of the HQ-25. The data showed a satisfactory fit for a three-factor model, significantly better than a one-factor model. The three factors (socialization, isolation, and emotional support, as in the original study on the HQ-25) correlated positively with psychoticism, personality dysfunction, and problematic Internet use, and correlated negatively with social support. A lifetime history of hikikomori was present in 1.1% of the sample (n = 4). This is the first study to use the Italian validated version of the HQ-25 with an adult population. The findings from this study provide evidence of the satisfactory psychometric properties of the Italian version of the HQ-25 and support further investigation of the HQ-25 as an instrument to help screen for and investigate the presence of hikikomori.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Humanos , Psicometria , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236676, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251294

RESUMO

Importance: Loneliness and social isolation are public health concerns faced by older adults due to physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes that develop with aging. Loneliness and social isolation are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Objective: To evaluate interventions, targeting older adults, associated with a reduction in loneliness and social isolation. Data Sources: OVID, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Embase, PsychINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched from inception to March 2020. Study Selection: Peer-reviewed randomized clinical trials measuring loneliness and social isolation or support in adults aged 65 years or older. Only English language articles were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two independent reviewers screened studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Random-effects models were performed to pool the overall effect size by intervention. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated with the I2 statistic and by estimating prediction intervals. Data were analyzed from November 2021 to September 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Quantitative measures of loneliness, social isolation, or social support based on an effect size of standardized mean differences. Results: Seventy studies were included in the systematic review (8259 participants); 44 studies were included in the loneliness meta-analysis (33 in the community with 3535 participants; 11 in long-term care with 1057 participants), with participants' ages ranging from 55 to 100 years. Study sizes ranged from 8 to 741 participants. Interventions included animal therapy, psychotherapy or cognitive behavioral therapy, multicomponent, counseling, exercise, music therapy, occupational therapy, reminiscence therapy, social interventions, and technological interventions. Most interventions had a small effect size. Animal therapy in long-term care, when accounting for studies with no active controls, had the largest effect size on loneliness reduction (-1.86; 95% CI, -3.14 to -0.59; I2 = 86%) followed by technological interventions (videoconferencing) in long-term care (-1.40; 95% CI, -2.37 to -0.44; I2 = 70%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, animal therapy and technology in long-term care had large effect sizes, but also high heterogeneity, so the effect size's magnitude should be interpreted with caution. The small number of studies per intervention limits conclusions on sources of heterogeneity. Overall quality of evidence was very low. Future studies should consider measures of social isolation in long-term care and identify the contextual components that are associated with a reduction in loneliness.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Solidão , Exercício Físico , Solidão/psicologia , Psicoterapia , Isolamento Social/psicologia
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1264, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261835

RESUMO

Social prescribing is a means by which clinical services can link individuals who have psychological, social and/or practical needs with non-clinical services within their local community. There is a lack of empirical evidence investigating whether social prescribing helps such individuals and which interventions are the most effective and accepted by them to address their loneliness. This meta-synthesis aimed to synthesise findings from qualitative studies exploring experiences of people (of any age) who participated in any social prescribing intervention aimed at loneliness and/or social isolation to ascertain whether they felt it helped address loneliness/isolation and the potential mechanisms by which this might occur. We conducted a systematic search of 5 electronic databases and 4 other databases that would yield grey literature in April 2021 to identify qualitative articles on this topic written in English or French. We assessed the quality of the included studies using recognised tools, and synthesised findings using the approach of thematic analysis. We identified 19 records analysed (e.g. journal articles) from 18 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Our analysis identified three themes: (1) increased sense of wellbeing (with six subthemes), (2) factors that engendered an ongoing desire to connect with others, and (3) perceived drawbacks of social prescribing. These themes illustrate the benefits and difficulties people perceive in social prescribing programmes addressing loneliness and social isolation, with an overall balance of more benefits than drawbacks in social prescribing participation. However, given the unhelpful aspects of social prescribing identified by some participants, greater thought should be given to potential harms. Moreover, further qualitative and quantitative research is needed to better understand mechanisms and effectiveness, and how different components of social prescribing might be best matched to individual participants.


Assuntos
Solidão , Isolamento Social , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Solidão/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Isolamento Social/psicologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293813

RESUMO

Most prior studies examined the direct relation between social media usage and loneliness. This study tries to reveal the covert mechanisms involved in how different types of SMU affect older adults' loneliness, which has rarely been an object of attention in the prior literature. A partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method was used to analyze the data collected from 466 older adults in a field study. This research divided self-esteem into two dimensions: affective self-esteem (AE) and cognitive self-esteem (CE). The study found that changes in CE only stemmed from functional SMU (FSMU), rather than active SMU (ASMU) and passive SMU (PSMU). ASMU and PSMU had a significant effect on FSMU. CE had a significant effect on loneliness. Objective social isolation (OSI) had a positive relationship with loneliness. Moreover, PSMU, FSMU, and CE had a significant effect on ASMU, CE, and AE, respectively. For older adults, the feeling of connecting with others was more valuable than acquiring specific outcomes. The mediation test results showed that FSMU could play a completely mediating role in the relationship between ASMU and PSMU, as well as that between ASMU and CE. CE significantly mediated the relationship between FSMU and loneliness. Finally, the total effect sizes of ASMU and PSMU on FSMU were significant, and those of CE on older adults' loneliness and AE were significant, while the total effect of AE on older adults' loneliness was non-significant. AE moderated the relationship between PSMU and OSI, so PSMU was related to higher OSI only for users experiencing high AE. These findings offer a guide for the use of social media to conduct future loneliness interventions for older adults.


Assuntos
Solidão , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Idoso , Solidão/psicologia , Autoimagem , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Cognição
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114881, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252421

RESUMO

The new coronavirus has been present for two years and has had a widespread and sustained impact worldwide. There is growing evidence in the literature that COVID-19 may have negative effects on mental illness in patients and in healthy populations. The unprecedented changes brought about by COVID-19, such as social isolation, school closures, and family stress, negatively affect people's mental health, especially that of children and adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the impact of COVID-19 disorders on children's and adolescents' mental health, the mechanisms and risk factors, screening tools, and intervention and prevention. We hope that the mental dysfunction caused by the pandemic will be mitigated through appropriate and timely prevention and intervention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social/psicologia
11.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 165: 197-227, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208901

RESUMO

People living with Parkinson Disease (PwP) have been at risk for the negative effects of loneliness even before the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Despite some similarities with previous outbreaks, the Covid-19 pandemic is significantly more wide-spread, long-lasting, and deadly, which likely means demonstrably more negative mental health issues. Although PwP are not any more likely to contract Covid-19 than those without, the indirect negative sequelae of isolation, loneliness, mental health issues, and worsening motor and non-motor features remains to be fully realized. Loneliness is not an isolated problem; the preliminary evidence indicates that loneliness associated with the Covid-19 restrictions has dramatically increased in nearly all countries around the world.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença de Parkinson , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(Suppl 8): 14-17, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As attention is currently focused on the urgent need to address the impacts of the social isolation measures imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent mental health, this study aims to determine whether the reported malaise and depression among this population is directly related to the pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted an analysis of the review of the literature based on content in the leading medical databases, and reviewed empirical data regarding the number of psychiatric consultations, and markers of anxiety and depression in adolescents. RESULTS: Social isolation has clearly had a negative impact on adolescent mental health. However, while adolescent psychiatric consultations, and markers of anxiety and depression have increased, this increase has been present for many years. It is therefore difficult to establish a causal link between the two. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that adolescent mental health is an important problem that needs to be addressed as a priority, while care needs to continue even after social isolation measures have been lifted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social/psicologia
13.
Eur J Public Health ; 32(5): 677-683, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social and demographic trends show a global increase of proportion of older people at risk of social isolation. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention conducted in low-income neighbourhoods to reduce social isolation and its negative effects on health in older persons. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study with a comparison group was performed. The 'School of Health for Older People' is a weekly community intervention that promotes resources among individuals and communities to enhance their ability to identify problems and activate solutions, encouraging community participation. Data were collected at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Social support, psychological morbidity and health-related quality of life were measured through questionnaires information on visits to the primary care centre was obtained from the electronic medical records of primary care centres. Multivariate regression models were conducted to assess changes after the intervention. RESULTS: A total of 135 participants were included in the study. The intervention helped to improve participants' mental health (aPR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.23-0.90) comparing with the comparison group. Also, the intervention helped to maintain quality of life and social support, which were worsened or maintained respectively in the case of comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence on how a community intervention can improve quality of life, mental health and social support in older people. The evidence can help to fill the knowledge gap in this area and might be especially useful for the design of social and public health policies and programmes for older people in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in urban areas. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03142048.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Isolamento Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pobreza , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 979136, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148329

RESUMO

The recent increase in lonely deaths among young people has emphasized the emergence of social isolation as a social problem. This study investigated the issue of social isolation by examining multidimensional factors that affect social isolation and evaluating the subjective and objective dimensions of young adults. Data for this study were collected for 8 days (February 7-14, 2022) through an online questionnaire survey by a professional survey agency, based on proportional allocation of the young adult population (age 19-39 years); data from 521 young adults were analyzed. Regression analysis was performed using SPSS to identify multidimensional factors (relative deprivation, future outlook, depression, self-esteem, social skills, experience of violence, and online activity) that affect social isolation and showed that: (1) among sociodemographic characteristics, higher age and unemployment were associated with greater social isolation; (2) sociopsychological characteristics, such as higher levels of relative deprivation and depression, more negative future outlook, and lower self-esteem, all correlated with greater social isolation; and (3) among relationship characteristics, lower social skills and a stronger history of experiencing violence were linked to greater social isolation. These results highlight the need for a customized support system at the national level that takes into account the developmental tasks of young adults as a preventive strategy to solve the problem of social isolation of young adults and to devise various strategies to provide them with mental health services.


Assuntos
Solidão , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , República da Coreia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 398, 2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130935

RESUMO

Social isolation and discrimination are growing public health concerns associated with poor physical and mental health. They are risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality and reduced quality of life. Despite their detrimental effects on health, there is a lack of knowledge regarding translation across the domains of experimental research, clinical studies, and real-life applications. Here, we review and synthesize evidence from basic research in animals and humans to clinical translation and interventions. Animal models indicate that social separation stress, particularly in early life, activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and interacts with monoaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems, inducing long-lasting reductions in serotonin turnover and alterations in dopamine receptor sensitivity. These findings are of particular importance for human social isolation stress, as effects of social isolation stress on the same neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in addictive, psychotic, and affective disorders. Children may be particularly vulnerable due to lasting effects of social isolation and discrimination stress on the developing brain. The effects of social isolation and loneliness are pronounced in the context of social exclusion due to discrimination and racism, during widespread infectious disease related containment strategies such as quarantine, and in older persons due to sociodemographic changes. This highlights the importance of new strategies for social inclusion and outreach, including gender, culture, and socially sensitive telemedicine and digital interventions for mental health care.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Saúde Mental , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Neurotransmissores , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Qualidade de Vida , Receptores Dopaminérgicos , Serotonina , Isolamento Social/psicologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15076, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064567

RESUMO

Loneliness and social isolation have become increasing concerns during COVID-19 lockdown through neuroendocrine stress-reactions, physical and mental health problems. We investigated living situation, relationship status and quality as potential moderators for trait and state loneliness and salivary cortisol levels (hormonal stress-responses) in healthy adults during the first lockdown in Germany. N = 1242 participants (mean age = 36.32, 78% female) filled out an online questionnaire on demographics, trait loneliness and relationship quality. Next, N = 247 (mean age = 32.6, 70% female) completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA), collecting twelve saliva samples on 2 days and simultaneously reporting their momentary loneliness levels. Divorced/widowed showed highest trait loneliness, followed by singles and partnerships. The latter displayed lower momentary loneliness and cortisol levels compared to singles. Relationship satisfaction significantly reduced loneliness levels in participants with a partner and those who were living apart from their partner reported loneliness levels similar to singles living alone. Living alone was associated with higher loneliness levels. Hierarchical linear models revealed a significant cross-level interaction between relationship status and momentary loneliness in predicting cortisol. The results imply that widowhood, being single, living alone and low relationship quality represent risk factors for loneliness and having a partner buffers neuroendocrine stress responses during lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Solidão , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Isolamento Social/psicologia
17.
Curr Opin Support Palliat Care ; 16(4): 195-202, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102929

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Social wellbeing is a core component of heath. However, people with chronic respiratory disease report unmet social needs, particularly in relation to stigma, social isolation, and loneliness. This review considers recent advances in understanding these social concepts within the context of chronic respiratory disease. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing body of qualitative work illustrates the detrimental impacts of stigma in chronic respiratory disease, contributing towards poorer psychological health and self-management, and reduced engagement with professional support. Stigma, alongside physical limitations stemming from respiratory symptoms, can also contribute to social isolation and loneliness. Social isolation and loneliness are associated with poorer mental health and quality of life, declines in function, and in some cases, increased hospital admissions. Although close or cohabiting relationships can ameliorate some social challenges, isolation and loneliness can also impact informal carers of people with chronic respiratory disease. SUMMARY: Increasing evidence illustrates the direct and indirect influences of social dimensions on health outcomes for people living with chronic respiratory disease. Although there is increased understanding of the lived experiences of stigma, less is understood about the complexities of social isolation and loneliness in chronic respiratory disease, and optimal interventions to address social challenges.


Assuntos
Solidão , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estigma Social , Saúde Mental
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(16): e026493, 2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924775

RESUMO

Background Social isolation, the relative absence of or infrequency of contact with different types of social relationships, and loneliness (perceived isolation) are associated with adverse health outcomes. Objective To review observational and intervention research that examines the impact of social isolation and loneliness on cardiovascular and brain health and discuss proposed mechanisms for observed associations. Methods We conducted a systematic scoping review of available research. We searched 4 databases, PubMed, PsycInfo, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, and Scopus. Findings Evidence is most consistent for a direct association between social isolation, loneliness, and coronary heart disease and stroke mortality. However, data on the association between social isolation and loneliness with heart failure, dementia, and cognitive impairment are sparse and less robust. Few studies have empirically tested mediating pathways between social isolation, loneliness, and cardiovascular and brain health outcomes using appropriate methods for explanatory analyses. Notably, the effect estimates are small, and there may be unmeasured confounders of the associations. Research in groups that may be at higher risk or more vulnerable to the effects of social isolation is limited. We did not find any intervention studies that sought to reduce the adverse impact of social isolation or loneliness on cardiovascular or brain health outcomes. Conclusions Social isolation and loneliness are common and appear to be independent risk factors for worse cardiovascular and brain health; however, consistency of the associations varies by outcome. There is a need to develop, implement, and test interventions to improve cardiovascular and brain health for individuals who are socially isolated or lonely.


Assuntos
American Heart Association , Isolamento Social , Encéfalo , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Isolamento Social/psicologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social isolation is a predictor of mortality and morbidity, as well as an outcome of many health-related predictors. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of social isolation among the elderly and to study factors associated with it. METHODS: This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Urban Field Practice Area of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Chhattisgarh, India among elderly more than or equal to 60 years of age selected using random sampling. The data was collected in a sample of 400 elderly by face-to-face interview using predesigned, pretested, and semi-structured proforma that included Lubben Social Network Scale-6 (LSNS-6) and analyzed using Stata v16. RESULTS: The prevalence of social isolation was 34.3%; highest among those 65-74 years of age (44.5%) and females (56.9%). Increasing age, elderly with less than three family members, lower socio-economic status, no children and financial dependence among socio-demographic factors; insufficient time with children, lack of emotionally attachment and conflict in the family among family support factors; lack of social participation, poor perception of health and feeling lonely among psychosocial factors; lack of physical exercise, spiritual activity and sound sleep among lifestyle factors; and presence of active complaints, raised blood pressure and being anemic among medical factors were significantly associated with social isolation. Overall, the independent predictors of social isolation in elderly were age ≥75 years, lack of participation in social functions, feeling lonely and lack of sound sleep. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of social isolation among elderly from an urban slum in India was high and the existing evidence show a rising trend. Social isolation assessment and use of LSNS-6 by healthcare providers should be incorporated into elderly care at primary healthcare delivery points across the country.


Assuntos
Áreas de Pobreza , Isolamento Social , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Prevalência , Isolamento Social/psicologia
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