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1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9331

RESUMO

A obesidade é uma doença crônica, multifatorial e complexa caracterizada pelo excesso de gordura corporal. No entanto, quando se pensa nas causas, logo vem em mente uma alimentação inadequada associada à falta de prática de atividade física regular, colocando o problema como algo que depende somente das escolhas individuais. Por esse motivo, não é difícil que as pessoas com obesidade sofram com o preconceito e com a culpabilização do indivíduo . Para entender melhor o assunto, convidamos a Dra Olivia Barata Cavalcanti.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Estigma Social , Bullying , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Hidrocortisona/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Industrializados ,
2.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 40: e2020385, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the effects of social isolation on children's and teenagers' development, with emphasis on the possible impacts over their physical and mental health. DATA SOURCE: Review of the literature following the standards of PRISMA using the SciELO, LILACS and PubMed databases. The following key-words were used: "social isolation" and "child development", "quarantine" and "adolescent development" according to the Medical Subject Headings (MESH) and their translation to the Portuguese. Studies in English, Portuguese and Spanish from inception were included. DATA SYNTHESIS: 519 studies were screened and 12 were included in the systematic review. Five of those focused the psychology and social issues, two of them the effects of pandemics on these issues; four studies reported on impacts on general health and two consequences over the hypothalamus- hypophysis - adrenal axis and the cognitive and social development. CONCLUSIONS: The review shows a strong association between social isolation and anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Social isolation leads to higher levels of cortisol and worse cognitive development. Therefore, the mental and physical health of children and adolescents need a careful follow up by health professionals during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mudança Social
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5836-5842, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Functional gastrointestinal disorders are common gastrointestinal diseases. The pathophysiology is multifactorial and psychosocial distress worsens symptoms severity. Since the end of 2019 the world has been facing COVID-19 pandemic. The associated control measures have affected the psychological health of people. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders among Italian children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study sample is composed of 407 patients (187 males, 220 females), aged from 10 to 17 years. The mean age is 14.27 ± 2.24 years. The study was conducted through the Italian version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version.  The prevalence of each disorder has been calculated as the ratio of affected subjects for each disease and the total number of effective cases for that specific disease. RESULTS: The study demonstrates that the prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder in Italian children, during the COVD-19 pandemic, is higher, compared with the one reported in the previous studies. The most frequent disorders are Abdominal Migraine and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first one which provides data of the prevalence of Functional gastrointestinal disorders in sample of Italian adolescents, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study underlines the need to focus on stress management, in order to reduce the effects of the lockdown on the psychological wellness of the youngest.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Dor Abdominal/psicologia , Adolescente , Aerofagia/epidemiologia , Aerofagia/etiologia , Aerofagia/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Constipação Intestinal/epidemiologia , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal/psicologia , Dispepsia/epidemiologia , Dispepsia/etiologia , Dispepsia/psicologia , Incontinência Fecal/epidemiologia , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Incontinência Fecal/psicologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/etiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Itália , Masculino , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/etiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/psicologia , Prevalência , Síndrome da Ruminação/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Ruminação/etiologia , Síndrome da Ruminação/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/etiologia , Vômito/psicologia
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634054

RESUMO

The conducted qualitative research was aimed at capturing the biggest challenges related to the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The interviews were carried out in March-June (five stages of the research) and in October (the 6th stage of the research). A total of 115 in-depth individual interviews were conducted online with 20 respondents, in 6 stages. The results of the analysis showed that for all respondents the greatest challenges and the source of the greatest suffering were: a) limitation of direct contact with people; b) restrictions on movement and travel; c) necessary changes in active lifestyle; d) boredom and monotony; and e) uncertainty about the future.


Assuntos
Tédio , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Viagem/psicologia , Incerteza , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 33(4-5): 305-319, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542025

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted life globally through virus-related mortality and morbidity and the social and economic impacts of actions taken to stop the virus' spread. It became evident early in the pandemic that COVID-19 and the strategies adopted to mitigate its effects would have a disproportionate impact on older adults. This special issue of the Journal of Aging & Social Policy reports original empirical research and perspectives on the ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic for this population. This introductory essay highlights key issues pertaining to the impact of COVID-19 on older adults and their families, caregivers, and communities. The prevalence and susceptibility of COVID-19 infection in the older adult population is discussed, including the devastating consequences of the pandemic for residents and staff of long-term care facilities. This is followed by a brief examination of ageism and social isolation brought to the fore during the pandemic, as well as the adverse effects of the pandemic for the economy and racial and ethnic minority populations. It concludes with an overview of issue content.


Assuntos
Ageismo , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Casas de Saúde , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(11): 2009-2018, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546563

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the associated regulations issued to minimize risk of disease transmission seem to have had an impact on general mental health in most populations, but it may have affected pregnant women even more because of pregnancy-related uncertainties, limited access to healthcare resources, and lack of social support. We aimed to compare the mental health response among pregnant women with that in similarly aged women from the general population during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From April 14 to July 3, 2020, 647 pregnant women in their second trimester were enrolled in this study. For comparison, 858 women from the general Danish population (20-46 years) were sampled from an ongoing observational study. Participants responded to a questionnaire including six mental health indicators (concern level, perceived social isolation, quality of life, anxiety, mental health, and loneliness). Loneliness was measured using the UCLA Three-item Loneliness Scale and anxiety by the Common Mental Health Disorder Questionnaire 4-item Anxiety Subscale. RESULTS: The pregnant women had better scores during the entire study period for all mental health indicators, and except for concerns, social isolation, and mental health, the differences were also statistically significant. Pregnant women were more concerned about becoming seriously ill (40.2% vs. 29.5%, p < 0.001), whereas the general population was more concerned about economic consequences and prospects. Many pregnant women reported negative feelings associated with being pregnant during the COVID-19 pandemic and concerns regarding social isolation and regulation-imposed partner absence during hospital appointments and childbirth. All mental health indicators improved as Denmark began to reopen after the first wave of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women exhibited lower rates of poor mental health compared with the general population. However, they were more concerned about becoming seriously ill, expressed negative feelings about being pregnant during the pandemic, and were worried about the absence of their partner due to imposed regulations. These finding may be taken into account by policy-makers during pandemics to balance specific preventive measures over the potential mental health deterioration of pregnant women.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Public Health Res Pract ; 31(3)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494071

RESUMO

Emerging evidence, based on the synthesis of reports from past infectious disease-related public health emergencies, supports an association between previous pandemics and a heightened risk of suicide or suicide-related behaviours and outcomes. Anxiety associated with pandemic media reporting appears to be one critical contributing factor. Social isolation, loneliness, and the disconnect that can result from public health strategies during global pandemics also appear to increase suicide risk in vulnerable individuals. Innovative suicide risk assessment and prevention strategies are needed to recognise and adapt to the negative impacts of pandemics on population mental health.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia
8.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 977-990, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538307

RESUMO

Studies have yielded mixed findings regarding changes in adolescent substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic; some report increased alcohol and cannabis use, others show less binge drinking and vaping behaviors, and others no change. In 2019, only 8.3% of the 1.1 million adolescents with a substance use disorder received specialized treatment. Treatment rates for 2020 have not yet been published. Stay-at-home orders and social distancing guidelines put into place in March 2020 caused the partial closure of many outpatient substance use clinics. The implications of this treatment suspension and special considerations for working with adolescents during stay-at-home orders are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256900, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Befriending is a popular way in which to intervene to combat loneliness and social isolation among older people. However, there is a need to improve our understanding about how these interventions work, for whom and in which contexts, to make the best use of the increasing investment in the provision and delivery of befriending services. METHODS: A realist evaluation was undertaken as it focuses on uncovering causal processes and interactions between mechanisms and contextual characteristics. Five case studies of befriending programmes in Northern Ireland were studied, reflecting variation in contextual variables, service user and provider characteristics. Data was collected via service documentation and semi-structured interviews (n = 46) with stakeholders involved in the delivery and receipt of befriending interventions. RESULTS: Eight initial programme theories were generated, which were 'tested' in the case study analysis to uncover context-mechanism-outcome relationships. Mechanisms identified included reciprocity, empathy, autonomy, and privacy which were triggered in different contexts to support the alleviation of loneliness and social isolation. Reciprocity was 'triggered' in contexts where service users and befrienders shared characteristics, the befriender was a volunteer and befriending took the form of physical companionship. Contexts characterised in terms of shared experiences between befriender and service user triggered empathy. Autonomy was triggered in contexts where befriending relationships were delivered long-term and did not focus on a pre-defined set of priorities. Privacy was triggered in contexts where service users had a cognitive/sensory impairment and received one-to-one delivery. CONCLUSION: This study improves understanding about how and why befriending interventions work. Findings indicate that services should be tailored to the needs of service users and take into consideration characteristics including mobility, impairments e.g. physical, sensory and/or cognitive, as well as the influence of service characteristics including payment for befrienders, fixed/long-term befriending relationship, one-to-one support and the impact of non-verbal communication via face-to-face delivery.


Assuntos
Empatia/fisiologia , Amigos/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Voluntários
10.
Am J Public Health ; 111(10): 1772-1775, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529449

RESUMO

Rapid identification and management of students with COVID-19 symptoms, exposure, or disease are critical to halting disease spread and protecting public health. We describe the interdisciplinary isolation and quarantine program of a large, public university, the University of Virginia, Charlottesville. The program provided students with wraparound services, including medical, mental health, academic, and other support services during their isolation or quarantine stay. The program successfully accommodated 844 cases during the fall 2020 semester, thereby decreasing exposure to the rest of the university and the local community. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1772-1775. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306424).


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/organização & administração , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/transmissão , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social , Virginia
12.
CMAJ Open ; 9(3): E915-E925, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults face greater risk of social isolation, but the extent of social isolation among low-income older adults living in social housing is unknown. This study aims to explore the rate of, and risk factors contributing to, subjective social isolation or loneliness among older adults in social housing. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of data collected from a community program held in the common rooms of 55 social housing buildings in 14 communities across Ontario, Canada, from May 2018 to April 2019. Participants were program attendees aged 55 years and older who resided in the buildings. Program implementers assessed social isolation using the 3-Item Loneliness Scale from the University of California, Los Angeles and risk factors using common primary care screening tools. We extracted data for this study from the program database. We compared the rate of social isolation to Canadian Community Health Survey data using a 1-sample χ2 test, and evaluated associations between risk factors and social isolation using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. RESULTS: We included 806 residents in 30 buildings for older adults and 25 mixed-tenant buildings. Based on the 3-Item UCLA Loneliness Scale, 161 (20.0%) of the 806 participants were socially isolated. For those aged 65 and older, the rate of social isolation was nearly twice that observed in the same age group of the general population (36.1% v. 19.6%; p < 0.001). Risk factors were age (65-84 yr v. 55-64 yr adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.93), alcohol consumption (adjusted OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.09-5.54), anxiety or depression (adjusted OR 6.05, 95% CI 3.65-10.03) and income insecurity (adjusted OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.24-3.53). Protective factors were having at least 1 chronic cardiometabolic disease (adjusted OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.80), being physically active (adjusted OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30-0.73) and having good to excellent general health (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39-0.90). INTERPRETATION: The high rate of social isolation in low-income older adults living in social housing compared with the general population is concerning. Structural barriers could prevent engagement in social activities or maintenance of social support, especially for older adults with income insecurity and anxiety or depression; interventions are needed to reduce subjective social isolation in this population.


Assuntos
Habitação para Idosos , Solidão/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Habitação para Idosos/normas , Habitação para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Ontário/epidemiologia , Técnicas Psicológicas , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256968, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chhaupadi is a deeply rooted tradition and a centuries-old harmful religio-cultural practice. Chhaupadi is common in some parts of Karnali and Sudurpaschim Provinces of western Nepal, where women and girls are considered impure, unclean, and untouchable in the menstrual period or immediately following childbirth. In Chhaupadi practice, women and girls are isolated from a range of daily household chores, social events and forbidden from touching other people and objects. Chhaupadi tradition banishes women and girls into menstruation huts', or Chhau huts or livestock sheds to live and sleep. These practices are guided by existing harmful beliefs and practices in western Nepal, resulting in poor menstrual hygiene and poor physical and mental health outcomes. This study examined the magnitude of Chhaupadi practice and reviewed the existing policies for Chhaupadi eradication in Nepal. METHODS: We used both quantitative survey and qualitative content analysis of the available policies. First, a quantitative cross-sectional survey assessed the prevalence of Chhaupadi among 221 adolescent girls in Mangalsen Municipality of Achham district. Second, the contents of prevailing policies on Chhaupadi eradication were analysed qualitatively using the policy cube framework. RESULTS: The current survey revealed that most adolescent girls (84%) practised Chhaupadi in their most recent menstruation. The Chhaupadi practice was high if the girls were aged 15-17 years, born to an illiterate mother, and belonged to a nuclear family. Out of the girls practising Chhaupadi, most (86%) reported social and household activities restrictions. The policy content analysis of identified higher-level policy documents (constitution, acts, and regulations) have provisioned financial resources, ensured independent monitoring mechanisms, and had judiciary remedial measures. However, middle (policies and plans) and lower-level (directives) documents lacked adequate budgetary commitment and independent monitoring mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Chhaupadi remains prevalent in western Nepal and has several impacts to the health of adolescent girls. Existing policy mechanisms lack multilevel (individual, family, community, subnational and national) interventions, including financial and monitoring systems for Chhaupadi eradication. Eradicating Chhaupadi practice requires a robust multilevel implementation mechanism at the national and sub-national levels, including adequate financing and accountable systems up to the community level.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/legislação & jurisprudência , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Menstruação/psicologia , Estigma Social , Tabu/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Higiene/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães/psicologia , Nepal , Políticas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Religião , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255640, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469457

RESUMO

Humans are extraordinarily social, and social isolation has profound effects on our behavior, ranging from increased social motivation following short periods of social isolation to increased anti-social behaviors following long-term social isolation. Mice are frequently used as a model to understand how social isolation impacts the brain and behavior. While the effects of chronic social isolation on mouse social behavior have been well studied, much less is known about how acute isolation impacts mouse social behavior and whether these effects vary according to the sex of the mouse and the behavioral context of the social encounter. To address these questions, we characterized the effects of acute (3-day) social isolation on the vocal and non-vocal social behaviors of male and female mice during same-sex and opposite-sex social interactions. Our experiments uncovered pronounced effects of acute isolation on social interactions between female mice, while revealing more subtle effects on the social behaviors of male mice during same-sex and opposite-sex interactions. Our findings advance the study of same-sex interactions between female mice as an attractive paradigm to investigate neural mechanisms through which acute isolation enhances social motivation and promotes social behavior.


Assuntos
Motivação , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Comportamento Social , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores Sexuais
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256952, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506526

RESUMO

An increase in employment rate was observed among individuals who underwent bariatric surgery. This study assessed the relationship between employment rate and weight loss, deprivation, and Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) scores after bariatric surgery in a deprived area. This retrospective study evaluated the employment rate at a mean period of 2.3±0.1 years after bariatric surgery among 133 individuals. The Evaluation of Deprivation and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers (EPICES score), satisfaction scale, and BAROS (self-esteem, physical activity, social life, work conditions, and sexual activity) questionnaires were used. The mean age of the participants was 45 (range: 19-67) years. Approximately 88% were women. The initial mean body mass index (BMI) was 42.7 kg/m2, and about 88% of the participants underwent sleeve gastrectomy. The mean decrease in BMI was 12 ± 0.5 kg/m2. The mean EPICES score (N<30), BAROS, and satisfaction scale (range: 1-5) scores were 31.9±18, 1.3±1.1, and 4.27±1.19, respectively. After surgery, 19 participants obtained a job. However, three were unemployed. Based on a multivariate analysis, employed and unemployed participants (77 vs 52) before surgery had a lower initial BMI and better BAROS and satisfaction scale scores. After surgery, there was no difference between participants who obtained a new job and those still did not have a job in terms of questionnaire responses. Obtaining a new job was not associated with BMI, sex, or age differences. However, there was a positive correlation between social life score and weight loss. Bariatric surgery increased an individual's chance of finding a job independently of deprivation status. Participants with a pre-operative job had a better perception of satisfaction and BAROS scores. Moreover, social isolation was correlated with unsuccessful weight loss.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 33(4-5): 398-413, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365914

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the experiences of family caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic-imposed visitation restrictions at formal care settings (FCS) such as assisted living centers and traditional nursing homes. Participants (N = 512) were recruited from an international caregiving social media site that was developed at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Descriptive data was collected on the family caregivers, the care recipient and facility. Respondents also provided a single feeling word describing their experience and an open-ended question allowed for further exploration. Caregivers were predominantly daughters (n = 375). The most common reported feeling words were sadness (n = 200), trauma (n = 108), anger (n = 65), frustration (n = 56), helplessness (n = 50), and anxiety (n = 36). Thematic analysis revealed four overarching themes: 1) isolation 2) rapid decline 3) inhumane care and 4) lack of oversight. This study highlights the importance of addressing the mental, emotional and physical needs of both care recipient and family caregiver during this challenging time. Caregiver visitation policy reform that includes the care recipient and family caregiver is also discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Casas de Saúde , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena/psicologia , Tristeza/psicologia
17.
Psychiatriki ; 32(3): 183-186, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Grego Moderno, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390552

RESUMO

Social stigma has long been defined by Ervin Goffman as an attribute that it is deeply discrediting and reduces the individual who bears it from a whole and usual person to a tarnished one, unfit to be included into the mainstream society.1 As stigma spans time and space and has been documented in other social species such as ants and chimpanzees, one might argue for its adaptive potential. Neuberg and colleagues2 have suggested that humans generate stigmas against threats to effective group functioning, with a notable case being infectious diseases. A similar explanation has been put forward by other researchers who consider stigma to have evolved from disease-avoidance mechanisms.3 Hence, it is not surprising that tuberculosis, HIV and leprosy have been surrounded by stigma and discrimination.4,5 More recently, people who had survived the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak tackled social exclusion and unemployment after returning to their neighborhoods.6 Nowadays, the global community faces an unprecedented challenge of grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic. From the very outset, social distance measures were introduced in order to contain the spread of the virus, ranging from maintaining 1.5 meters physical distance to strict lockdowns. However, this may easily escalate into stigmatizing and discriminatory behaviours (desired social distance is a proxy of discrimination) against people who have suffered from COVID-19, their relatives and their caregivers, with the United Nations stating that "fear, rumours and stigma" are the key challenges surrounding COVID-19.7 Apart from the psychological distress experienced by the stigmatized individuals, due to anticipated stigma people might start concealing their illness, avoid or delay seeking medical advice or testing until they are seriously ill and be reluctant to collaborate with authorities on tracing contacts. Therefore, timely identifying stigma and addressing it is an integral part of an effective health response to the ongoing pandemic. In spite of its importance, research on COVID-19 related stigma is scarce. From the perspective of the stigmatized individuals, a study in China8 demonstrated that COVID-19 survivors faced heightened levels of overall stigma, social rejection, financial insecurity, internalized shame and social isolation, compared to healthy controls. From the perspective of the general population, a study in US9 substantiated low levels of anticipated stigma and stereotype endorsement; however, respondents who anticipated greater stigma were less likely to seek a COVID-19 test. It is therefore clear that the international literature is still on its infancy with respect to COVID-19 related stigma. In this context, in the First Department of Psychiatry, University of Athens, we conducted a survey on public attitudes to COVID-19 and to mental disorders. The study would inform the design and implementation of anti-stigma initiatives, funded by the Regional Governor of Attica. As physical distancing and social distancing are interwoven, with some researchers and practitioners using the terms interchangeably, and social distancing is also a protective public health measure against COVID-19, we enquired about attitudes and desired social distance from people who had recovered from COVID-19. Nonetheless, it merits noting that evidence from other diseases indicates that stigma may persist even after recovery.10 Moreover, rather than describing public attitudes overall, we were more interested in investigating where COVID-19 related stigma stands as compared to the most stigmatizing health condition to date, i.e., severe mental illness.11 Interestingly enough, which elements of severe mental illness render it the most stigmatized as compared to other conditions is still speculative: is it the fear of madness? the severity and the type of symptoms? the purported incurability or its chronicity? In our study, evidence from a convenience sample of 370 residents of Attica indicates that the general population holds more negative attitudes towards people who have recovered from COVID-19 than towards people with mental disorders. Nonetheless, respondents reported lower levels of desired social distance from recovered COVID-19 cases as compared to mental illness cases in social interactions of graded intimacy; however, the difference between the two groups was found to decrease as the level of intimacy decreased as well. In other words, desired social distance from COVID-19 cases is more easily discernible in transient social encounters, like talking to a stranger. It is therefore clear that social distance is still a public health protective measure rather than a stigma manifestation. For social encounters of greater intimacy, usually a sign of discriminatory behaviours, having recovered from COVID-19 is not a deterrent to interaction. Findings can be explained by the acute (non-chronic) nature of the disease, both in terms of symptoms as well as the 10-day period since symptom onset for being contagious. Nonetheless, with emerging evidence substantiating the notion of long COVID-19, defined as the persistence of symptoms for 3 weeks after infection,12 this might quickly change. Moreover, with many public health protective measures available, such as the use of mask, diagnostic testing and vaccination, people who become infected are more likely to be blamed for contracting the disease and thus deemed responsible for this, in line with the Attribution Theory.13 Specifically, overarching evidence from stigma research in many diseases/conditions indicates that when an illness or a social condition, such as economic disadvantage, is attributed to internal causes, as compared to external, lay people are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes.14-16 Therefore, as attitudes towards COVID-19 are worse compared to those towards people with mental illness, if tailored anti-stigma action is not undertaken, it is only a matter of time for prejudices to evolve into discriminatory behaviours, with devastating consequences on both the individuals and the course of the pandemic. Concomitantly, as severe mental illness is neither life threatening nor contagious, but COVID-19 is, it is interesting to explore how stigma is related to evolutionary mechanisms favouring adaptability and survival as well as which elements are the drivers of stigma development and establishment. Therefore, comparing and contrasting the stigma surrounding these conditions may shed light on the underpinnings of social stigma and facilitate effective interventions to reduce it and eventually eliminate it.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Distanciamento Físico , Distância Psicológica , Angústia Psicológica , Intervenção Psicossocial/métodos , Estigma Social , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Discriminação Social/prevenção & controle , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Tempo para o Tratamento
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26854, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397861

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Prompted by the need to measure the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 on main areas of quality of life related to mental health (MH), the COV-19-impact on quality of life (COV19-QoL) scale has been developed recently. We measured how patients seeking face-to-face MH care perceived the coronavirus disease 2019 impact on QoL and how socio-demographic factors, stress, and personality contributed to QoL in this diagnostically diverse population.Patients aged 18 to 65 years (n = 251) who came for the first time to the outpatient units during the 6-week index-period (May 21-July 1, 2020) were included. The cross-sectional assessment involved sociodemographic variables, working diagnosis, personality traits (7-dimension model, including HEXACO and DELTA), stress (list of threatening experiences and proximity to virus), and COV19-QoL.The perceived impact of the pandemic on QoL was above the theoretical mean of a 5-point scale (COV19-Qol = 3.1 ±â€Š1.2). No association between total COV19-QoL score, sociodemographic parameters, and working diagnoses was found in the present sample. After testing whether positional (threatening experiences), or dispositional (personality) factors were predominant in the perceived impact of COV-19 on QoL, significant predictors of the outcome were personality traits Disintegration (B = 0.52; P < .01) and Emotionality (B = 0.18; P < .05).It seems that pervasiveness and uncertainty of the pandemic threat triggers-especially in those high on Disintegration trait-a chain of mental events with the decrease of QoL as a final result. Present findings could be used to establish a profile of MH help seeking population in relation to this biological disaster, and to further explore QoL and personality in different contexts.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
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