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2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(2): e28790, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with cancer were designated as clinically extremely vulnerable if they were to contract SARS-CoV-2 due to immune suppression in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our aim was to explore experiences, information and support needs, and decision making of parents with a child with cancer in response to this phase in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Parents of a child with cancer completed a survey at a time when the UK moved into a period of 'lockdown'. An online survey was developed by the research team to capture parents' experiences, information and support needs, and decision making, using closed statements and open text boxes. Descriptive quantitative analyses and qualitative thematic content analysis were undertaken. FINDINGS: One hundred seventy-one parents/caregivers completed the survey. Eighty-five percent were worried about the virus and they were vigilant about the virus (92%) or cancer symptoms (93.4%). For two-thirds (69.6%), hospital was no longer considered a safe place. Eight overarching themes were identified related to the virus: (a) risk of infection; (b) information, guidance and advice; (c) health care provision; (d) fears and anxieties; or related to lockdown/isolation: (e) psychological and social impact; (f) keeping safe under lockdown; (g) provisions and dependence; and (h) employment and income. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to report experiences of parents of a child with cancer during the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of parents were worried about SARS-CoV-2 and transmitting the virus to their child. Hospital was no longer perceived to be a safe place, and parents were worried about suboptimal cancer care. Parents described fear and anxiety and the psychological, social and economic impact of isolation.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisões , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isolamento de Pacientes/psicologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
3.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(1): 115-119, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157181

RESUMO

A Veterans Affairs long term care facility on Long Island New York was confronted with a COVID-19 outbreak in late March to Mid-April 2020. Faced with a dwindling supply of PPE, the Infection Control team distributed supplies saved for a possible Ebola outbreak. A COVID unit was created within the nursing home facilitating the geographic isolation of cases; universal testing of residents and employees allowed for the implementation of proper quarantine measures. It was a multidisciplinary team approach led by the Infection Control team that successfully contained this outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /prevenção & controle , Portador Sadio/diagnóstico , Portador Sadio/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Profissionais Controladores de Infecções , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isolamento de Pacientes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
5.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(1): 14-17, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940123

RESUMO

This article describes an outbreak of COVID-19 in a long-term care facility (LTCF) in West Virginia that was the epicenter of the state's pandemic. Beginning with the index case, we describe the sequential order of procedures undertaken by the facility including testing, infection control, treatment, and communication with facility residents, staff, and family members. We also describe the lessons learned during the process and provide recommendations for handling an outbreak at other LTCFs.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Surtos de Doenças , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Isolamento de Pacientes
6.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1117): 20200994, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In accordance with initial guidance from the Royal College of Surgeons and Royal College of Radiologists, we evaluated the utility of CT of the chest in the exclusion of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection prior to elective cancer surgery on self-isolating patients during the pandemic. METHODS: All surgical referrals without symptoms of COVID-19 infection in April and May 2020 were included. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed. Screening included CT chest for major thoracic and abdominal surgery. CTs were reported according to British Society of Thoracic Imaging guidelines and correlated with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and surgical outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 infection in our screened population was 0.7% (5/681). 240 pre-operative CTs were performed. 3.8% (9/240) of CTs were reported as abnormal, only one of which was RT-PCR positive. 2% (5/240) of cases had surgery postponed based on CT results. All nine patients with CTs reported as abnormal have had surgery, all without complication. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection in our screened population was low. The pre-test probability of CT chest in asymptomatic, self-isolating patients is consequently low. CT can produce false positives in this setting, introducing unnecessary delay in surgery for a small proportion of cases. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Self-isolation, clinical assessment and RT-PCR are effective at minimising COVID-19 related surgical risk. The addition of CT chest is unhelpful. Our data have particular relevance during the second wave of infection and in the recovery phase.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isolamento de Pacientes , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tórax , Reino Unido
7.
Psychol Health Med ; 26(1): 98-106, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305600

RESUMO

Impact of supportive interventions on resilience and self-assessed psychopathology symptoms of 92 nurses in isolation ward during the COVID-19 pandemic was evaluated. Resilience and psychopathological symptoms of nurses in the isolation ward was assessed by Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). A total resilience score was 87.04 ± 22.78. The SCL-90 score was 160- to 281 (202.5 ± 40.79). Only 8.70% of the nurses (n = 8) had a total SCL-90 score >160, suggesting positive symptoms. The majority of nurses had 0 to 90 positive self-assessment items (median 14); 19.57% (n = 18) had > 43 positive items. Interpersonal sensitivity, depression, hostility, and paranoid ideation scores were below national averages (p=0.000, 0.040, 0.002, 0.004, respectively). SCL-90 items reflecting diet and sleep conditions were higher(P = 0.009), and somatization, obsessive-compulsive, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and psychoticism domains and scores were similar to national averages (P>0.3). With exception of somatization and other domains, the mean resilience score was negatively associated with the scores of other SCL-90 domains. High resilience promotes physical and mental health, and may be improved by training, psychological interventions and full use of hospital resources.


Assuntos
/enfermagem , Departamentos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento de Pacientes , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 870-877, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691919

RESUMO

There's an outbreak of coronavirus diesase 2019 (COVID-19) since December 2019, first in Wuhan. It has caused huge medical challenges to Hubei Province with currently more than 67 thousand confirmed cases till 8th March 2020. Identification, there is no clinically effective drug. Isolation and masks are essential to limit human-to-human transmission initially. The nucleic acid test (NAT) of COVID-19 currently was the most reliable established laboratory diagnosis method in clinical. From 8th February to 7th March 2020, 4254 cases were collected for analysis at six nucleic acid collection sites in the community medical team of Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which cover almost all groups who need NAT in Wuhan. Distribution of positive rates in different sites by genders, ages, or occupations were compared. The positive rates of different sites from high to low were: hospital wards (24.71%) > fever clinics (16.57%) > nursing homes (5.51%) > isolation hotels (5.30%) > rehabilitation stations (1.36%) >close contact sites (0.17%). The confirmed patients in isolation hotels, hospital ward, and fever clinical were mainly middle-aged and elderly, and most of them were women. The positive rate in isolation hotels and fever clinics gradually decreased over time. There were no significant differences between genders among those six nucleic acid collection sites (P < .05). The hospital wards have the highest positive rate; however, close contact sites have lowest one. Patients who are discharged from hospitals may still have potential risks. Middle-aged and older people remain the focus of epidemic prevention and control.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , /epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isolamento de Pacientes , Adulto Jovem
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256891

RESUMO

We explored transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 among 12 children and their uninfected guardians in hospital isolation rooms in South Korea. We found that, even with close frequent contact, guardians who used appropriate personal protective equipment were not infected by children with diagnosed coronavirus disease.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , /transmissão , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Isolamento de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
10.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20200106, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101977

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the COVID-19 pandemic and what we have (re)learned from the world experience of adopting prevention measures recommended by the World Health Organization as well as the epidemiological overview in the world, in Latin America and in Brazil. Results: the World Health Organization has pointed out that the path to reduce the speed of circulation of the virus, control and decrease in the number of cases and deaths resulting from this pandemic can only be accomplished with mass adoption of fundamental measures that include hand hygiene, alcohol gel use, cough etiquette, cleaning surfaces, avoiding agglomerations and social distancing. The epidemiological curve of the disease clearly shows the devastating proportions in Italy, Spain and the United States, surpassing China in death records, due to the delay in adopting the aforementioned measures. In Brazil, the rapid progression in relation to the world and Latin America points to an important increase in the number of cases. Conclusion: this is possibly the most serious pandemic in recent human history, and its course can be influenced by the rigor in adopting individual and collective behavioral measures.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la pandemia de COVID-19 y lo que hemos (re)aprendido de la experiencia mundial para la adopción de las medidas de prevención recomendadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, así como el panorama epidemiológico en el mundo, en América Latina y en Brasil. Resultados: la Organización Mundial de la Salud ha señalado que el camino hacia la reducción de la velocidad de circulación del virus, el control y la reducción del número de casos y muertes resultantes de esta pandemia solo se puede lograr con la adopción masiva de medidas fundamentales que incluyan la higiene de las manos, uso de alcohol en gel, etiqueta respiratoria, limpieza de superficies, evitando hacinamiento y distancia social. La curva epidemiológica de la enfermedad muestra claramente las proporciones devastadoras en Italia, España y Estados Unidos, superando a China en los registros de defunciones, debido a la demora en la adopción de estas medidas. En Brasil, la rápida progresión en relación con el mundo y América Latina apunta a un aumento importante en el número de casos. Conclusión: esta pandemia es posiblemente la más grave en la historia humana reciente y su curso puede verse influenciado por el rigor en la adopción de medidas de comportamiento individuales y colectivas.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a pandemia da Covid-19 e o que temos (re)aprendido com a experiência mundial para adoção das medidas de prevenção preconizadas pela Organização Mundial de Saúde bem como o panorama epidemiológico no mundo, na América Latina e no Brasil. Resultados: a Organização Mundial de Saúde tem apontado que o caminho para a redução da velocidade de circulação do vírus, o controle e queda do número de casos e óbitos decorrentes dessa pandemia só poderá ser alcançado com adoção em massa de medidas fundamentais que incluem higienização das mãos, uso do álcool em gel, etiqueta respiratória, limpeza de superfícies, evitar aglomerações e distanciamento social. A curva epidemiológica da doença mostra claramente as proporções devastadoras na Itália, Espanha e nos Estados Unidos, superando a China em registros de óbitos, devido ao atraso na adoção dessas medidas. No Brasil, a progressão rápida em relação ao mundo e à América Latina aponta um importante aumento do número de casos. Conclusão: essa pandemia possivelmente é a mais grave da história recente da humanidade e seu curso pode ser influenciado pelo rigor na adoção de medidas comportamentais individuais e coletivas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Prevenção de Doenças , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Betacoronavirus , Isolamento de Pacientes , Distância Social , Comportamento , Educação em Saúde
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(12)2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276628

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Real-time remote tele-mentored echocardiography (RTMUS echo) involves the transmission of clinical ultrasound (CU) cardiac images with direct feedback from a CU expert at a different location. In this review, we summarize the current uses of RTMUS to diagnose and manage cardiovascular dysfunction and discuss expanded and future uses. Materials and Methods: We performed a literature search (PubMed and EMBase) to access articles related to RTMUS echo. We reviewed articles for selection using Covidence, a web-based tool for managing systematic reviews and data were extracted using a separate standardized collection form. Results: Our search yielded 15 articles. Twelve of these articles demonstrated the feasibility of having a novice sonographer mentored by a tele-expert in obtaining a variety of cardiac ultrasound views. The articles discussed different technological specifications for the RTMUS system, but all showed that adequate images were able to be obtained. Overall, RTMUS echo was found to be a positive intervention that contributed to patient care. Conclusion: RTMUS echo allows for rapid access to diagnostic imaging in various clinical settings. RTMUS echo can help in assessing patients that may require a higher level of isolation precautions or in other resource-constrained environments. In the future, identifying the least expensive way to utilize RTMUS echo will be important.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistemas Computacionais , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Tutoria/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Anestesiologia , Cardiologia , Cuidados Críticos , Medicina de Emergência , Humanos , Isolamento de Pacientes , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Consulta Remota , Ultrassonografia/métodos
12.
Soins ; 65(849): 52-55, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357619

RESUMO

This worldwide health crisis forced hospitals to adapt their activities to this new confinement environment. Innovation was required to maintain a social bound between cohorting service's patients and their families, to guarantee a dedicated listening time and prevent as much as possible from the isolation due to this COVID-19 unusual situation. With that aim, the army training hospital Legouest created an information and support listening cell dedicated to COVID-19 hospitalized patients' families. It also provided several tablets for creating a patient and family digital gate.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Hospitais Militares/organização & administração , Comunicação , Humanos , Isolamento de Pacientes
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(12)2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260421

RESUMO

Background and objectives: We aimed to analyze factors associated with the period of viral shedding in patients with confirmed COVID-19 who experienced only mild symptoms. Materials and methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study from three community treatment centers (CTCs) of South Korea. All patients included were admitted to the three centers before 31 March 2020. We collected data about clinical characteristics and the result of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Viral shedding was terminated within 32 days and 36 days in 75% and 90% of patients, respectively (range: 8-49 days). The mean period of viral shedding was 23.8 ± 8.7 days. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, the existence of underlying comorbidities lowered the probability of the termination of viral shedding (HR = 0.561, 95% CI 0.388-0.812). Female sex and presence of COVID-19-associated symptoms also lowered the probability, but the significance was marginal. Conclusions: The existence of underlying comorbidities was associated with delayed termination of viral shedding in COVID-19 patients with mild severity.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Isolamento de Pacientes , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto , /fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e190, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261713

RESUMO

AIMS: The use of mechanical restraint is a challenging area for psychiatry. Although mechanical restraint remains accepted as standard practice in some regions, there are ethical, legal and medical reasons to minimise or abolish its use. These concerns have intensified following the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Despite national policies to reduce use, the reporting of mechanical restraint has been poor, hampering a reasonable understanding of the epidemiology of restraint. This paper aims to develop a consistent measure of mechanical restraint and compare the measure within and across countries in the Pacific Rim. METHODS: We used the publicly available data from four Pacific Rim countries (Australia, New Zealand, Japan and the United States) to compare and contrast the reported rates of mechanical restraint. Summary measures were computed so as to enable international comparisons. Variation within each jurisdiction was also analysed. RESULTS: International rates of mechanical restraint in 2017 varied from 0.03 (New Zealand) to 98.9 (Japan) restraint events per million population per day, a variation greater than 3000-fold. Restraint in Australia (0.17 events per million) and the United States (0.37 events per million) fell between these two extremes. Variation as measured by restraint events per 1000 bed-days was less extreme but still substantial. Within all four countries there was also significant variation in restraint across districts. Variation across time did not show a steady reduction in restraint in any country during the period for which data were available (starting from 2003 at the earliest). CONCLUSIONS: Policies to reduce or abolish mechanical restraint do not appear to be effecting change. It is improbable that the variation in restraint within the four examined Pacific Rim countries is accountable for by psychopathology. Greater efforts at reporting, monitoring and carrying out interventions to achieve the stated aim of reducing restraint are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Restrição Física/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Coerção , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Estados Unidos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23410, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327265

RESUMO

Carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) have been identified as an urgent healthcare threat. Various methods have been used for the detection of CPO using rectal swabs. Recently, an on-demand polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, namely, the Xpert Carba-R assay, that requires less than an hour of turnaround time, had been developed for CPO detection in clinical samples. This study focused on the use of this assay to determine the intestinal colonization rate of CPO in patients admitted to emergency rooms (ERs).A retrospective review of medical records was conducted at a tertiary hospital between July 2017 and June 2018. CPO screening using rectal swabs was performed for patients transferred from other hospitals or for those who tested positive in CPO culture tests in the previous three months. The Xpert Carba-R assay and culture tests were used as the CPO screening methods, and the results of both tests were compared.Medical records of 705 patients admitted to our hospital during the study period were reviewed. Of these, 31 (4.4%) showed positive results for CPO using the Xpert Carba-R assay, and these patients were then transferred from the ERs to isolation rooms. Fifteen of the Xpert Carba-R assay-positive patients were also positive for the culture test; hence, early detection enabled the rapid isolation of CPO-infected patients and prevented the spread of the CPO.The Xpert Carba-R assay is a rapid test to identify and guide infection control programs to contain the spread of the rectal colonization of CPO within a hospital.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Isolamento de Pacientes , Prevalência , Reto/microbiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(12): 1811-1814, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256960

RESUMO

Older adults living in nursing homes are the most vulnerable group of the COVID-19 pandemic. There are many difficulties in isolating residents and limiting the spread in this setting. We have developed a simple algorithm with a traffic light format for resident classification and sectorization within nursing homes, based on basic diagnostic tests, surveillance of symptoms onset, and close contact monitoring. We have implemented the algorithm in several centers with good data on adherence. Suggestions for implementation and evaluation are discussed.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Casas de Saúde , Humanos , Isolamento de Pacientes/organização & administração
18.
A A Pract ; 14(14): e01371, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350677

RESUMO

Respiratory failure in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with prolonged endotracheal intubation may require a tracheostomy and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement to facilitate recovery. Both techniques are considered high-risk aerosol-generating procedures and present a heightened risk of exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for operating room personnel. We designed, simulated, and implemented a portable, continuous negative pressure, operative field barrier system using standard equipment available in hospitals to enhance health care provider safety during high-risk aerosol-generating procedures.


Assuntos
/complicações , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Gastrostomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Traqueostomia/métodos , Aerossóis , Pressão do Ar , Nutrição Enteral , Filtração , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salas Cirúrgicas , Isolamento de Pacientes
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12579-12588, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336778

RESUMO

Management of SARS-CoV-2 requires safe decision-making to minimize contamination. Healthcare workers and professionals in confined areas are affected by the risk of the activity and the environment. Isolation of contaminated workers and healthcare professionals requires clinical and diagnostic criteria. On the other hand, interrupting the isolation of healthcare employees and professionals is critical because diagnostic tests do not support clinical decisions. In addition to defining the best test in view of its accuracy, it is necessary to consider aspects such as the stage of the disease or cure, the viral load and the individual's own immunity. Uncertainty about natural and herd immunity to the disease leads to the development of appropriate antivirals, diagnostic tests and vaccines.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Isolamento de Pacientes/normas , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , /imunologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Fezes/química , Fezes/virologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Nasofaringe/química , Nasofaringe/virologia , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos , RNA Viral/análise , Escarro/química , Escarro/virologia , Carga Viral
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