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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22243, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957370

RESUMO

Although obesity is an established risk factor of primary stroke, the association between obesity and post-stroke mortality remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dynamic obesity status and mortality in survivors of their first stroke in China.Of 775 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke included in a longitudinal study, 754 patients were included in this study and categorized into 4 categories of body mass index (BMI) (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) and 2 categories of waist circumference (WC) (normal WC and abdominal obesity) according to standard Chinese criteria. The mortality information and obesity status were obtained via telephone follow-up every 3 months, beginning in 2010 through 2016. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the relationship between all-cause mortality and dynamic obesity status.Of 754 patients, 60.87% were male, and the overall mean age was 61.45 years. After adjusting for possible confounders, significant inverse associations were identified between BMI and WC and all-cause mortality. Compared with those with normal BMI or WC, those with abdominal obesity or overweight had a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]: .521 [.303-.897] and 0.545 [.352-.845], respectively), whereas patients with underweight had the highest risk and those with obesity had lower risk of mortality, though it was not statistically significant (1.241 [.691-2.226] and .486 [.192-1.231], respectively).Overweight and abdominal obesity were paradoxically associated with reduced risk of mortality in patients who survived their first-ever ischemic stroke in China. Future prospective studies must look at evaluating the role of obesity in different stroke subtypes and devise appropriate weight-management strategies for optimal prognoses in secondary prevention in these survivors.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Sobreviventes , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22413, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991472

RESUMO

Stroke is the acute onset of neurological deficits and is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and disease burden. In the present study, we aimed to develop a scientific, nomogram for non-invasive predicting risk for early ischemic stroke, in order to improve stroke prevention efforts among high-risk groups. Data were obtained from a total of 2151 patients with early ischemic stroke from October 2017 to September 2018 and from 1527 healthy controls. Risk factors were examined using logistic regression analyses. Nomogram and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn, cutoff values were established. Significant risk factors for early ischemic stroke included age, sex, blood pressure, history of diabetes, history of genetic, history of coronary heart disease, history of smoking. A nomogram predicting ischemic stroke for all patients had an internally validated concordance index of 0.911. The area under the ROC curve for the logistic regression model was 0.782 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.766-0.799, P < .001), with a cutoff value of 2.5. The nomogram developed in this study can be used as a primary non-invasive prevention tool for early ischemic stroke and is expected to provide data support for the revision of current guidelines.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Nomogramas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111018, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888591

RESUMO

Few multicity studies have been conducted in developing countries to distinguish the acute effects of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the years of life lost (YLL) from different subtypes of stroke. We aimed to differentiate the associations between NO2 exposure and YLL from major pathological types of stroke in China, and estimate the relevant economic loss. A time-series study was conducted to explore the associations between short-term NO2 exposure and YLL from ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke from 2013 to 2017 in 48 Chinese cities. Daily NO2 data and stroke mortality counts for each city were obtained from the National Urban Air Quality Real-time Publishing Platform and Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Generalized additive models were applied to estimate the cumulative effects of NO2 in each city, and meta-analysis was used to combine the city-specific estimates. The relevant economic loss was estimated using the method of the value per statistical life year (VSLY). A 10 µg/m3 increase in ambient NO2 concentration on the present day and previous day (lag 0-1) would lead to relatively higher increments in percentage change of YLL from ischaemic stroke (0.82%, 95% CI: 0.46%, 1.19%) than haemorrhagic stroke (0.46%, 95% CI: 0.09%, 0.84%). The association was significantly stronger in the low-education population than high-education population for ischaemic stroke. Furthermore, significantly higher association was found in South China than those in North China for both subtypes of stroke. Economic loss due to excess YLL from ischaemic stroke related to NO2 exposure was higher than that for haemorrhagic stroke. Our study indicated higher association and economic loss of ischaemic than haemorrhagic stroke related to NO2 exposure in China, which informed priorities for type-specific stroke prevention strategies related to NO2 pollution and vulnerable population protection.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 197: 106183, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Past history of stroke has been associated with an increased risk of a new ischemic stroke. Several studies have indicated increased prevalence of strokes among coronavirus patients. However, the role of past history of stroke in COVID19 patients is still unclear. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate and summarize the level of evidence on past history of stroke in COVID19 patients. METHODS: A systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines was performed in PubMed, Embase, EBSCO Host, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, and LILACS. Eligibility criteria: We evaluated studies including patients with diagnosis of COVID 19 and a past history of stroke. Risk of bias: was evaluated with the Newcastle- Ottawa Scale (NOS) and experimental studies were evaluated using the ROBINS-I scale. RESULTS: Seven articles out of the total 213 articles were evaluated and included, involving 3244 patients with SARS VOC 2 Disease (COVID19) of which 198 had a history of cerebrovascular disease. Meta-analysis of the data was performed, observing an increase in mortality in patients with a history of cerebrovascular disease compared to those with different comorbidities or those without underlying pathology (OR 2.78 95 % CI [1.42-5.46] p = 0.007; I2 = 49 %) showing adequate heterogeneity. The presence of publication bias was evaluated using the Egger test in a funnel plot, showing adequate. Asymmetry, indicating that there is no publication bias; however, due to the low number of included studies, we could not rule out or confirm the presence of bias. CONCLUSIONS: The history of cerebrovascular disease was associated with a 2.78-fold increased risk of mortality compared to patients with other comorbidities or without underlying pathologies.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 10(2): 94-104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rates of depression after ischemic stroke (IS) and myocardial infarction (MI) are significantly higher than in the general population and associated with morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of nationally representative data comparing depression and suicide attempt (SA) after these distinct ischemic vascular events. METHODS: The 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database contains >14 million US admissions for all payers and the uninsured. Using International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification Codes, we identified index admission with IS (n = 434,495) or MI (n = 539,550) and readmission for depression or SA. We calculated weighted frequencies of readmission. We performed adjusted Cox regression to calculate hazard ratio (HR) for readmission for depression and SA up to 1 year following IS versus MI. Analyses were stratified by discharge home versus elsewhere. RESULTS: Weighted depression readmission rates were higher at 30, 60, and 90 days in patients with IS versus MI (0.04%, 0.09%, 0.12% vs. 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.07%, respectively). There was no significant difference in SA readmissions between groups. The adjusted HR for readmission due to depression was 1.49 for IS versus MI (95% CI 1.25-1.79, p < 0.0001). History of depression (HR 3.70 [3.07-4.46]), alcoholism (2.04 [1.34-3.09]), and smoking (1.38 [1.15-1.64]) were associated with increased risk of depression readmission. Age >70 years (0.46 [0.37-0.56]) and discharge home (0.69 [0.57-0.83]) were associated with reduced hazards of readmission due to depression. CONCLUSIONS: IS was associated with greater hazard of readmission due to depression compared to MI. Patients with a history of depression, smoking, and alcoholism were more likely to be readmitted with depression, while advanced age and discharge home were protective. It is unclear to what extent differences in type of ischemic tissue damage and disability contribute, and further investigation is warranted.


Assuntos
Afeto , Isquemia Encefálica/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/psicologia , Readmissão do Paciente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Mol Neurobiol ; 57(12): 4921-4928, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813238

RESUMO

The global pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has taken the entire human race by surprise and led to an unprecedented number of mortalities worldwide so far. Current clinical studies have interpreted that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the host receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition, ACE2 is the major component of the renin-angiotensin system. ACE2 deteriorates angiotensin II, a peptide that is responsible for the promotion of stroke. The downregulation of ACE2 further activates an immunological cascade. Thus, researchers need to explore and examine the possible links between COVID-19 and ischemic stroke (IS). Human ACE2 expression level and pattern in various tissues might be decisive for the vulnerability, symptoms, and treatment outcomes of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The swift increase in the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 has given creditable evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infected patients also encounter neurological deficits. As the SARS-CoV-2 binds to ACE2, it will hamper the activity of ACE2 in providing neuroprotection, especially in the case of stroke patients. Due to the downregulation of ACE2, the inflammatory response is activated in the ischemic penumbra. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people with various pre-existing diseases, including IS, in such a way that these patients need special care and attention for their survival. Several clinical trials are currently ongoing worldwide as well as many other projects are in different stages of conceptualization and planning to facilitate the effective management of stroke patients with COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/imunologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/fisiologia , Encefalite Viral/complicações , Encefalite Viral/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Inflamação , Modelos Imunológicos , Modelos Neurológicos , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
10.
Neurol Sci ; 41(10): 2675-2679, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761396

RESUMO

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a globally challenging issue after its emergence in December 2019 from Wuhan, China. Despite its common presentation as respiratory distress, patients with COVID-19 have also shown neurological manifestation especially stroke. Therefore, the authors sought to determine the etiology, underlying risk factors, and outcomes among patients with COVID-19 presenting with stroke. We conducted a systematic review of the electronic database (PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane library) using different MeSH terms from November 2019 to June 2020. A total of 39 patients with stroke from 6 studies were included. The mean age of our included patients was 61.4 ± 14.2 years. Majority of the patients (n = 36, 92.3%) with COVID-19 had ischemic stroke, 5.1% (n = 2) had hemorrhagic stroke, and 2.6% (n = 1) had cerebral venous thrombosis at the time of initial clinical presentation. Almost all of the patients presented had underlying risk factors predisposing to stroke which included diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and previous history of cerebrovascular disease. 51.2% (n = 20) of the included patients infected with COVID-19 with stroke died, while remaining patients were either discharged home or transferred to a rehabilitation unit. Exploring the neurological manifestation in terms of stroke among patients with COVID-19 is a step towards better understanding of the virus, preventing further spread, and treating the patients affected by this pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237185, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760103

RESUMO

Several cohort studies have shown that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk for stroke. However, it remains unclear whether serum antibody titers for a specific periodontal pathogen are associated with outcome after ischemic stroke, and which kinds of pathogens are associated with ischemic stroke. We examined the relationship between serum IgG titers to periodontal pathogens and outcome in ischemic stroke patients. A total of 445 patients with acute ischemic stroke (194 female [44.0%], mean age 71.9±12.3 years) were registered in this study. Serum IgG titers to 9 periodontal pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythensis, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens) were evaluated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. An unfavorable outcome was defined as a 3 or higher on the modified Rankin Scale. The proportion of patients with unfavorable outcome was 25.4% (113 patients). Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, numbers of IgG antibodies positive for periodontal pathogens (odds ratio 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.41, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of unfavorable outcome in ischemic stroke patients.


Assuntos
Periodontite Agressiva/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Periodontite Agressiva/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/microbiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/microbiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2664-2673, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anecdotal reports suggest fewer patients with stroke symptoms are presenting to hospitals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We quantify trends in stroke code calls and treatments at 3 Connecticut hospitals during the local emergence of COVID-19 and examine patient characteristics and stroke process measures at a Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) before and during the pandemic. METHODS: Stroke code activity was analyzed from January 1 to April 28, 2020, and corresponding dates in 2019. Piecewise linear regression and spline models identified when stroke codes in 2020 began to decline and when they fell below 2019 levels. Patient-level data were analyzed in February versus March and April 2020 at the CSC to identify differences in patient characteristics during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 822 stroke codes were activated at 3 hospitals from January 1 to April 28, 2020. The number of stroke codes/wk decreased by 12.8/wk from February 18 to March 16 (P=0.0360) with nadir of 39.6% of expected stroke codes called from March 10 to 16 (30% decrease in total stroke codes during the pandemic weeks in 2020 versus 2019). There was no commensurate increase in within-network telestroke utilization. Compared with before the pandemic (n=167), pandemic-epoch stroke code patients at the CSC (n=211) were more likely to have histories of hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and substance abuse; no or public health insurance; lower median household income; and to live in the CSC city (P<0.05). There was no difference in age, sex, race/ethnicity, stroke severity, time to presentation, door-to-needle/door-to-reperfusion times, or discharge modified Rankin Scale. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital presentation for stroke-like symptoms decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, without differences in stroke severity or early outcomes. Individuals living outside of the CSC city were less likely to present for stroke codes at the CSC during the pandemic. Public health initiatives to increase awareness of presenting for non-COVID-19 medical emergencies such as stroke during the pandemic are critical.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Renda , Seguro Saúde , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica
13.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2656-2663, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak and its associated disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) have created a worldwide pandemic. Early data suggest higher rate of ischemic stroke in severe COVID-19 infection. We evaluated whether a relationship exists between emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) and the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational case series. Data were collected from all patients who presented with ELVO to the Mount Sinai Health System Hospitals across New York City during the peak 3 weeks of hospitalization and death from COVID-19. Patients' demographic, comorbid conditions, cardiovascular risk factors, COVID-19 disease status, and clinical presentation were extracted from the electronic medical record. Comparison was made between COVID-19 positive and negative cohorts. The incidence of ELVO stroke was compared with the pre-COVID period. RESULTS: Forty-five consecutive ELVO patients presented during the observation period. Fifty-three percent of patients tested positive for COVID-19. Total patients' mean (±SD) age was 66 (±17). Patients with COVID-19 were significantly younger than patients without COVID-19, 59±13 versus 74±17 (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.94 [0.81-0.98]; P=0.004). Seventy-five percent of patients with COVID-19 were male compared with 43% of patients without COVID-19 (odds ratio [95% CI], 3.99 [1.12-14.17]; P=0.032). Patients with COVID-19 were less likely to be White (8% versus 38% [odds ratio (95% CI), 0.15 (0.04-0.81); P=0.027]). In comparison to a similar time duration before the COVID-19 outbreak, a 2-fold increase in the total number of ELVO was observed (estimate: 0.78 [95% CI, 0.47-1.08], P≤0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the ELVO stroke patients during the peak time of the New York City's COVID-19 outbreak were COVID-19 positive, and those patients with COVID-19 were younger, more likely to be male, and less likely to be White. Our findings also suggest an increase in the incidence of ELVO stroke during the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
14.
S Afr Med J ; 110(5): 400-402, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hanging is a common form of self-harm, and emergency care physicians will not infrequently be called upon to manage a survivor.Despite the relative frequency of the injury, there is a paucity of literature on the topic and the spectrum and incidence of associated injuries are poorly described. OBJECTIVES: To review experience with management of victims of hanging at a major trauma centre in South Africa. METHODS: All patients treated by the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service following a hanging incident between December 2012 and December 2018 were identified from the Hybrid Electronic Medical Registry. Basic demographics were recorded, and the management and outcome of each patient were noted. RESULTS: During the 6-year period under review, a total of 154 patients were seen following a hanging incident. The mean age was 29.4 years. There were 24 females (15.6%) and 130 males (84.4%). The vast majority (n=150; 97.5%) had attempted suicide, and only 4 hangings (2.5%) were accidental. A total of 92 patients (60.9%) had consumed alcohol prior to the incident. There were 23 patients with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <9 (severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)), 14 with a GCS of 9 - 12 (moderate TBI) and 117 with a GCS >12 (mild TBI). A total of 7 patients (4.5%) required intensive care unit admission, and 25 (16.2%) required intubation. The following extracranial injuries were documented on computed tomography scans: hyoid bone fractures (n=2), cervical spine fracture (n=10), mandible fracture (n=4) and oesophageal injury (n=1). Intracranial pathology was evident on 27.0% of scans, with the most common finding being global cerebral ischaemia. The mortality rate was 2.5% (4/154). CONCLUSIONS: Hanging is a common mechanism of self-harm. It is associated with significant injuries and mortality. The acute management of hanging should focus on airway protection followed by detailed imaging of the head and neck. Further work must attempt to include mortuary data on hanging.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Asfixia/epidemiologia , Lesões do Pescoço/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Esôfago/lesões , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Osso Hioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Hioide/lesões , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Fraturas Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Mandibulares/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Centros de Traumatologia
15.
Neurol Sci ; 41(9): 2309-2313, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the lockdown measures, consequent to the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, on the quality of pre-hospital and in-hospital care of patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: This is an observational cohort study. Data sources were the clinical reports of patients admitted during the first month of lockdown and discharged with a confirmed diagnosis of stroke or TIA. Data were collected in the interval ranging from March 11th to April 11th 2020. As controls, we evaluated the clinical reports of patients with stroke or TIA admitted in the same period of 2019. RESULTS: The clinical reports of patients eligible for the study were 52 in 2020 (71.6 ± 12.2 years) and 41 in 2019 (73.7 ± 13.1 years). During the lockdown, we observed a significant increase in onset-to-door time (median = 387 vs 161 min, p = 0.001), a significant reduction of the total number of thrombolysis (7 vs 13, p = 0.033), a non-significant increase of thrombectomy (15 vs 9, p = 0.451), and a significant increase in door-to-groin time (median = 120 vs 93 min, p = 0.048). No relevant difference was observed between 2019 and 2020 in the total number of patients admitted. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures, the stroke care pathway changed, involving both pre-hospital and in-hospital performances.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Quarentena/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104980, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to healthcare organizations worldwide. A steadily rising number of patients requiring intensive care, a large proportion from racial and ethnic minorities, demands creative solutions to provide high-quality care while ensuring healthcare worker safety in the face of limited resources. Boston Medical Center has been particularly affected due to the underserved patient population we care for and the increased risk of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We present protocol modifications developed to manage patients with acute ischemic stroke in a safe and effective manner while prioritizing judicious use of personal protective equipment and intensive care unit resources. CONCLUSION: We feel this information will benefit other organizations facing similar obstacles in caring for the most vulnerable patient populations during this ongoing public health crisis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Isquemia Encefálica/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Radiografia Intervencionista , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica , Boston , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Procedimentos Clínicos/organização & administração , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Triagem/organização & administração
17.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(3): 587-595, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661757

RESUMO

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a life-threatening complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Increasing reports suggest an association between COVID-19 and AIS, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. We performed a systematic review to characterize the clinical characteristics, neuroimaging findings, and outcomes of AIS in COVID-19 patients. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Embase using a suitable keyword search strategy from 1st December 2019 to 29th May 2020. All studies reporting AIS occurrence in COVID-19 patients were included. A total of 39 studies comprising 135 patients were studied. The pooled incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients from observational studies was 1.2% (54/4466) with a mean age of 63.4 ± 13.1 years. The mean duration of AIS from COVID-19 symptoms onset was 10 ± 8 days, and the mean NIHSS score was 19 ± 8. Laboratory investigations revealed an elevated mean D-dimer (9.2 ± 14.8 mg/L) and fibrinogen (5.8 ± 2.0 g/L). Antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in a significant number of cases. The majority of AIS neuroimaging patterns observed was large vessel thrombosis, embolism or stenosis (62.1%, 64/103), followed by multiple vascular territory (26.2%, 27/103). A high mortality rate was reported (38.0%, 49/129). We report the pooled incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients to be 1.2%, with a high mortality rate. Elevated D-dimer, fibrinogen and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies appear to be prominent in COVID-19 patients with concomitant AIS, but further mechanistic studies are required to elucidate their role in pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/virologia , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Neurology ; 95(6): e697-e707, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In UK Biobank (UKB), a large population-based prospective study, cases of many diseases are ascertained through linkage to routinely collected, coded national health datasets. We assessed the accuracy of these for identifying incident strokes. METHODS: In a regional UKB subpopulation (n = 17,249), we identified all participants with ≥1 code signifying a first stroke after recruitment (incident stroke-coded cases) in linked hospital admission, primary care, or death record data. Stroke physicians reviewed their full electronic patient records (EPRs) and generated reference standard diagnoses. We evaluated the number and proportion of cases that were true-positives (i.e., positive predictive value [PPV]) for all codes combined and by code source and type. RESULTS: Of 232 incident stroke-coded cases, 97% had EPR information available. Data sources were 30% hospital admission only, 39% primary care only, 28% hospital and primary care, and 3% death records only. While 42% of cases were coded as unspecified stroke type, review of EPRs enabled a pathologic type to be assigned in >99%. PPVs (95% confidence intervals) were 79% (73%-84%) for any stroke (89% for hospital admission codes, 80% for primary care codes) and 83% (74%-90%) for ischemic stroke. PPVs for small numbers of death record and hemorrhagic stroke codes were low but imprecise. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke and ischemic stroke cases in UKB can be ascertained through linked health datasets with sufficient accuracy for many research studies. Further work is needed to understand the accuracy of death record and hemorrhagic stroke codes and to develop scalable approaches for better identifying stroke types.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Neurology ; 95(6): e708-e717, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased risk of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) following herpes zoster (HZ) might be modified by the status of zoster vaccine live (ZVL) vaccination and antiviral treatment following HZ. METHODS: We included 87,405 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged ≥66 years diagnosed with HZ and AIS from 2008 to 2017. We used a self-controlled case series design to examine the association between HZ and AIS, and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) by comparing incidence of AIS in risk periods vs control periods. To examine effect modification by ZVL and antiviral treatment, beneficiaries were classified into 4 mutually exclusive groups: (1) no vaccination and no antiviral treatment; (2) vaccination only; (3) antiviral treatment only; and (4) both vaccination and antiviral treatment. We tested for interaction to examine changes in IRRs across 4 groups. RESULTS: Among 87,405 beneficiaries with HZ and AIS, 22.0%, 2.0%, 70.1%, and 5.8% were in groups 1 to 4, respectively. IRRs in 0-14, 15-30, 31-90, and 91-180 days following HZ were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-2.02), 1.58 (95% CI, 1.47-1.69), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.31-1.42), and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.15-1.23), respectively. There was no evidence of effect modification by ZVL and antiviral treatment on AIS (p = 0.067 for interaction). The pattern of association between HZ and risk for AIS was largely consistent across age group, sex, and race. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of AIS increased significantly following HZ, and this increased risk was not modified by ZVL and antiviral treatment. Our findings suggest the importance of following recommended HZ vaccination in prevention of HZ and HZ-associated AIS.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster , Herpes Zoster/complicações , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Herpes Zoster/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2544-2547, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the acute stroke presentations during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: The data were obtained from a health system with 19 emergency departments in northeast Ohio in the United States. Baseline period from January 1 to March 8, 2020, was compared with the COVID period from March 9, to April 2, 2020. The variables included were total daily stroke alerts across the hospital emergency departments, thrombolysis, time to presentation, stroke severity, time from door-to-imaging, time from door-to-needle in thrombolysis, and time from door-to-puncture in thrombectomy. The 2 time periods were compared using nonparametric statistics and Poisson regression. RESULTS: Nine hundred two stroke alerts during the period across the emergency departments were analyzed. Total daily stroke alerts decreased from median, 10 (interquartile range, 8-13) during baseline period to median, 8 (interquartile range, 4-10, P=0.001) during COVID period. Time to presentation, stroke severity, and time to treatment were unchanged. COVID period was associated with decrease in stroke alerts with rate ratio of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.60-0.28). Thrombolysis also decreased with rate ratio, 0.52 (95% CI, 0.28-0.97) but thrombectomy remained unchanged rate ratio, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.52-1.62) Conclusions: We observed a significant decrease in acute stroke presentations by ≈30% across emergency departments at the time of surge of COVID-19 cases. This observation could be attributed to true decline in stroke incidence or patients not seeking medical attention for emergencies during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Ohio/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento
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