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1.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 3: 10-14, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603836

RESUMO

Preterm birth is one of the main country health indicators. It is associated with high mortality and significant morbidity in preterm newborns with cerebral palsy and potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities like cognitive and learning problems. The main lesions could be: a) white matter injuries, generally associated with cortical and other regions of grey matter neuronal-axonal disturbances; b) intracranial hemorrhage that includes germinal matrix, intraventricular and parenchymal, c) cerebellum injuries. The white matter lesions include cystic and non-cystic (with microscopic focal necrosis) periventricular leukomalacia and non-necrotic diffuse white matter injury. Multiple etiologic factors are associated with these injuries. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of periventricular vascular structures predispose white matter to cerebral ischemia and, interacting with infection/inflammation factors, activate microglia, generating oxidative stress (mediated by free oxygen and nitrogen radicals), pro-inflammatory cytokine and glutamate toxicity, energetic failure and vascular integrity disturbances. All these factors lead to a particular vulnerability of pre-oligodendrocytes that will affect myelination. Hypoxia-ischemia also may produce selective neuronal necrosis in different cerebral regions. Germinal matrix is a highly vascularized zone beneath ependymal or periventricular region that constitutes a capillary bed with a particular structural fragility that predispose it to hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/etiologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Leucomalácia Periventricular/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Paralisia Cerebral/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Recém-Nascido , Leucomalácia Periventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucomalácia Periventricular/mortalidade , Substância Branca/patologia
2.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(10): 1419-1424, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Additionally, it has been shown that anemia increases the short-term mortality risk in patients with acute stroke. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to determine the importance of anemia as a long-term mortality risk factor by itself or in combination with other risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 390 Caucasian patients with acute ischemic stroke in our study. Their progress was followed from the day of their admission until their death or a max. of 1,669 days. Stroke and anemia were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. RESULTS: Anemia was present in 57 (14.6%) patients. The patients with anemia were older (p < 0.01) and more likely to be female (p < 0.001). They had higher NIHSS scores on admission (p < 0.001) and discharge (p < 0.001), lower estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) (p < 0.001), lower serum LDL cholesterol (p < 0.01) and lower serum albumin levels (p < 0.001), while their serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were higher (p < 0.001). The Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients with anemia had higher mortality (p < 0.001). Cox's regression analysis revealed that anemia at admission was a predictor of long-term mortality in these patients (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.448, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.773-3.490; p < 0.001). Anemia remained a strong predictor of mortality after adjusting for other risk factors as well. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia was frequent among our patients and was an independent predictor of long-term mortality even after adjusting for other risk factors.


Assuntos
Anemia/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(10): 1321-1327, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities, complications and laboratory abnormalities are common in stroke patients. One of the common problems is hyponatremia (serum sodium (Na) level <135 mmol/L), but the relationship between hyponatremia and the prognosis in patients with stroke is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of hyponatremia, as well as its impact on prognosis in stroke patients on admission to hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved the analysis of the first measurement of the Na level after the admission and its correlations with comorbidities, the scale of clinical assessment of stroke severity (NIHSS), the size and location of the stroke, and mortality. A retrospective study was conducted on 502 patients (among them 263 women) admitted to the hospital on stroke onset (440 ischemic stroke (IS) and 62 hemorrhagic stroke (HS) patients). The post-stroke mortality was defined as early if death occurred within 30 days. RESULTS: Hyponatremia was found in 18.4% of patients with IS and 25.8% of patients with HS, irrespective of age and gender. Hyponatremia is an independent prognostic factor of mortality in people with IS (p = 0.003). Na levels were lower in IS patients who died than in those who remained alive (134.8 ±4.99 mmol/L vs 136.6 ±3.01 mmol/L; p = 0.02). Higher mortality rate was observed among IS patients under 75 years of age and Na level ≤132 mmol/L. In patients with IS, hyponatremia correlates with NIHSS (p = 0.005) and the size and location of the stroke (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Hyponatremia is more frequently observed in patients with HS than IS. Mild hyponatremia is already known to be an independent prognostic factor in the mortality of people with IS and it may also have value as a prognostic factor in the mortality of the IS population. In a patient with a suspected stroke, there is a need to control electrolyte levels at the onset of the stroke, especially in patients with comorbidities, irrespective of age.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Hiponatremia/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hiponatremia/sangue , Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sódio/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Fatores de Tempo
4.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 180, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined how intracranial large artery stenosis (ILAS), symptomatic and asymptomatic ILAS, and risk factors affect unfavorable outcome events after medical treatment in routine clinical practice. METHODS: This was a 24-month prospective observational study of consecutively recruited stroke patients. All participants underwent magnetic resonance angiography, and their clinical characteristics were assessed. Outcome events were vascular outcome, recurrent stroke, and death. Cox regression analyses were performed to identify potential factors associated with an unfavorable outcome, which included demographic and clinical characteristics, the risk factors, and stenosis status. RESULTS: The analysis included 686 patients; among them, 371 were assessed as ILAS negative, 231 as symptomatic ILAS, and 84 as asymptomatic ILAS. Body mass index (p < .05), hypertension (p = .01), and old infarction (p = .047) were factors relating to vascular outcomes. Hypertension was the only factor for recurrent stroke (p = .035). Poor glomerular filtration rate (< 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) (p = .011) and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (p < .001) were significant predictors of death. CONCLUSIONS: This study extended previous results from clinical trials to a community-based cohort study by concurrently looking at the presence/absence of stenosis and a symptomatic/asymptomatic stenotic artery. Substantiated risk factors rather than the stenosis status were predominant determinants of adverse outcome. Although the degree of stenosis is often an indicator for treatment, we suggest risk factors, such as hypertension and renal dysfunction, should be monitored and intensively treated.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Doenças Arteriais Intracranianas/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Taiwan/epidemiologia
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(10): 104290, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The current American Heart Association guidelines for the management of acute ischemic stroke advise against the use of intravenous (IV) alteplase in patients with recurrent stroke occurring within 90 days of their index event. Following these guidelines strictly, patients having early recurrent ischemic stroke would be unable to avail of this reperfusion strategy that has been proven to confer superior clinical outcomes. While some registry-based studies have demonstrated the safety of IV alteplase in this subgroup of patients, data on the repeated use of the drug are lacking. Thus, we aim to determine the safety and efficacy of repeated thrombolysis in patients with early recurrent ischemic strokes. METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched for relevant studies: the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials by The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE by PubMed, Health Research and Development Information Network, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Data on symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, 90-day clinical outcomes, systemic hemorrhage and allergic reactionswere synthesized. RESULTS: Ten articles with 33 patients in total were included in our review. One patient developed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after the second reperfusion attempt and subsequently died from pneumonia. Another died from spontaneous rupture of previously unidentified infrarenal aortic aneurysm. Six of the 13 patients with available follow-up data had good clinical outcomes (Modified Rankin Score 0-2). There were no allergic reactions and other drug-related adverse events noted. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated IV alteplase can be safe and efficacious in patients who have early recurrent ischemic stroke. Larger studies, trials, or registry-based data are needed to ascertain the encouraging findings of our review.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recidiva , Retratamento , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 13: 1753944719863641, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics on efficacy and safety outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to determine whether therapeutic drug monitoring might provide additional information regarding rivaroxaban dose, beyond what patient characteristics provide. METHODS: A post hoc exposure-response analysis was conducted using data from the phase III ATLAS ACS 2 Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 51 study, in which 15,526 randomized ACS patients received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg or 5 mg twice daily) or placebo for a mean of 13 months (maximum follow up: 31 months). A multivariate Cox model was used to correlate individual predicted rivaroxaban exposures and patient characteristics with time-to-event clinical outcomes. RESULTS: For the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, or nonhemorrhagic cardiovascular death, hazard ratios (HRs) for steady-state maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) in the 5th and 95th percentiles versus the median were statistically significant but close to 1 for both rivaroxaban doses. For TIMI major bleeding events, a statistically significant association was observed with Cmax [HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.11 (95th percentile versus median, 2.5 mg twice daily)], sex [HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.84 (female versus male)], and previous revascularization [HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.87 (no versus yes)]. CONCLUSIONS: The shallow slopes of the exposure-response relationships and the lack of a clear therapeutic window render it unlikely that therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with ACS would provide additional information regarding rivaroxaban dose beyond that provided by patient characteristics.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Modelos Biológicos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacocinética , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/farmacocinética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(10): 104281, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351827

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The highest mortality rates associated with ischemic stroke occur in patients of advanced age. However, studies of factors that establish the increase in hospital mortality are scanty in this population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory data, etiology and ischemic stroke subtype and complications during hospitalization were analyzed in 195 patients aged 80 years or older. In attempt to associate prognostic factor with the in-hospital mortality during first 28 days from admission, the death and survivor groups were compared. RESULTS: Among the 195 patients evaluated, the age was 85.3 ± 4.6 years with a mortality of 26.1%. Following the multivariate model, the factors associated with in-hospital mortality were: age (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00-1.20), the score less than or equal to 8 on Glasgow coma scale (OR = 22.87, 95% CI = 3.55-148.76), diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.30-8.87), total anterior clinical subtype (OR = 5.15, 95% CI = 1.82-14.52) and infectious complications (OR = 8.38, 95% CI = 3.28-21.43). CONCLUSIONS: The following risk factors were associated with a higher in-hospital mortality rate in patients over 79 years of age with ischemic stroke: older age, Glasgow coma score less than or equal to 8, total anterior circulation infarction, infection, and diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pacientes Internados , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Vasc Med ; 24(5): 422-430, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339474

RESUMO

In patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD), the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on major adverse cardiovascular events has not been fully evaluated. The Examining Use of Ticagrelor In PAD (EUCLID) trial randomized 13,885 patients with PAD to ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 75 mg daily. This post hoc analysis compared the incidence of the primary composite endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or ischemic stroke) in patients with CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) with those without CKD (eGFR ⩾ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). The primary safety endpoint was thrombolysis in MI (TIMI) major bleeding. A total of 13,483 patients were included; 3332 (25%) had CKD, of whom 237 had stage 4/5 disease. Median follow-up was approximately 30 months. After statistical adjustment, patients with CKD had a higher rate of the primary endpoint compared with those without CKD (6.75 vs 3.72 events/100 patient-years; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.45, 95% CI 1.30-1.63). CKD was not associated with increased risk of hospitalization for acute limb ischemia (ALI) (adjusted HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.69-1.34) or major amputation (adjusted HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.66-1.28). CKD was not associated with a significantly increased risk of major bleeding (adjusted HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.89-1.64), but minor bleeding was significantly increased (adjusted HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.07-2.15). In conclusion, patients with PAD and CKD had higher rates of cardiovascular death, MI, and ischemic stroke, but similar rates of ALI, major amputation, and TIMI major bleeding when compared with patients without CKD. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01732822.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/fisiopatologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/mortalidade , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 13: 1753944719860676, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of cancer-specific factors for ischemic stroke and mortality in patients with cancer and atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown. We evaluated the utility of a previously validated risk tool for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer outpatients [Khorana score (KS)] in predicting stroke and mortality in cancer patients with AF. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with cancer and AF at the Cleveland Clinic from 2008 to 2014. Outcomes, CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and KS scores were calculated from date of cancer diagnosis. Prognostic factors were identified with Fine and Gray regression (for stroke) or Cox proportional hazards analysis (for mortality). RESULTS: The study population comprised 1181 patients. Genitourinary (19%), lung (18%), and gastrointestinal (13%) were the most frequent cancers. Overall, 67% had CHADS2 ⩾ 2, 57% had an intermediate KS (1-2), and 7% high KS (⩾3). Median follow up was 26.5 months (range 0.03-76). At a median of 8.2 months (range 0-61), 45 patients (3.8%) developed a stroke and 418 (35%) died. In multivariable analysis a high KS (HR 4.5, 95% CI 3.2-6.3, p < 0.001) was associated with a quadruple risk of death and every point increase in CHADS2 score had a 20% increased risk of death (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.1-1.2, p < 0.001). The addition of KS did not improve risk stratification for ischemic stroke to CHADS2. CONCLUSION: In patients with cancer and AF, CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc but not KS were predictive of ischemic stroke. A high KS represented a unique predictor of mortality beyond traditional risk scores.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Neoplasias/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Ohio , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
10.
Neurology ; 93(6): e578-e589, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the role and risks associated with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) load in a stroke population with respect to recurrent stroke and mortality after ischemic stroke. METHODS: A total of 7,101 patients at a network of university hospitals presenting with ischemic strokes were followed up for 1 year. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards model and competing risk analysis were used to examine the independent association between quartiles of WMH load and stroke recurrence and mortality at 1 year. RESULTS: Overall recurrent stroke risk at 1 year was 6.7%/y, divided between 5.6%/y for recurrent ischemic and 0.5%/y for recurrent hemorrhagic strokes. There was a stronger association between WMH volume and recurrent hemorrhagic stroke by quartile (hazard ratio [HR] 7.32, 14.12, and 33.52, respectively) than for ischemic recurrence (HR 1.03, 1.37, and 1.61, respectively), but the absolute incidence of ischemic recurrence by quartile was higher (3.8%/y, 4.5%/y, 6.3%/y, and 8.2%/y by quartiles) vs hemorrhagic recurrence (0.1%/y, 0.4%/y, 0.6%/y, and 1.3%/y). All-cause mortality (10.5%) showed a marked association with WMH volume (HR 1.06, 1.46, and 1.60), but this was attributable to nonvascular rather than vascular causes. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between WMH volume load and stroke recurrence, and this association is stronger for hemorrhagic than for ischemic stroke, although the absolute risk of ischemic recurrence remains higher. These data should be helpful to practitioners seeking to find the optimal preventive/treatment regimen for poststroke patients and to individualize risk-benefit ratios.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoaraiose/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoaraiose/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucoaraiose/mortalidade , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 148, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost 40% of stroke patients have a poor outcome at 3 months after the index event. Predictors for stroke outcome in the early acute phase may help to tailor stroke treatment. Infection and inflammation are considered to influence stroke outcome. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study in Germany and Spain, including 486 patients with acute ischemic stroke, we used multivariable regression analysis to investigate the association of poor outcome with monocytic HLA-DR (mHLA-DR) expression, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) as markers for immunodepression, inflammation and infection. Outcome was assessed at 3 months after stroke via a structured telephone interview using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Poor outcome was defined as a mRS score of 3 or higher which included death. Furthermore, a time-to-event analysis for death within 3 months was performed. RESULTS: Three-month outcome data was available for 391 patients. Female sex, older age, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) and higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score as well as lower mHLA-DR levels, higher IL-6 and LBP-levels at day 1 were associated with poor outcome at 3 months in bivariate analysis. Furthermore, multivariable analysis revealed that lower mHLA-DR expression was associated with poor outcome. Female sex, older age, atrial fibrillation, SAP, higher NIHSS score, lower mHLA-DR expression and higher IL-6 levels were associated with shorter survival time in bivariate analysis. In multivariable analysis, SAP and higher IL-6 levels on day 1 were associated with shorter survival time. CONCLUSIONS: SAP, lower mHLA-DR-expression and higher IL-6 levels on day one are associated with poor outcome and shorter survival time at 3 months after stroke onset. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01079728 , March 3, 2010.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DR/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Pneumonia/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Proteínas da Fase Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Inflamação/complicações , Interleucina-10/sangue , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2563-2568, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explored the associations of blood pressure (BP) with various stroke outcomes and investigated their changes by the elapsed time after stroke onset. METHODS: Patients who arrived within 48 hours of stroke onset between April 2008 and September 2014 were consecutively enrolled. For 10 days of hospitalization, all measured systolic BP (SBP) was summarized into mean at acute (first 3 days) and subacute stage (afterward to 7 days) for each patient. Coprimary outcomes were unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale >2) at discharge and time to composite cardiovascular event of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death for 1-year follow-up. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) through SBPmean in both acute and subacute stages were interpolated using restricted cubic spline technique and adopted logistic regression models with predetermined covariates. The adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular event by SBPmean in both stages were interpolated. RESULTS: The study enrolled 3723 subjects (mean age, 66.7 ± 13.2 years old and median baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, 3). SBPmean in both stages showed linear trends for risks of unfavorable outcome, while the increase of AOR was observed explicitly in acute stage rather than subacute stage, especially in higher values. In contrast, SBPmean demonstrated the U-shaped associations with cardiovascular event in subacute stage rather than acute stage. CONCLUSIONS: In ischemic stroke, association patterns of BP would be different depending on stroke outcomes. The risky interval of BP would be changed by the elapsed time after stroke onset.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Causas de Morte , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
In Vivo ; 33(4): 1175-1181, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rodents is an essential animal model for research focusing on ischemic stroke. To date, several kinds of surgical methods for MCAO have been developed and the craniotomy method has the advantage of direct visualization of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). MCAO at a more proximal site produces better surgical results, but it is a more invasive technique. The aim of this study was to evolve the surgical technique for simulating ischemic cerebral cortex injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To approach proximal MCA with a less invasive procedure, a modified surgical technique for MCAO in rats was developed. Besides, rats receiving the modified and conventional method were compared with regard to infarct volume and by behavioral tests. RESULTS: Following craniotomy, we proposed that the inferior edge of the craniotomy should be enlarged with fine forceps. This modified surgical method induces larger infarct volume, significant behavioral impairment and can induce ischemic stroke. Additionally, it does not significantly increase the operation time, and has produced no obvious complications. CONCLUSION: This modified surgical technique may serve as a practical method for performing MCAO.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Animais , Biópsia , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Mortalidade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Ratos
14.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 3652894, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191749

RESUMO

Background: Vitamin D (VD) deficiency is considered an independent risk factor for death due to cardiovascular events including ischemic stroke (IS). We assessed the hypothesis that decreased levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) are associated with increased risk of mortality in patients with IS. Methods: Serum 25-OH-D, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (iFGF23) levels were assessed in serum of 240 consecutive patients admitted within the 24 hours after the onset of IS. Mortality data was obtained from the local registry office. Results: Only three subjects (1.3%) had an optimal 25-OH-D level (30-80 ng/mL), 25 (10.4%) had a mildly reduced (insufficient) level, 61 (25.4%) had moderate deficiency, and 151 (62.9%) had a severe VD deficiency. 20% subjects had secondary hyperparathyroidism. The serum 25-OH-D level was significantly lower than that in 480 matched subjects (9.9 ± 7.1 vs. 21.0 ± 8.7 ng/mL). Of all the patients, 79 (32.9%) died during follow-up observation (44.9 months). The mortality rates (per year) were 4.81 and 1.89 in a group with and without severe VD deficiency, respectively (incidence rate ratio: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.44-4.68). There was no effect of secondary hyperparathyroidism and iFGF23 levels on mortality rates. Age, 25 - OH - D < 10 ng/mL, and functional status (modified Rankin scale) were significant factors increasing the risk of death in multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression test. Conclusions: Severe VD deficiency is an emerging, strong negative predictor for survival after IS, independent of age and functional status. VD supplementation in IS survivals may be considered due to high prevalence of its deficiency. However, it is uncertain whether it will improve their survival.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Calcifediol/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
15.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 55(2): 225-231, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201591

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the predictive capacity of the CHA2DS2-VASc and AHEAD scores in predicting acute coronary syndrome (ACS), ischemic stroke (IS), and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS: A total of 404,635 patients hospitalized for HF between 2000 and 2011 were recruited from a large national database in Taiwan. The predictive value of both scores was evaluated by analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), and the difference in their discriminative capacity was assessed using the DeLong test. RESULTS: The AUROC for the CHA2DS2-VASc score was significantly higher than that for the AHEAD score in predicting ACS and IS: 0.53 (95% CI = 0.53-0.54) versus 0.51 (95% CI = 0.51-0.52) for ACS, and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.56-0.57) versus 0.52 (95% CI = 0.51-0.52) for IS, respectively (all DeLong tests p < 0.001). By contrast, for mortality risk, the AUROC was significantly lower for the CHA2DS2-VASc score (0.56, 95% CI = 0.55-0.56) than the AHEAD score (0.60, 95% CI = 0.59-0.60; DeLong test p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The ability of the CHA2DS2-VASc score to predict macrovascular complications (ACS and IS) in HF patients was higher than that of AHEAD.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Taiwan/epidemiologia
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2287-2291, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epidemiological correlations between active malignancy (AM) and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are well-established. However, the effect of reperfusion strategies, particularly mechanical thrombectomy (MT), has been barely investigated in patients with AIS and AM. We aim to evaluate safety and efficacy of reperfusion strategies in such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a case-control analysis comparing patients with AM and AIS (AM group) to a group of cancer-free patients with AIS (control group). All enrolled patients underwent reperfusion therapies (i.e. intravenous thrombolysis, MT, intravenous thrombolysis plus MT). Main outcomes were 3-month functional independence, successful reperfusion, 3-month mortality, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. RESULTS: Total 24 patients with AM and AIS (mean age: 69 ± 10.1) were individually matched to 24 control patients (mean age: 70.7 ± 9.3). In both groups 50% were treated with MT, 46% with intravenous thrombolysis and 4% with intravenous thrombolysis plus MT. No difference were found in successful reperfusion, 3-month functional independence, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and mortality. However an overall mortality of 33% in the AM group was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Reperfusion strategies for AIS patients with AM seem to be safe and effective. However an individualized approach to understand cancer stage and life-expectation is warranted.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombectomia/mortalidade , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216404, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous ischemic stroke is a predictor of recurrent ischemic stroke after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Dual antiplatelet therapy, including a P2Y12-inhibitor, is important in secondary prevention after AMI. Ticagrelor, a P2Y12-inhibitor, is more potent than the commonly used clopidogrel. Here, we evaluated the impact of ticagrelor on the risk of ischemic stroke following AMI in patients with previous ischemic stroke. METHODS: Data for patients with AMI that had a previous ischemic stroke were obtained from the Swedish Registry of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions. Patients were assigned to early and late cohorts, each covering a two-year time period before and after, respectively, the introduction of ticagrelor prescriptions (20 Dec 2011). Patients in the early cohort (n = 1633) were treated with clopidogrel (100%); those in the late cohort (n = 1642) were treated with either clopidogrel (66.3%) or ticagrelor (33.7%). We assessed the risk of ischemic stroke and intracranial bleeding over time with Kaplan-Meier analyses. We identified predictors of ischemic stroke with multivariable Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Of 3275 patients, 311 experienced ischemic stroke after AMI. Cumulative Kaplan-Meier incidence estimates of ischemic stroke within one year after AMI were 12.1% versus 8.6% for the early and late cohorts, respectively (p<0.01). Intracranial bleeding incidences (1.2% versus 1.5%) were similar between the two cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Ticagrelor introduction was associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke, with no increase in intracranial bleeding, in an AMI population with a history of ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Infarto do Miocárdio , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Taxa de Sobrevida , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos
18.
Stroke ; 50(6): 1497-1503, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035901

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Acute ischemic stroke patients with history of prior ischemic stroke plus concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) were excluded from the ECASS III trial (European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study) because of safety concerns. However, there are few data on use of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage or outcomes in this population. Methods- Using data from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry between February 2009 and September 2017 (n=1619 hospitals), we examined characteristics and outcomes among patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with tissue-type plasminogen activator within the 3- to 4.5-hour window who had a history of stroke plus diabetes mellitus (HxS+DM) (n=2129) versus those without either history (n=16 690). Results- Compared with patients without either history, those with both prior stroke and DM treated with tissue-type plasminogen activator after an acute ischemic stroke had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in addition to history of stroke, DM, and more severe stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: median, 8 [interquartile range, 5-15] versus 7 [4-13]). The unadjusted rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and in-hospital mortality were 4.3% (HxS+DM) versus 3.8% (without either history; P=0.31) and 6.2% versus 5.5% ( P=0.20), respectively. These differences were not statistically significant after risk adjustment (symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage: adjusted odds ratio, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.51-1.21]; P=0.28; in-hospital mortality: odds ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.52-1.14]; P=0.19). Unadjusted rate of functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2) at discharge was lower in those with HxS+DM (30.9% HxS+DM versus 44.8% without either history; P≤0.0001), and this difference persisted after adjusting for baseline clinical factors (adjusted odds ratio, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.59-0.99]; P=0.04). Conclusions- Among patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator within the 3- to 4.5-hour window, HxS+DM was not associated with statistically significant increased symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage or mortality risk.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Complicações do Diabetes , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos
19.
Stroke ; 50(6): 1480-1489, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084339

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- In clinical trials, the reduced efficacy of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke prevention was reported for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation with a creatinine clearance (CrCl) >95 mL/min compared with that of warfarin. We examined the effectiveness, safety, and net clinical benefit of NOACs compared with warfarin in Asian patients with atrial fibrillation and supranormal renal function. Methods- Using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database from January 2014 to December 2016, we included patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation with CrCl >80 mL/min. Among these incident oral anticoagulant users with rivaroxaban (n=6297), dabigatran (n=4241), apixaban (n=3395), edoxaban (n=1187), and warfarin (n=9884) were analyzed. Propensity score weighting was used to balance covariates across study groups. Hazard ratios for ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, gastrointestinal bleeding, major bleeding, all-cause death, and the composite outcome defined as ischemic stroke+intracranial hemorrhage+gastrointestinal bleeding+all-cause death were analyzed using Cox regression analysis with warfarin as the reference. Results- Baseline characteristics were well balanced among all groups (mean age, 66±11 years; 63% were men; mean CHA2DS2-VASc score, 3.0±1.8). Forty-five percent of the patients had CrCl >95 mL/min. Pooled NOACs yielded lower risks of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.43-0.60) and the composite outcome (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58-0.70) than warfarin in patients with CrCl >80 mL/min. These benefits were consistent in those with CrCl >95 mL/min. All 4 NOACs reduced the risks of ischemic stroke and the composite outcome in both patients with CrCl >80 mL/min and >95 mL/min. Conclusions- The NOACs showed better effectiveness and safety than warfarin in the patients with atrial fibrillation and supranormal renal function; this was consistently observed for all 4 NOACs and in patients with CrCl >95 mL/min.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/induzido quimicamente , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(7): 1879-1885, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085131

RESUMO

GOAL: The association of combined galectin-3 and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with prognosis of acute ischemic stroke remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the coeffect of galectin-3 and HDL-C on death and vascular events within 1 year after ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on China Antihypertensive Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke, a prospective study was conducted among 2970 patients with acute ischemic stroke. The primary outcome was a combination of death and vascular events within 1 year after ischemic stroke. The secondary outcomes were separately those of recurrent stroke, vascular events, and death. FINDINGS: The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of primary outcome, recurrent stroke, and vascular events were 1.54 (1.07-2.20), 1.78 (1.08-2.95), and 1.92 (1.26-2.94), respectively, in patients with both high galectin-3 and low HDL-C compared to those with both low galectin-3 and high HDL-C. The addition of galectin-3 and HDL-C to conventional factors significantly improved predictive value. Net reclassification index was 15.7% for primary outcome, 18.3% for recurrent stroke, and 20.5% for vascular events. CONCLUSION: Combination of high galectin-3 and low HDL-C was associated with primary outcome, recurrent stroke, and vascular events within 1 year after ischemic stroke, suggesting that the combination of galectin-3 and HDL-C may be used to identify the individuals at risk of poor prognosis after ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Galectina 3/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Método Simples-Cego , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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