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1.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128134, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the spatial and temporal variation in the PM2.5 associated ischemic heart disease (IHD) burden on a global scale between 1990 and 2017. METHODS: We obtained data on IHD attributable to PM2.5 from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017. We used the numbers and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) rate (ASDR) of IHD attributable to PM2.5 by sex, socio-demographic index (SDI), and countries. We calculated the estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) to assess the trends of ASMR and ASDR between 1990 and 2017. We further calculated the contribution of population growth, population aging, and mortality or DALYs changes to the total IHD deaths and DALYs attributable to PM2.5 between 1990 and 2017. RESULTS: In 2017, IHD attributable to PM2.5 resulted in 977,140 (95% UI: 838,900-1123,240) deaths and 21.93 million (95% UI: 18.88-25.37) DALYs globally. There has been a significant change of attributable IHD burden, from being a common burden to one that mainly affects low and middle-SDI countries in Asia, Oceania and sub-Saharan Africa. This global change has occurred as a consequence of opposing trends in high-SDI countries and in Asia, Oceania and sub-Saharan Africa, which has led to some Asian countries having the highest IHD burden attributable to PM2.5 in 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Although the global age-standardized burden of IHD attributable to PM2.5 has decreased from 1990 to 2017, there has been an unpleasant increase in some low and middle-income countries, mainly in Asia, Oceania, and Africa.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Isquemia Miocárdica , África ao Sul do Saara , Ásia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
2.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338340

RESUMO

The article analyzes psychological state of the disabled due to ischemic heart disease. It is established that depressive mood prevailing among the disabled decreases their quality of life and impedes effective medical and social rehabilitation that requires implementation of measures restoring psychological status of the disabled through rehabilitation program.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Isquemia Miocárdica , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12500-12509, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since the emergence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the death toll has been increasing daily. Many risk factors are associated with a high mortality rate in COVID-19. Establishment of a common pathway among these risk factors could improve our understanding of COVID-19 severity and mortality. This review aims at establishing this common pathway and its possible effect on COVID-19 mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current review was executed in five consecutive stages starting from determining the risk factors of COVID-19 mortality and trying to find a common pathway among them depending on the available literature. This was followed by proposing a mechanism explaining how this common pathway could increase the mortality. Finally, its potential role in managing COVID-19 was proposed. RESULTS: This review identified this common pathway to be a low baseline of reduced glutathione (i.e., GSH) level. In particular, this review provided an in-depth discussion regarding the pathophysiology by which COVID-19 leads to GSH depletion, tissue damage, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In addition, the current review demonstrated how GSH depletion could result in failure of the immune system and rendering the end organs vulnerable to damage from the oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: This preclinical study shows that GSH depletion may have a central role in COVID-19 mortality and pathophysiology. Therefore, elevating the GSH level in tissues may decrease the severity and mortality rates of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose , /metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Glutationa/imunologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has rapidly infected millions of people worldwide. Recent studies suggest that racial minorities and patients with comorbidities are at higher risk of Covid-19. In this study, we analyzed the effects of clinical, regional, and genetic factors on Covid-19 positive status. METHODS: The UK Biobank is a longitudinal cohort study that recruited participants from 2006 to 2010 from throughout the United Kingdom. Covid-19 test results were provided to UK Biobank starting on March 16, 2020. The main outcome measure in this study was Covid-19 positive status, determined by the presence of any positive test for a single individual. Clinical risk factors were derived from UK Biobank at baseline, and regional risk factors were imputed using census features local to each participant's home zone. We used robust adjusted Poisson regression with clustering by testing laboratory to estimate relative risk. Blood types were derived using genetic variants rs8176719 and rs8176746, and genomewide tests of association were conducted using logistic-Firth hybrid regression. RESULTS: This prospective cohort study included 397,064 UK Biobank participants, of whom 968 tested positive for Covid-19. The unadjusted relative risk of Covid-19 for Black participants was 3.66 (95% CI 2.83-4.74), compared to White participants. Adjusting for Townsend deprivation index alone reduced the relative risk to 2.44 (95% CI 1.86-3.20). Comorbidities that significantly increased Covid-19 risk included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.18-2.27), ischemic heart disease (ARR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16-1.89), and depression (ARR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03-1.70). There was some evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ARR 1.48, 95% CI 1.13-1.93) were associated with increased risk of Covid-19. Each standard deviation increase in the number of total individuals living in a participant's locality was associated with increased risk of Covid-19 (ARR 1.14, 95% CI 1.08-1.20). Analyses of genetically inferred blood types confirmed that participants with type A blood had increased odds of Covid-19 compared to participants with type O blood (odds ratio [OR] 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). A meta-analysis of genomewide association studies across ancestry groups did not reveal any significant loci. Study limitations include confounding by indication, bias due to limited information on early Covid-19 test results, and inability to accurately gauge disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: When assessing the association of Black race with Covid-19, adjusting for deprivation reduced the relative risk of Covid-19 by 33%. In the context of sociological research, these findings suggest that discrimination in the labor market may play a role in the high relative risk of Covid-19 for Black individuals. In this study, we also confirmed the association of blood type A with Covid-19, among other clinical and regional factors.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Kardiologiia ; 60(8): 46-53, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155958

RESUMO

Aim      To develop a model for evaluating the risk of stroke in patients after exacerbation of ischemic heart disease who were admitted to the hospitals included into a vascular program.Materials and methods This study included 1803 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from four institutions of Moscow, Kazan, Astrakhan, and Krasnodar where the vascular program was established. Mean age of patients was 64.9±12.78 years, 62,1 % of them were men. The patients were followed up for one year after the discharge from the hospital. External validation of the developed prognostic model was performed on a cohort of patients with ACS included into the RECORD-3 study.Results During the follow-up period, 42 cases of ischemic stroke were observed. The risk of ischemic stroke was associated with the presence of atrial fibrillation (odd ratio (OR) 2.640; р=0.037), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.718; р=0.041), and chronic heart failure (OR 7.049; р=0.011). Protective factors were high-density lipoprotein cholesterol >1 mmol/l (OR 0.629; р=0.041), percutaneous coronary intervention during an index hospitalization (OR 0.412; р=0.042), anticoagulant treatment (OR 0.670; р=0.049), and achieving the blood pressure goal (OR 0.604; р=0.023). The prognostic model developed on the basis of regression analysis showed a good predictive value (area under the ROC curve, 0.780), sensitivity of 80 %, and specificity of 64.6 %. The diagnostic value of other scales for risk assessment was somewhat lower. The area under the ROC curve was 0.692±0.0245 for the GRACE scale and 0.708±0.0334 for CHA2DS2­VASc. In the external validation of the scale based on data of the RECORD-3 study, the diagnostic value was lower although satisfactory as well (area under the ROC curve, 0.651); sensitivity was 78.9 %, and specificity was 52.3 %.Conclusion      The study resulted in development of a simple clinical scale, which will probably allow identifying groups at risk of stroke more precisely than with standard scales.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Isquemia Miocárdica , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moscou , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
6.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(11): 910-918, nov. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192006

RESUMO

La pandemia producida por la infección por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) ha cambiado la forma de entender nuestras consultas. Para reducir el riesgo de contagio de los pacientes más vulnerables (aquellos con cardiopatías) y del personal sanitario, se han suspendido la mayoría de las consultas presenciales y se han puesto en marcha las consultas telemáticas. Este cambio se ha implementado en muy poco tiempo, pero parece que ha venido para quedarse. No obstante, hay grandes dudas sobre aspectos organizativos, legales, posibilidades de mejora, etc. En este documento de consenso de la Sociedad Española de Cardiología, tratamos de dar las claves para mejorar la calidad asistencial en nuestras nuevas consultas telemáticas, revisando las afecciones que el cardiólogo clínico atiende con más frecuencia en su consulta ambulatoria y proponiendo unos mínimos en ese proceso asistencial. Estas enfermedades son la cardiopatía isquémica, la insuficiencia cardiaca y las arritmias. En los 3 escenarios tratamos de clarificar los aspectos fundamentales que hay que revisar en la entrevista telefónica, a qué pacientes habrá que atender en una consulta presencial y cuáles serán los criterios para su seguimiento en atención primaria. El documento también recoge distintas mejoras que pueden introducirse en la consulta telemática para mejorar la asistencia de nuestros pacientes


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed how we view our consultations. To reduce the risk of spread in the most vulnerable patients (those with heart disease) and health personnel, most face-to-face consultations have been replaced by telemedicine consultations. Although this change has been rapidly introduced, it will most likely become a permanent feature of clinical practice. Nevertheless, there remain serious doubts about organizational and legal issues, as well as the possibilities for improvement etc. In this consensus document of the Spanish Society of Cardiology, we attempt to provide some keys to improve the quality of care in this new way of working, reviewing the most frequent heart diseases attended in the cardiology outpatient clinic and proposing some minimal conditions for this health care process. These heart diseases are ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and arrhythmias. In these 3 scenarios, we attempt to clarify the basic issues that must be checked during the telephone interview, describe the patients who should attend in person, and identify the criteria to refer patients for follow-up in primary care. This document also describes some improvements that can be introduced in telemedicine consultations to improve patient care


Assuntos
Humanos , Telecardiologia , Consulta Remota/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências
7.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 942-950, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) are the standard of care for primary prevention (PP) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). However, PP ICD implantation is underused in Asian countries. This study investigated ICD implantation rates and factors associated with appropriate PP ICD implants for ICM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective multicenter observational registry (ADVANCE-ICM registry), ICM patients who were eligible for PP ICD were screened and enrolled. Factors associated with appropriate ICD implantation, including hospital and clinical factors, were investigated. RESULTS: Of the 1453 ICM patients eligible for PP ICD [1111 male; median age, 71.0 (61.0-78.0) years], only 76 (5.2%) patients underwent ICD implantation. Among hospital factors, a non-monetary incentive for referral (72.4% vs. 52.9%, p=0.001) and total hospital system score (6.0 vs. 5.0, p=0.013) were higher in the ICD than in the no-ICD group. In multivariate analysis, total hospital system score [odds ratio (OR), 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.50] was an independent factor for predicting ICD implantation, along with clinical factors, including high New York Heart Association class (≥III: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 2.97-17.87) and younger age (<70 years: OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.30-3.53). CONCLUSION: PP ICD implantation for ICM patients is underused in Korea. Hospital factors were important for improving PP ICD implantation rate, suggesting that new screening and referral systems for ICM patients would improve the PP ICD implantation rate (Clinical trial registration No. NCT03590925).


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/prevenção & controle , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 11(4): 179-187, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Besides the traditional cardiovascular risk factor, some novel risk factors like occupation and career can play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVDs) incidence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between occupational categories and their positions with cardiovascular events (CVEs) in an Iranian male population. METHODS: We followed 2134 men aged 35-65 years for 14 years during the Isfahan Cohort Study (2001-2015) for CVEs including ischemic heart disease and stroke. Firstly, Occupations were classified into 10 categories of International Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO). Each category was then classified into one of the 4 pre-specified categories, namely high/low skilled white collars and high/low skilled blue collars. White-collar workers referred to managerial and professional workers in contrast with blue collar workers, whose job requires manual labor. RESULTS: The mean age of studied participants was 46.9 (SD 8.3) years. 286 CVE incidents were recorded; unstable angina had the highest rate (46%); fatal stroke, the lowest (3%). There were no significant difference was observed between white and blue collars in terms of CVE incidence, as well as their high and low skilled subgroups. Hazard ratio analysis indicated a significantly higher risk of CVEs only for low-skilled white-collar workers (crude HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.13); this was not significant after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSION: There is no association between occupational categories and incidence of cardiovascular events among Iranian male population.


Assuntos
Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Ocupações/classificação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22893, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120837

RESUMO

Radical cystectomy is considered the standard treatment for patients with muscle-invasive bladder tumors and has high postoperative complication rates among urological surgeries. High-risk patients, defined as those ≥45 years of age with history of coronary artery disease, stroke, or peripheral artery disease or those ≥65 years of age, can have a higher incidence of cardiac complications. Therefore, we evaluated the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) in high-risk patients who underwent radical cystectomy.This retrospective observational study analyzed 248 high-risk patients who underwent radical cystectomy. MINS was defined as serum troponin I concentration ≥0.04 mg/L within postoperative 3 days. The risk factors for MINS were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Postoperative outcomes were evaluated. The 1-year survival after radical cystectomy was also compared between patients who developed MINS (MINS group) and those who did not (non-MINS group) by Kaplan-Meier analysis.MINS occurred in 35 patients (14.1%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that early diastolic transmitral filling velocity (E)/early diastolic septal mitral annular velocity (E') ratio (odds ratio = 1.102, 95% confidence interval [1.009-1.203], P = .031) and large volume blood transfusion (odds ratio = 2.745, 95% confidence interval [1.131-6.664], P = .026) were significantly associated with MINS in high-risk patients who underwent radical cystectomy. Major adverse cardiac events and 1-year mortality were significantly higher in the MINS group than in the non-MINS group (17.1% vs 6.1%, P = .035; 28.6% vs 12.7%, P = .021, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly lower 1-year survival in the MINS group than in the non-MINS group (P = .010).MINS occurred in 14.1% of patients. High E/E' ratio and large volume blood transfusion were risk factors for MINS in high-risk patients who underwent radical cystectomy. Postoperative major adverse cardiac events and 1-year mortality were significantly higher in the MINS group than in the non-MINS group. Preoperative evaluation of risk factors for MINS may provide useful information to detect cardiovascular complications after radical cystectomy in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Troponina I/sangue , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cistectomia/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/complicações , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105173, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes and obesity are established risk factors for stroke. The current study aimed to assess risk factors of ischemic stroke recurrence in diabetic patients based on their body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A total of 4005 diabetic patients who had a history of ischemic stroke were identified in a retrospective cross-sectional dataset from the Malaysian National Neurology Registry. Patients were classified based on BMI, and multivariable regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between risk factors and recurrent ischemic stroke. RESULTS: Among obese patients, those with ischemic heart disease (aOR, 1.873; 95% CI, 1.131-3.103), received formal education (aOR, 2.236; 95% CI, 1.306-3.830), and received anti-diabetic medication (aOR, 1.788; 95% CI, 1.180-2.708) had a higher stroke recurrence risk, while receiving angiotensin receptors blockers (aOR, 0.261; 95% CI, 0.126-0.543) lowered the odds of recurrence. Overweight patients with hypertension (aOR, 1.011; 95% CI, 1.002-1.019) for over 10 years (aOR, 3.385; 95% CI, 1.088-10.532) and diabetes prior to the first stroke (aOR, 1.823; 95% CI, 1.020-3.259) as well as those received formal education (aOR, 2.403; 95% CI, 1.126-5.129) had higher odds of stroke recurrence, while receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (aOR, 0.244; 95% CI, 0.111-0.538) lowered the recurrence risk. Normal weight East Malaysians (aOR, 0.351; 95% CI, 0.164-0.750) receiving beta-blockers (aOR, 0.410; 95% CI, 0.174-0.966) had lower odds of stroke recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic heart disease, hypertension, receiving anti-hypertensive agents, and educational level were independent predictors of recurrent stroke in obese patients. Managing the modifiable risk factors can decrease the odds of stroke recurrence.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/enzimologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/mortalidade , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(35): 43743-43754, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737787

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution (AAP) has been widely associated with increased morbidity of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, no prior studies have investigated the effects of AAP exposure on the length of stay (LOS) due to IHD. Hospital data during 2015-2017 were obtained from hospital information system in five cities of Hubei province, China. We collected daily mean concentrations of air pollutants, including PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO, and meteorological data during the same time period. Poisson regression was applied to estimate the acute impacts of AAP on the LOS of IHD inpatients. A total of 42,114 inpatients with primary diagnosis of IHD were included, 50.63% of which were chronic IHD inpatients. Annual average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO were 61.93 µg/m3, 95.47 µg/m3, 18.59 µg/m3, 35.87 µg/m3, 100.30 µg/m3, and 1.117 mg/m3, respectively. After adjusting for temperature, relative humidity, gender, age group, payment method, number of hospital beds, location of hospital, and surgery or not, exposures to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, O3, and CO were associated with increased LOS for all IHD patients in both single- and multi-pollutant models, and stronger associations were observed among chronic IHD patients. In addition, subgroup analyses demonstrated that males and the group aged 65+ years were more vulnerable to air pollution, and the adverse effects were also promoted by low temperature in cold season. This study provides the first investigation of the adverse effects of AAP on the LOS for IHD patients. In order to shorten the LOS of IHD, measures should be taken to strengthen the AAP management and protect the high-risk population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Isquemia Miocárdica , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
13.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(4): 594-601, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Past studies have suggested a potential "J shaped" relationship between infrarenal aortic diameter and both cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence and all cause mortality. However, screening programmes have focused primarily on large (aneurysmal) aortas. In addition, aortic diameter is rarely adjusted for body size, which is particularly important for women. This study aimed to investigate specifically the relationship between body size adjusted infrarenal aortic diameter and baseline prevalence of CVD. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on a total of 4882 elderly (>50 years) participants (mean age 69.4 ± 8.9 years) for whom duplex ultrasound to assess infrarenal abdominal aortic diameters had been performed. History of CVDs, including ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and associated risk factors were collected at the time of assessment. A derivation cohort of 1668 participants was used to select cut offs at the lower and upper 12.5% tails of the aortic size distributions (aortic size index of <0.84 and >1.2, respectively), which was then tested in a separate cohort. RESULTS: A significantly elevated prevalence of CVD, and specifically IHD, was observed in participants with both small and large aortas. These associations remained significant following adjustment for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity (body mass index), and smoking. CONCLUSION: The largest and smallest infrarenal aortic sizes were both associated with prevalence of IHD. In addition to identifying those with aneurysmal disease, it is hypothesised that screening programmes examining infrarenal aortic size may also have the potential to improve global CVD risk prediction by identifying those with small aortas.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 103, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioural interventions may increase social inequalities in health. This study aimed to project the equity impact of physical activity interventions that have differential effectiveness across education groups on the long-term health inequalities by education and gender among older adults in Germany. METHODS: We created six intervention scenarios targeting the elderly population: Scenarios #1-#4 applied realistic intervention effects that varied by education (low, medium high). Under scenario #5, all older adults adapted the physical activity pattern of those with a high education. Under scenario #6, all increased their physical activity level to the recommended 300 min weekly. The number of incident ischemic heart disease, stroke and diabetes cases as well as deaths from all causes under each of these six intervention scenarios was simulated for males and females over a 10-year projection period using the DYNAMO-HIA tool. Results were compared against a reference-scenario with unchanged physical activity. RESULTS: Under scenarios #1-#4, approximately 3589-5829 incident disease cases and 6248-10,320 deaths could be avoided among males over a 10-year projection period, as well as 4381-7163 disease cases and 6914-12,605 deaths among females. The highest reduction for males would be achieved under scenario #4, under which the intervention is most effective for those with a high education level. Scenario #4 realizes 2.7 and 2.4% of the prevented disease cases and deaths observed under scenario #6, while increasing inequalities between education groups. In females, the highest reduction would be achieved under scenario #3, under which the intervention is most effective amongst those with low levels of education. This scenario realizes 2.7 and 2.9% of the prevented disease cases and deaths under scenario #6, while decreasing inequalities between education groups. Under scenario #5, approximately 31,687 incident disease cases and 59,068 deaths could be prevented among males over a 10-year projection period, as well as 59,173 incident disease cases and 121,689 deaths among females. This translates to 14.4 and 22.2% of the prevented diseases cases among males and females under scenario #6, and 13.7 and 27.7% of the prevented deaths under scenario #6. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows how the overall population health impact varies depending on how the intervention-induced physical activity change differs across education groups. For decision-makers, both the assessment of health impacts overall as well as within a population is relevant as interventions with the greatest population health gain might be accompanied by an unintended increase in health inequalities.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Equidade em Saúde , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
15.
Am J Med Sci ; 360(4): 372-377, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection is postulated as a possible risk factor for ischemic heart disease with a spiralling body of evidence. Hepatitis B is one of the most comprehensively investigated infection for its association with ischemic heart disease. This study aims at establishing an association between Hepatitis B core antibody status and ischemic heart disease using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. METHODS: NHANES data from 2007 to 2016 were used for the present analysis. To identify patients with self-reported coronary heart disease, angina/angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, we examined the answers to questions MCQ160c, MCQ160d, MCQ160e delineated in NHANES data. These questions as described in the NHANES dataset are as follows: MCQ160c-Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you that you had coronary heart disease?, MCQ160d-Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you that you had angina, also called angina pectoris?, MCQ160e- Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you that you had a heart attack also called myocardial infarction?. Next, to identify patients with positive Hepatitis B core antibody, we examined the variable LBXHBC of the NHANES dataset. Baseline characteristics, along with unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio using multivariable logistic regression analysis, of included patients were analyzed for Hepatitis B core antibody and its association with ischemic heart disease. RESULTS: A total of 3,248 individuals with ischemic heart disease and 42,345 individuals with no ischemic heart disease were included in the final analysis. Hepatitis B core antibody positive status was associated with lower incidence of ischemic heart disease, adjusted odds ratio of 0.61 (95% confidence interval: 0.41-0.92, P value < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the present analysis points toward a possible association between past Hepatitis B infection and ischemic heart disease. Hepatitis B infection was associated with a decreased incidence of ischemic heart disease. Further research with better design and possible molecular mechanism is warranted.


Assuntos
Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127697, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease, particularly ischemic heart disease (IHD), is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Bisphenol A (BPA) is considered an endocrine disruptor and obesogen, present in numerous products of daily use. The aim of this study was to assess the potential association of serum BPA concentrations and the risk of incident IHD in a sub-cohort of the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: We designed a case-cohort study within the EPIC-Spain cohort. The population consisted of 4636 participants from 4 EPIC-Spain centers (946 IHD cases and 3690 sub-cohort participants). BPA exposure was assessed by means of chemical analyses of serum samples collected at recruitment. Follow-up was performed by linking with national and regional databases and reviewing patients' clinical records. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used for the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 16 years and 70% of the participants showed detectable BPA values (>0.2 ng/ml). Geometric mean (GM) values of cases and sub-cohort were 1.22 ng/ml vs 1.19 ng/ml respectively (p = 0.90). Cox regression models showed no significant association of BPA serum levels and IHD, acute myocardial infarction or angina pectoris risk. CONCLUSIONS: We evidenced a similar percentage of detection of BPA among cases and sub-cohort participants from our population, and no clear association with IHD risk was observed. However, further investigation is needed to understand the influence of BPA on IHD risk.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fenóis/toxicidade , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Disruptores Endócrinos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
S Afr Med J ; 110(4): 320-326, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing arthroplasty may have comorbidities that put them at risk of myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS). MINS, a new clinical concept that has a different pathophysiology from conventional myocardial infarction, is related to a supply-demand mismatch ischaemia in the perioperative setting. MINS is often a silent event, and the diagnosis relies on cardiac biomarker testing such as troponin T. The incidence is estimated at 40%, with a fourfold increase in morbidity and mortality risk 1 year post surgery. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of postoperative troponin leak in a single-centre arthroplasty unit in patients with various cardiac risk factors undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty and investigate the differences in troponin T levels between comorbidities and different types of arthroplasty, i.e. total hip replacement (THR), total knee replacement (TKR) and neck of femur (NoF) fracture hip replacement. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional study of patients with one or more cardiac risk factors undergoing replacement surgery was conducted from October 2017 to April 2018. Troponin levels of all included patients were recorded on days 1 and 3 post surgery using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T assay (Roche hs-cTnT). A level of >15 ng/L is considered abnormal and termed a positive troponin leak, while >100 ng/L is considered suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). RESULTS: One hundred and sixty patients (n=66 THR, n=55 NoF hip replacement, n=39 TKR) were included. Sixty-eight patients (42%) had a positive troponin leak, and in 6 of these cases ACS was suspected. The highest prevalence of troponin leak was recorded in patients undergoing NoF hip replacement (62%), followed by TKR (46%) and then THR (24%). Sixty-two patients (38%) had positive troponin levels on day 1 and 53 patients (33%) had positive levels on day 3. Important patient cardiac risk factors were identified in the presence of a positive troponin leak, with ischaemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, renal disease, age >65 years and atrial fibrillation being statistically most likely. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative troponin surveillance is an inexpensive and reliable way to identify patients at risk of MINS and subsequently enhance early detection, medical optimisation and referral strategies. Simple interventions may improve outcomes and contribute to lower ACS rates and the timeous prevention of other complications. The prevalence of MINS in orthopaedic-specific patients in South Africa (SA) and other resource-constrained developing countries is unknown. Our finding of 42% positive troponin leaks raises awareness of this issue, and we recommend routine postoperative troponin surveillance for all arthroplasty units in SA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Troponina T/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Surg ; 80: 157-161, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: during the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of Acute Care Surgery procedures performed in Spanish hospitals decreased significantly. The aim of this study was to compare Acute Care Surgery activity during the COVID-19 pandemic and during a control period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed including patients who underwent Acute Care Surgery in three tertiary care hospitals in Spain during a control (11th March 2019 to 21st April 2019) and a pandemic (16th March 2020 to 26th April 2020) period. Type of surgical procedures, patients' features and postoperative complications were compared. RESULTS: two hundred and eighty-five and 117 patients were included in each group. Mean number of patients who underwent Acute Care Surgery during the control and pandemic periods was 2.3 and 0.9 patients per day and hospital (p < 0.001), representing a 58.9% decrease in Acute Care Surgery activity. Time from symptoms onset to patient arrival at the Emergency Department was longer during the pandemic (44.6 vs. 71.0 h, p < 0.001). Surgeries due to acute cholecystitis and complications from previous elective procedures decreased (26.7% vs. 9.4%) during the pandemic, while bowel obstructions and abdominal wall hernia surgeries increased (12.3% vs. 22.2%) (p = 0.001). Morbidity was higher during pandemic period (34.7% vs. 47.1%, p = 0.022), although this difference was not statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. Reoperation rate (17.9% vs. 12.8%, p = 0.212) and mortality (6.7% vs. 4.3%, p = 0.358) were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: during the COVID-19 pandemic, a significant reduction in the performance of Acute Care Surgery procedures was observed. Moreso, a longer time from symptoms onset to patient arrival at the Emergency Department was noted. Higher morbidity was observed in patients undergoing Acute Care Surgery during the pandemic period, although there was not any difference in mortality or reoperation rate.


Assuntos
Abscesso/cirurgia , Apendicite/cirurgia , Colecistite Aguda/cirurgia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Retais/cirurgia , Parede Abdominal , Abscesso/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Apendicectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Apendicite/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Colecistite Aguda/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Emergências , Feminino , Hérnia Abdominal/epidemiologia , Hérnia Abdominal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/epidemiologia , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Doenças Retais/epidemiologia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003206, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous clinical trials and institutional studies have demonstrated that surgery for the treatment of obesity (termed bariatric or metabolic surgery) reduces all-cause mortality and the development of obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. The current study analysed large-scale population studies to assess the association of bariatric surgery with long-term mortality and incidence of new-onset obesity-related disease at a national level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic literature search of Medline (via PubMed), Embase, and Web of Science was performed. Articles were included if they were national or regional administrative database cohort studies reporting comparative risk of long-term mortality or incident obesity-related diseases for patients who have undergone any form of bariatric surgery compared with an appropriate control group with a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. Meta-analysis of hazard ratios (HRs) was performed for mortality risk, and pooled odds ratios (PORs) were calculated for discrete variables relating to incident disease. Eighteen studies were identified as suitable for inclusion. There were 1,539,904 patients included in the analysis, with 269,818 receiving bariatric surgery and 1,270,086 control patients. Bariatric surgery was associated with a reduced rate of all-cause mortality (POR 0.62, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.69, p < 0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (POR 0.50, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.71, p < 0.001). Bariatric surgery was strongly associated with reduced incidence of T2DM (POR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.83, p = 0.010), hypertension (POR 0.36, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.40, p < 0.001), dyslipidaemia (POR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.80, p = 0.010), and ischemic heart disease (POR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.73, p = 0.001). Limitations of the study include that it was not possible to account for unmeasured variables, which may not have been equally distributed between patient groups given the non-randomised design of the studies included. There was also heterogeneity between studies in the nature of the control group utilised, and potential adverse outcomes related to bariatric surgery were not specifically examined due to a lack of available data. CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis suggests that bariatric surgery is associated with reduced long-term all-cause mortality and incidence of obesity-related disease in patients with obesity for the whole operated population. The results suggest that broader access to bariatric surgery for people with obesity may reduce the long-term sequelae of this disease and provide population-level benefits.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/mortalidade , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21016, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629722

RESUMO

We evaluated the statewide burden of obesity and its complications among government and state funded programs (Medicare and Medicaid) and commercial insurance.We calculated the prevalence of obesity and the prevalence of relevant comorbidities among different demographic groups and based on health insurance, among adults (18-65 years old) who visited a statewide health network in the state of Rhode Island, in 2017.The overall prevalence of obesity among 74,089 individuals was 38.88% [Asians 16.77%, Whites 37.49%, Hispanics 44.23%, and Blacks 48.44%]. Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries were 26% and 27%, respectively, more likely to have obesity than those who had commercial insurance (Odds Ratio:1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.20-1.32; Odds Ratio:1.27, 95%CI:1.22-1.32). Moreover, Medicaid and Medicare beneficiaries with obesity had a higher prevalence of diabetes compared with privately insured with obesity (10.58% and 10.44% vs 4.45%). Medicare beneficiaries with obesity had a statistically higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease (4.34%, 95%CI: 3.77-4.91) than privately insured (3.21%, 95%CI: 2.94-3.47).Based on statewide data among 18 to 65 years old adults, Medicare and Medicaid provide health coverage to 40% of individuals with obesity and 46% of those with the obesity-related comorbidities and complications. State and federal health care programs need to support and expand obesity-related services and coverage.


Assuntos
Demografia/tendências , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Obesidade/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/economia , Medicare/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Prevalência , Rhode Island/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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