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2.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 539-550, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827327

RESUMO

Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), as assessed by measurement of left ventricular mass (LVM), is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. It is commonly present in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), irrespective of the level of blood pressure; recently, oxidative stress has been shown to be an important factor in its development. The question then arises: can this risk factor be modified by antioxidant treatment (e.g., with allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor)? Methods: This is an observational study with a cross-sectional design which explored the association between long-term (>12 months) allopurinol therapy and LV mass index (LVMI) as well as geometry in patients generally receiving standard treatments for IHD. The primary endpoint was LVMI measurement (by 2D-echocardiography) and secondary endpoints included the association of allopurinol use with LV function (ejection fraction), blood pressure, glycemic control, and lipid profile. Results: Ninety-six patients on standard anti-ischemic drug treatment (control group) and 96 patients who were additionally taking allopurinol (minimum dose 100 mg/day) were enrolled. Both groups were matched for age, sex, height, and co-morbidities, but poorer kidney function in the allopurinol group required further sub-group analysis based on renal function. Allopurinol treatment was associated with the lowest LVMI in the patients with normal serum creatinine (median LVMI; 70.5 g/m2): corresponding values were 76.0 and 87.0 in the control group with, respectively, normal and elevated serum creatinine, and 89.5 in the allopurinol group with elevated serum creatinine (P=0.027). In addition, allopurinol was associated with better glycemic control (HbA1c) with a difference of 0.8% (95% CI; 1.3, 0.2) (P=0.004) as compared with control patients. Conclusion: In our population, treatment with allopurinol (presumably because of its anti-oxidant properties) has shown a tendency to be associated with smaller LVM in IHD patients with normal serum creatinine, along with better glycemic control.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alopurinol/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Angiol Sosud Khir ; 25(4): 159-165, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855213

RESUMO

Despite the present-day level of the development of cardiac surgery, a low left ventricular ejection fraction (LLVEF) is an important independent predictor of high complication rates and increased in-hospital mortality related to open surgical interventions. The method of myocardial endovascular revascularization is associated with the lowest rates of both intraoperative and early postoperative complications. However, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) does not always make it possible to perform anatomically complete myocardial revascularization. Comparisons of the remote results of anatomically complete and incomplete revascularization of the myocardium in the world literature seem to be extremely scarce and ambiguous, with a low ejection fraction in the majority of cases being an exclusion criterion. In order to elucidate these problems we carried out a prospective, single-centre study, including a total of 151 patients suffering from ischaemic heart disease with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 35%, who were subjected to myocardial endovascular revascularization. The patients were divided into 2 groups: those with complete (n=87) and incomplete (n=64) revascularization, followed by comparing the alterations in the echocardiographic parameters, assessing the incidence of repeat myocardial revascularization due to a relapse of the clinical course of angina pectoris, and the survival rate in the remote period. The obtained findings were suggestive of efficacy of both complete and incomplete endovascular revascularization of the myocardium in patients with a low left ventricular ejection fraction (LLVEF), with no statistically significant differences between the patients of both groups in the examined parameters revealed.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
4.
Int Heart J ; 60(6): 1238-1244, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735779

RESUMO

Recent clinical studies revealed that anatomical information assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) may be used effectively to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD). However, a physiological assessment, demonstrating myocardial ischemia, is required to justify a therapeutic strategy for CAD. This study aimed to investigate whether using CTA to assess myocardial supply area can improve the prediction of myocardial ischemia.We analyzed 201 vessels with moderate (luminal narrowing ≥ 50%, < 70%) and severe (luminal narrowing ≥ 70%, < 99%) stenosis on CTA from 174 patients, who were suspected of having stable angina and underwent measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR). The myocardial area supplied by the coronary artery, distal to the stenosis, was evaluated with CTA, as reported previously (modified Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart score) and was classified into 3 groups (large, medium, and small).Both percentage area stenosis and myocardial supply area were significantly correlated with FFR (r = -0.46, P < 0.01, and r = -0.45, P < 0.01). Among patients who had coronary plaques, with moderate stenosis and a small myocardial supply area, only 3 of 42 lesions (7%) were identified as ischemic; deviation from the ischemic threshold (FFR = 0.80) was P < 0.01. The combined assessment of lesion stenosis and myocardial supply area, using CTA, improved the prediction of myocardial ischemia significantly compared to lesion stenosis alone (77% versus 59%, P < 0.01).Adding the assessment of myocardial supply area to standard CTA might help predict myocardial ischemia in patients with stable angina pectoris.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Feminino , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2019: 7169275, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772544

RESUMO

Objective: In a separate, contemporary cohort, we sought to confirm findings of the original Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE). Background: The original WISE observed a high prevalence of both invasively determined coronary endothelial and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) that predicted adverse events in follow-up. Methods: We comparatively studied the WISE-Coronary Vascular Dysfunction (CVD) cohort (2009-2011), with signs and symptoms of ischemia but without significant CAD, to the original WISE (1997-2001) cohort. CMD was defined as coronary flow reserve (CFR) ≤2.5, or endothelial dysfunction as epicardial coronary artery constriction to acetylcholine (ACH), or <20% epicardial coronary dilation to nitroglycerin (NTG). Results: In WISE (n=181) and WISE-CVD (n=235) women, mean age in both was 54 years, and 83% were white (WISE) vs 74% (WISE-CVD, p=0.04). Use of hormone replacement therapy was less frequent in WISE-CVD vs WISE (46% vs 57%, p=0.026) as was presence of hypertension (40% vs 52%, p=0.013), hyperlipidemia (20% vs 46%, p<0.0001), and smoking (46% vs 56%, p=0.036). Similar rates were observed in WISE-CVD and WISE cohorts for CMD (mean CFR 2.7±0.6 vs 2.6±0.8, p=0.35), mean change in diameter with intracoronary ACH (0.2±10.0 vs 1.6±12.8 mm, p=0.34), and mean change in diameter with intracoronary NTG (9.7±13.0 vs 9.8±13.5 mm, p=0.94), respectively. Conclusions: This study confirms prevalence of CMD in the contemporary WISE-CVD cohort similar to that of the original WISE cohort, despite a lower risk factor burden in WISE-CVD. Because these coronary functional abnormalities predict major adverse cardiac events, clinical trials of therapies targeting these abnormalities are indicated.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Eur J Med Chem ; 183: 111658, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514063

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disorders are known as one of the main health problems which are associated with mortality worldwide. Myocardial ischemia (MI) is improper blood supply to myocardium which leads from serious complications to life-threatening problems like AMI, atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac-hypertrophy as well as diabetic associated complications as diabetic atherosclerosis/cardiomyopathy/hypertension. Despite several efforts, the current therapeutic platforms are not related with significant results. Hence, it seems, developing novel therapies are required. In this regard, increasing evidences indicated, curcumin (CRC) acts as cardioprotective agent. Given that CRC and its analogs exert their cardioprotective effects via affecting on a variety of cardiovascular diseases-related mechanisms (i.e., Inflammation, and oxidative stress). Herein, for first time, we have highlighted the protective impacts of CRC against MI. This review might be a steppingstone for further investigation into the clinical implications of the CRC against MI. Furthermore, it pulls in light of a legitimate concern for scientific community, seeking novel techniques and characteristic dynamic biopharmaceuticals for use against myocardial ischemia.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Eur J Radiol ; 119: 108657, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the impact of gender differences on the diagnostic performance of machine-learning based coronary CT angiography (cCTA)-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFRML) for the detection of lesion-specific ischemia. METHOD: Five centers enrolled 351 patients (73.5% male) with 525 vessels in the MACHINE (Machine leArning Based CT angiograpHy derIved FFR: a Multi-ceNtEr) registry. CT-FFRML and invasive FFR ≤ 0.80 were considered hemodynamically significant, whereas cCTA luminal stenosis ≥50% was considered obstructive. The diagnostic performance to assess lesion-specific ischemia in both men and women was assessed on a per-vessel basis. RESULTS: In total, 398 vessels in men and 127 vessels in women were included. Compared to invasive FFR, CT-FFRML reached a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 78% (95%CI 72-84), 79% (95%CI 73-84), 75% (95%CI 69-79), and 82% (95%CI: 76-86) in men vs. 75% (95%CI 58-88), 81 (95%CI 72-89), 61% (95%CI 50-72) and 89% (95%CI 82-94) in women, respectively. CT-FFRML showed no statistically significant difference in the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) in men vs. women (AUC: 0.83 [95%CI 0.79-0.87] vs. 0.83 [95%CI 0.75-0.89], p = 0.89). CT-FFRML was not superior to cCTA alone [AUC: 0.83 (95%CI: 0.75-0.89) vs. 0.74 (95%CI: 0.65-0.81), p = 0.12] in women, but showed a statistically significant improvement in men [0.83 (95%CI: 0.79-0.87) vs. 0.76 (95%CI: 0.71-0.80), p = 0.007]. CONCLUSIONS: Machine-learning based CT-FFR performs equally in men and women with superior diagnostic performance over cCTA alone for the detection of lesion-specific ischemia.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/normas , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral/normas
9.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(6): 758-767, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury is more frequent after noncardiac surgery in patients with preoperative cardiac vagal dysfunction, as quantified by delayed heart rate (HR) recovery after cessation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. We hypothesised that serial and dynamic measures of cardiac vagal activity are also associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: Serial autonomic measurements were made before and after surgery in patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery. Cardiac vagal activity was quantified by HR variability and HR recovery after orthostatic challenge (supine to sitting). Revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) was calculated for each patient. The primary outcome was myocardial injury (high-sensitivity troponin ≥15 ng L-1) within 48 h of surgery, masked to investigators. The exposure of interest was cardiac vagal activity (high-frequency power spectral analysis [HFLn]) and HR recovery 90 s from peak HR after the orthostatic challenge. RESULTS: Myocardial injury occurred in 48/189 (25%) patients, in whom 41/48 (85%) RCRI was <2. In patients with myocardial injury, vagal activity (HFLn) declined from 5.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.58-5.72) before surgery to 4.33 (95% CI: 3.76-4.90; P<0.001) 24 h after surgery. In patients who remained free of myocardial injury, HFLn did not change (4.95 [95% CI: 4.64-5.26] before surgery vs 4.76 [95% CI: 4.44-5.08] after surgery). Before and after surgery, the orthostatic HR recovery was slower in patients with myocardial injury (5 beats min-1 [95% CI: 3-7]), compared with HR recovery in patients who remained free of myocardial injury (10 beats min-1 [95% CI: 7-12]; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Serial HR measures indicating loss of cardiac vagal activity are associated with perioperative myocardial injury in lower-risk patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(9): 683-697, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483166

RESUMO

Introduction: A critical mechanism of how hypoxia/ischemia causes irreversible myocardial injury is through the exhaustion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Cyclocreatine (CCr) and its water-soluble salt Cyclocreatine-Phosphate (CCrP) are potent bioenergetic agents that preserve high levels of ATP during ischemia. Areas covered: CCr and CCrP treatment prior to the onset of ischemia, preserved high levels of ATP in ischemic myocardium, reduced myocardial cell injury, exerted anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities, and restored contractile function during reperfusion in animal models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), global cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary bypass, and heart transplantation. Medline and Embase (1970 - Feb 2019), the WIPO databank (up to Feb 2019); no language restriction. Expert opinion: This review provides the basis for a number of clinical applications of CCrP and CCr to minimize ischemic injury and necrosis. One strategy is to administer CCrP to AMI patients in the pre-hospital phase, as well as during, or after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) procedure to potentially achieve protection of the myocardium, reduce infarcted-size, and, thus, limit the progression to heart failure. Another clinical applications are in predictable myocardial ischemia where pretreatment with CCrP would likely improve outcome and quality of life of patients who will undergo cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary revascularization and end-stage heart failure patients scheduled for heart transplantation.


Assuntos
Creatinina/análogos & derivados , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Creatinina/metabolismo , Coração/fisiopatologia , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Qualidade de Vida
11.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 739-748, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of assessment of myocardial viability in identifying patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy who might benefit from surgical revascularization remains controversial. Furthermore, although improvement in left ventricular function is one of the goals of revascularization, its relationship to subsequent outcomes is unclear. METHODS: Among 601 patients who had coronary artery disease that was amenable to coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) and who had a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or lower, we prospectively assessed myocardial viability using single-photon-emission computed tomography, dobutamine echocardiography, or both. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo CABG and receive medical therapy or to receive medical therapy alone. Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured at baseline and after 4 months of follow-up in 318 patients. The primary end point was death from any cause. The median duration of follow-up was 10.4 years. RESULTS: CABG plus medical therapy was associated with a lower incidence of death from any cause than medical therapy alone (182 deaths among 298 patients in the CABG group vs. 209 deaths among 303 patients in the medical-therapy group; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.90). However, no significant interaction was observed between the presence or absence of myocardial viability and the beneficial effect of CABG plus medical therapy over medical therapy alone (P = 0.34 for interaction). An increase in left ventricular ejection fraction was observed only among patients with myocardial viability, irrespective of treatment assignment. There was no association between changes in left ventricular ejection fraction and subsequent death. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study do not support the concept that myocardial viability is associated with a long-term benefit of CABG in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The presence of viable myocardium was associated with improvement in left ventricular systolic function, irrespective of treatment, but such improvement was not related to long-term survival. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; STICH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.).


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Coração/fisiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Volume Sistólico , Idoso , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Feminino , Seguimentos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
12.
Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am ; 27(3): 491-505, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279452

RESUMO

Ischemic heart disease remains the foremost determinant of death and disability across the world. Quantification of the ischemia burden is currently the preferred approach to predict event risk and to trigger adequate treatment. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can be a prime protagonist in this scenario due to its synergistic features. It allows assessment of wall motility, myocardial perfusion, and tissue scar by means of late gadolinium enhancement imaging. We discuss the clinical and preclinical aspects of gadolinium-based, perfusion CMR imaging, including the relevance of high spatial resolution and 3-dimensional whole-heart coverage, among important features of this auspicious method.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia
13.
Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am ; 27(3): 507-520, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279453

RESUMO

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion imaging is a robust noninvasive technique to evaluate ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Although qualitative and semiquantitative methods have shown that CMR has high accuracy in diagnosing flow-obstructing lesions in CAD, quantitative ischemic burden is an important variable used in clinical practice for treatment decisions. Quantitative CMR perfusion techniques have evolved significantly, with accuracy comparable with both PET and microsphere evaluation. Routine clinical use of these quantitative techniques has been facilitated by the introduction of automated methods that accelerate the work flow and rapidly generate pixel-based myocardial blood flow maps.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia
14.
J Med Eng Technol ; 43(4): 207-216, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353984

RESUMO

One of the most common causes of heart failure is ischaemia. In this disease, the heart muscles die due to the lack or insufficiency of the blood in the cardiac veins. As a result of such a phenomenon, the action potential in that part of the heart would fade. In this article, using the electric model of the cardiac cell and the mechanism of producing an ECG signal in the heart, the process of producing cardiac electrical potential has been modelled. In this regard, the basic constituent signals of the ECG are generated. Afterward, by accumulating these signals, the final ECG is reproduced. In addition, by variation of the presented model parameters, the cardiac ischaemic signal is simulated in a way that the influence of ventricle ischaemia on the ventricular tissues is considered. The results of such a simulation demonstrate a sufficient match between the model output and the reported changes of the cardiac arrhythmia including ischaemic failures. Here, we report the 91% match between the simulated signal and the considered clinical data.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Coração/fisiologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Potenciais de Ação , Células Musculares , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3276, 2019 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332177

RESUMO

The survival of ischaemic cardiomyocytes after myocardial infarction (MI) depends on the formation of new blood vessels. However, endogenous neovascularization is inefficient and the regulatory pathways directing coronary vessel growth are not well understood. Here we describe three independent regulatory pathways active in coronary vessels during development through analysis of the expression patterns of differentially regulated endothelial enhancers in the heart. The angiogenic VEGFA-MEF2 regulatory pathway is predominantly active in endocardial-derived vessels, whilst SOXF/RBPJ and BMP-SMAD pathways are seen in sinus venosus-derived arterial and venous coronaries, respectively. Although all developmental pathways contribute to post-MI vessel growth in the neonate, none are active during neovascularization after MI in adult hearts. This was particularly notable for the angiogenic VEGFA-MEF2 pathway, otherwise active in adult hearts and during neoangiogenesis in other adult settings. Our results therefore demonstrate a fundamental divergence between the regulation of coronary vessel growth in healthy and ischemic adult hearts.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Coração/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
16.
Biol Sex Differ ; 10(1): 35, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress is an important contributor to myocardial ischemia and the progression of coronary artery disease (CAD), and women are more susceptible than men to these effects. Little is known, however, about the neural basis of these sex differences. METHODS: We investigated sex differences in neural correlates of mental stress in a sample of 53 female and 112 male participants (N = 165) with CAD, with and without mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSI), during exposure to mental arithmetic tasks and public speaking stress tasks using high-resolution positron emission tomography (HR-PET) and radiolabeled water imaging of the brain. RESULTS: Women compared to men had significantly greater activation with stress in the right frontal (BA 9, 44), right parietal lobe (Area 3, 6, 40), right posterior cingulate gyrus (BA 31), bilateral cerebellum, and left temporal/fusiform gyrus (BA 37) and greater deactivation in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32), bilateral medial frontal gyrus (BA 6, 8, 9, 10), right parahippocampal gyrus, and right middle temporal gyrus (BA 21). Women with MSI (but not those without MSI) showed significantly greater activation than men in the right posterior cingulate gyrus (BA 31) and greater deactivation in several frontal and temporal lobe areas. CONCLUSION: Men and women with CAD show differences in responses to stress in brain limbic areas that regulate emotion, and these functional responses differ by MSI status. Our results suggest that the cingulate gyrus may be involved in sex differences in MSI.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 47(5): 350-356, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The SYNTAX score (SS) is not just a measure of the severity of coronary artery disease, but also complexity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the SS and myocardial viability/non-viability assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (IC). METHODS: A total of 107 IC patients who had undergone PET were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of viable myocardium. SS was analyzed from recorded conventional coronary angiographies. RESULTS: Patients with a non-viable myocardium (n=21; 19.6%) had a significantly higher SS compared to those with a viable myocardium (17.6±3.7 vs. 14.1±5.2, respectively; p=0.004). Point-biserial correlation coefficient analysis indicated that the presence of myocardial non-viability was mildly correlated with a higher SS (rpb=-0.28, p=0.004). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the SS was identified as the sole independent predictor of myocardial non-viability (odds ratio [OR]: 1.164, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.044-1.297; p =0.006]. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed a cutoff point of 16 for predicting a non-viable myocardium (area under curve: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61-0.82) with a sensitivity of 76.2% and a specificity of 61.6%. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicates that a high SS is associated with the presence of a non-viable myocardium in IC patients.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Isquemia Miocárdica , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
J Card Surg ; 34(8): 663-669, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis (HD patients), myocardial ischemia after coronary artery disease is a major cause of mortality. Coronary pathophysiology, namely myocardial microvascular dysfunction, appears to differ from patients not requiring HD (non-HD patients). OBJECTIVES: We compared functional improvement of myocardial ischemia after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) between HD and non-HD patients by transthoracic coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed isolated CABG patients from between 2008 and 2017. Finally, 161 patients were enrolled; each underwent pre- and postoperative CFVR assessment, and left anterior descending (LAD) artery revascularization with "in-situ" internal mammary artery (IMA). Graft patency was confirmed, and after successful CABG, postoperative CFVR improvement between the two groups was compared. RESULTS: Preoperative CFVR value in group H was 1.81 ± 0.52, group N was 1.93 ± 0.66. There was no significant difference between the groups. IMA to LAD grafts were patent in postoperative evaluation in all patients. Postoperative CFVR in group H was 2.48 ± 0.72 and group N was 2.83 ± 0.73 (P = .042). Significant difference was observed. CONCLUSION: In both groups, CFVR values improved after successful CABG, but postoperative CFVR values were significant different. In younger populations CFVR values are generally higher. Our HD group was significantly younger than the non-HD group, but CFVR values were postoperatively significantly lower. CFVR values are reportedly affected by both epicardial and microcoronary circulation. In this study population, as all grafts to the LAD were patent, the lower CFVR value in the HD group was considered to have resulted in microvascular disorders.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Circulação Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 33, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenosine is used in stress perfusion cardiac imaging to reveal myocardial ischemia by its vasodilator effects. Caffeine is a competitive antagonist of adenosine. However, previous studies reported inconsistent results about the influence of caffeine on adenosine's vasodilator effect. This study assessed the impact of caffeine on the myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) using adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Moreover, we sought to evaluate if the splenic switch-off sign might be indicative of prior caffeine consumption. METHODS: Semiquantitative perfusion analysis was performed in 25 patients who underwent: 1) caffeine-naïve adenosine stress CMR demonstrating myocardial ischemia and, 2) repeat adenosine stress CMR after intake of caffeine. MPRI (global; remote and ischemic segments), and splenic perfusion ratio (SPR) were assessed and compared between both exams. RESULTS: Global MPRI after caffeine was lower vs. caffeine-naïve conditions (1.09 ± 0.19 vs. 1.24 ± 0.19; p <  0.01). MPRI in remote myocardium decreased by caffeine (1.24 ± 0.19 vs. 1.49 ± 0.19; p <  0.001) whereas MPRI in ischemic segments (0.89 ± 0.18 vs. 0.95 ± 0.23; p = 0.23) was similar, resulting in a lower MPRI ratio (=remote/ischemic segments) after caffeine consumption vs. caffeine-naïve conditions (1.41 ± 0.19 vs. 1.64 ± 0.35, p = 0.01). The SPR was unaffected by caffeine (SPR 0.38 ± 0.19 vs. 0.38 ± 0.18; p = 0.92). CONCLUSION: Caffeine consumption prior to adenosine stress CMR results in a lower global MPRI, which is driven by the decreased MPRI in remote myocardium and underlines the need of abstinence from caffeine. The splenic switch-off sign is not affected by prior caffeine intake.


Assuntos
Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Circulação Coronária/efeitos dos fármacos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Antagonistas de Receptores Purinérgicos P1/administração & dosagem , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperemia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Antagonistas de Receptores Purinérgicos P1/efeitos adversos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
PLoS Biol ; 17(6): e3000335, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246945

RESUMO

The assessment of the regenerative capacity of the heart has been compromised by the lack of surface signatures to characterize cardiomyocytes (CMs). Here, combined multiparametric surface marker analysis with single-cell transcriptional profiling and in vivo transplantation identify the main mouse fetal cardiac populations and their progenitors (PRGs). We found that CMs at different stages of differentiation coexist during development. We identified a population of immature heat stable antigen (HSA)/ cluster of differentiation 24 (CD24)+ CMs that persists throughout life and that, unlike other CM subsets, actively proliferates up to 1 week of age and engrafts cardiac tissue upon transplantation. In the adult heart, a discrete population of HSA/CD24+ CMs appears as mononucleated cells that increase in frequency after infarction. Our work identified cell surface signatures that allow the prospective isolation of CMs at all developmental stages and the detection of a subset of immature CMs throughout life that, although at reduced frequencies, are poised for activation in response to ischemic stimuli. This work opens new perspectives in the understanding and treatment of heart pathologies.


Assuntos
Antígeno CD24/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Antígeno CD24/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coração/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única
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