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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141686, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861075

RESUMO

The prediction of the occurrence of infectious diseases is of crucial importance for public health, as clearly seen in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we analyze the relationship between the occurrence of a winter low-pressure weather regime - Cyprus Lows - and the seasonal Influenza in the Eastern Mediterranean. We find that the weekly occurrence of Cyprus Lows is significantly correlated with clinical seasonal Influenza in Israel in recent years (R = 0.91; p < .05). This result remains robust when considering a complementary analysis based on Google Trends data for Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan. The weekly occurrence of Cyprus Lows precedes the onset and maximum of Influenza occurrence by about one to two weeks (R = 0.88; p < .05 for the maximum occurrence), and closely follows their timing in eight out of ten years (2008-2017). Since weather regimes such as Cyprus Lows are more robustly predicted in weather and climate models than individual climate variables, we conclude that the weather regime approach can be used to develop tools for estimating the compatibility of the transmission environment for Influenza occurrence in a warming world. Furthermore, this approach may be applied to other regions and climate sensitive diseases. This study is a new cross-border inter-disciplinary regional collaboration for appropriate adaptation to climate change in the Eastern Mediterranean.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Influenza Humana , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Chipre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Jordânia , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
2.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 9(1): 61, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Israel hosts nearly 70,000 migrant careworkers. Migrant careworkers work and live with populations extremely vulnerable to the novel Coronavirus, including the elderly and people with pre-existing physical conditions. This rapid assessment aimed to explore psychosocial status and mental wellbeing of migrant careworkers in Israel during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and determine risk and protective factors associated with mental distress, anxiety, and depression. METHODS: This quantitative study was conducted via an online survey. The online survey collected social and demographic data, including country of origin, residence, age, sex, and time in Israel. In addition, questions were asked about knowledge of COVID-19 guidelines, access to supplies, and COVID-related racism. Respondents also completed a psychosocial screening tools, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 (HSCL-10), which was used to screen for depression and anxiety. RESULTS: As of May 3rd, 2020, 307 careworkers responded to the online survey, of whom 120 (39.1%) were found symptomatic using the HSCL-10. Separating the HSCL-10 into subscales, 28.0% were symptomatically anxious, and 38.1% were symptomatic for depression. In multivariate regression, emotional distress was associated with household food insecurity (OR: 5.85; p < 0.001), lack of confidence to care for oneself and employer during the pandemic (OR: 3.85; p < 0.001), poorer general health (OR: 2.98; p < 0.003), non-Philippine country of origin (OR: 2.83; p < 0.01), female sex (OR: 2.34; p < 0.04),, and inversely associated with age (p < 0.03). While 87.6% of careworkers reported having access to hand sanitization materials regularly, only 58.0% had regular access to a medical grade mask, and 21.5% reported household food insecurity. Moreover, 40.0% of careworkers claimed to lack confidence to care for themselves and their employer during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Migrant careworkers exhibited high levels of mental distress during the COVID-19 lockdown, associated with lack of confidence or resources to properly care for themselves and their employer. Guidelines and support programs specific to the carework sector, that respect their rights and guard their health, must be developed as part of a coordinated COVID-19 response.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Angústia Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Harefuah ; 159(11): 793-796, 2020 11.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210848

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Center for Victims of Sexual Assault at Wolfson's Medical Center is the first of its kind in Israel. It was launched in 2000 by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and has since served over 4000 victims. The center provides care by a multidisciplinary team of gynecologists, social workers, forensic physicians, and police investigators, in a single place and with a supporting atmosphere. AIMS: To review the characteristics of female victims who were treated in the Center for Victims of Sexual Assault at Wolfson's Medical Center between 2000 and 2017. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study. The data of all female victims who were treated in our center were retrieved from the medical files. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. RESULTS: During the study period, 3598 (90.5%) women and 376 (9.5%) men were treated in our center. The mean age of the female victims was 23.0 years, of whom 27.1% were minors. Most victims (69.8%) arrived at the center within 24 hours from the assault. The victim knew the perpetrator before the assault in half of the cases. About half of the assaults occurred on weekends. The victims reported a high rate of alcohol and drug use before the assault (36.2% and 8.1%, respectively), and this rate has increased over the years. Most victims (70.4%) filed a police report, though this rate has decreased over the years. DISCUSSION: The Center for Victims of Sexual Assault at Wolfson's Medical Center treats many victims each year. The challenges that we will face in the future are education against irresponsible use of alcohol and drugs, and efforts to increase the proportion of victims willing to report to the police.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Open Biol ; 10(11): 200213, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171068

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global lockdown in many countries throughout the world. Faced with a new reality, and until a vaccine or efficient treatment is found, humanity must figure out ways to keep the economy going, on one hand, while keeping the population safe, on the other hand, especially those that are susceptible to this virus. Here, we use a Watts-Strogatz network simulation, with parameters that were drawn from what is already known about the virus, to explore five different scenarios of partial lockdown release in two geographical locations with different age distributions. We find that separating age groups by reducing interactions between them protects the general population and reduces mortality rates. Furthermore, the addition of new connections within the same age group to compensate for the lost connections outside the age group still has a strong beneficial influence and reduces the total death toll by about 62%. While complete isolation from society may be the most protective scenario for the elderly population, it would have an emotional and possibly cognitive impact that might outweigh its benefit. Therefore, we propose creating age-related social recommendations or even restrictions, thereby allowing social connections while still offering strong protection for the older population.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Harefuah ; 159(11): 826-828, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Femoral neck fractures (FNF) have been declared to be a worldwide epidemic, as their number is expected to surpass 6 million by the year 2050, with more than 7,000 cases per year in Israel. FNF are more common in patients older than 65 years, and are expected to become even more common as the population ages. Like in many other medical conditions, treatment must be adapted for the unique features of this population. In this report, we sought to review the extent of femoral neck fractures in the elderly and the accompanied clinical outcomes and economic implications. As this population constitutes a major part of the patients suffering from femoral neck fractures, and tend to suffer from a higher rate morbidity and mortality, the orthopedic surgeon must meticulously choose the appropriate treatment, in a relatively short timeframe of up to 24-48 hours. In order to do so, further high-quality research examining the clinical outcomes according to the treatment chosen in this special population is needed.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Colo Femoral , Idoso , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1718, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lay public's behavioral responses during a virus spread, such as the COVID-19, play an important role in bringing the outbreak under control, and provide insights into development of risk communication messages to the public. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the association between knowledge about COVID-19, perceived susceptibility, emotional reactions and precautionary behavior among the Israeli lay public at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1407 participants, aged 18 + . Participants completed measures of knowledge about COVID-19, perceived susceptibility, emotional reactions, precautionary behavior, and socio-demographic questionnaires. A hierarchical regression model was calculated with precautionary behavior as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Findings indicated that precautionary behavior was higher for females, older participants, participants with higher levels of knowledge about COVID-19, and participants with greater negative emotional reactions. A negative curvilinear relationship was found between perceived susceptibility and precautionary behavior, so that the latter was highest for participants with moderate perceived susceptibility. All interaction terms were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that in order to enhance precautionary behavior in the initial stage of a virus outbreak, it is recommended to pay attention to the public's knowledge about the virus, perceived susceptibility and emotional reactions. Although negative feelings about the virus may motivate preventive behavior, it is important to address these feelings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Surtos de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5518, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139704

RESUMO

Full genome sequences are increasingly used to track the geographic spread and transmission dynamics of viral pathogens. Here, with a focus on Israel, we sequence 212 SARS-CoV-2 sequences and use them to perform a comprehensive analysis to trace the origins and spread of the virus. We find that travelers returning from the United States of America significantly contributed to viral spread in Israel, more than their proportion in incoming infected travelers. Using phylodynamic analysis, we estimate that the basic reproduction number of the virus was initially around 2.5, dropping by more than two-thirds following the implementation of social distancing measures. We further report high levels of transmission heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2 spread, with between 2-10% of infected individuals resulting in 80% of secondary infections. Overall, our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of social distancing measures for reducing viral spread.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Genoma Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sequência de Bases , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Distância Social , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Harefuah ; 159(11): 815-819, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210852

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: nflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis cause chronic remitting inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract with the potential of bowel wall injury which can lead to disability. AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the degree of disability among IBD patients in Israel using validated scales and to identify factors that are associated with disability. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine the association between disability and quality of life (QoL) among patients. METHODS: The study population included 96 patients who attended a dedicated IBD clinic, (71 patients (pts) with Crohn's disease (CD), 22 pts with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 3 pts with IBD-undefined (IBD-U)). The participants completed a 5-part questionnaire which included demographic parameters, a validated QoL measure (inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ), two validated disability scales (the work and social adjustment scale (WSAS) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule V.2.0 (WHODAS2.0), employment status, and a disease activity measure (the Manitoba IBD index (MIBDI). RESULTS: Major disability was found among 20% of the participants (as defined by a WSAS score ≥17). Major disability was significantly associated with lower QoL (p<0.001) and with recognition of disability from the National Insurance Institute of Israel ("Hamosad Lebituach Leumi") (p=0.005). Significant association was found between WHODAS2.0 and low QoL (r=-0.763,p<0.001). There were no significant differences in rates of major disability among patients with CD vs. those with UC. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one fifth of IBD patients in Israel have major disability, which in turn, is associated with a decreased quality of life and recognition of disability from the National Insurance Institute of Israel. There were no significant differences in rates of disability between patients with CD vs. those with UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 20(1): 262, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) brings anesthesiologists and intensive care physicians to the mainstay of clinical workload and healthcare managements' focus. There are approximately 900 anesthesiologists in Israel, working in non-private hospitals. This nationwide cross-sectional study evaluated the readiness and involvement of anesthesia departments in Israel in management of the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact on anesthesiologists' health, workload, and clinical practices were also evaluated. METHODS: An online questionnaire was distributed to all of anesthesia department chairs in Israel on April 14th. Each response was identifiable on the hospital level only. Informed consent was waived since no patient data were collected. RESULTS: Response rate was 100%. A decrease of at least 40% in operating-room activity was reported by two-thirds of the departments. Anesthesiologists are leading the treatment of COVID-19 patients in 19/28 (68%) Israeli hospitals. Israel Society of Anesthesiologists' recommendations regarding intubation of COVID-19 patients were strictly followed (intubations performed by the most experienced available physician, by rapid-sequence induction utilizing video-laryngoscopy, while minimizing the number of people in the room - about 90% compliance for each). Anesthesiologists in most departments use standard personal protective equipment when caring for COVID-19 patients, including N95 masks, face shields, and water-proof gowns. Only one anesthesiologist across Israel was diagnosed with COVID-19 (unknown source of transmission). All department chairs reported emerging opportunities that advance the anesthesia profession: implementation of new technologies and improvement in caregivers' clinical capabilities (68% each), purchase of new equipment (96%), and increase in research activity (36%). CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide cross-sectional study had a complete response rate and therefore well-represents the anesthesia practice in Israel. We found that Israeli anesthesia departments are generally highly involved in the health system efforts to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. Anesthesia and airway management are performed in a remarkably comparable manner and with proper protection of caregivers. Ambulatory anesthesia activity has dramatically decreased, but many departments find opportunities for improvement even in these challenging times.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Anestesia/organização & administração , Anestesiologistas/organização & administração , Anestesiologia/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Anestesia/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Israel/epidemiologia , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Harefuah ; 159(10): 759-763, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of point of care ultrasound to assess cardiovascular function performed by a neonatologist who is not a cardiologist, is gaining interest in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Clinical signs such as heart rate, blood pressure and capillary refill time provide limited insight into the adequacy of systemic blood flow and organ perfusion. Functional echocardiography (echo) enables real time evaluation of cardiac performance, identifying the nature of cardiovascular compromise, guiding therapeutic decisions and monitoring response to treatment. Application of functional echo in the NICU includes assessment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), pulmonary hypertension, shock and placement of umbilical catheters. There is evidence implicating that functional echo alters neonatal treatment and may improve outcome. Functional echo does not aim to replace the detailed structural assessments provided by consultative services of pediatric cardiologists. Close collaboration with pediatric cardiology is essential. In the past two years there is an increasing awareness for using functional echocardiography by neonatologists in Israel. Three conferences and an educational workshop were held in Israel with world renowned lecturers. Protocols defining how the exam should be performed were prepared, and agreement was reached with pediatric cardiologists on how to implement the use of functional echo by neonatologists, with the intention to create a distinct group of neonatologists with knowledge and skills in functional echo and a profound understanding of cardiac and respiratory physiology and hemodynamics.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Criança , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/diagnóstico por imagem , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/terapia , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel , Ultrassonografia
11.
Harefuah ; 159(10): 764-768, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103398

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The recognition of the newborn as a separate patient with special unique needs and rights began relatively late compared to other medical disciplines. This process occurred concomitantly with the development of modern neonatology in the country and the establishment of special care nurseries. The process included organization of skilled teams, standardization of treatment methods, introduction of standardized language and practices, and teamwork optimization. The importance of providing support to a newborn in distress after birth - in the first minute, and as needed for the first hour of his life, coined as "The Golden Hour", is highlighted in the training sessions in the program. These principles are conveyed today in multiple simulation-based training courses of multidisciplinary teams taking place in most Israeli hospitals, based on the recommendations of the leading organizations in the field and following the consensus statements outlined by the International Liaison Committee for Resuscitation (ILCOR). This article describes the processes that enabled present achievements, and the goals for further future improvements in the outcomes of newborn resuscitation in Israel.


Assuntos
Ressuscitação , Consenso , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Israel , Idioma , Neonatologia
12.
J Water Health ; 18(5): 722-727, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095195

RESUMO

Although dementia affects roughly 50 million people worldwide, its etiology is largely unknown. Recent studies have found a link between hypermagnesemia, hypomagnesemia, and increased risk of dementia. In this study, we explore the link between serum magnesium levels and the prevalence of dementia following the adoption of desalinated water (DSW) in Israel. DSW contains no magnesium, and relying on it for drinking water can lead to an increased incidence of hypomagnesia. Our objective was to analyze in a treat-control context how the switch to desalinated drinking water affected serum magnesium concentrations and the prevalence of dementia. We selected two cities which differed in terms of their access to underground aquifers but were otherwise similar. Rehovot has no underground water and uses over 90% DSW, whereas Kfar Saba relies almost entirely on its own aquifers. The cities are otherwise relatively similar in terms of their demographic composition. Using medical records for all subjects insured by the Maccabi Health Services in Rehovot (n = 23,991) and Kfar Saba (n = 20,541), we examined mean serum concentrations of Mg in the period prior to desalination (2001-2006) and post-desalination (2007-2018). Dementia prevalence is taken from 2007 to 2020 for the same coverage population. Serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in Rehovot following the switch to DSW (2.067 ± 0.21 pre-desalination and 2.059 ± 0.216 post-desalination, p < 0.01). In contrast, serum magnesium levels increased in Kfar Saba, which continued to rely on groundwater (2.008 ± 0.179 vs. 2.067 ± 0.206, p < 0.01). The prevalence of dementia was similar in the two cities (488/20,541, 2.37% in Rehovot and 613/23,991, 2.55% in Kfar Saba). In this ecological study, the adoption of DSW was associated with a significant decrease in serum magnesium concentrations. However, this change was not associated with a higher prevalence of dementia. While this association study cannot rule out some effect of hypomagnesemia on dementia morbidity, it suggests that the effect, if it exists, is relatively small.


Assuntos
Demência , Água Potável , Cidades , Demência/epidemiologia , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Magnésio , Água do Mar
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007892

RESUMO

In the wake of COVID-19, unemployment and its potential deleterious consequences have attracted renewed interest. We examined (1) the association between unemployment, occurring upon the coronavirus outbreak, and psychological distress among Israeli young people (20-35-years-old); (2) the associations between various psychological resources/risk factors and psychological distress; and (3) whether these resources and risk factors were moderators in the unemployment-psychological distress link. A real-time survey based on snowball sampling was conducted during the month of April 2020 (N = 390). We employed hierarchical linear models to explore associations between unemployment, psychological resources, risk factors, and psychological distress. Unemployment was independently associated with greater psychological distress. Perceived trust, optimism, and sense of mastery decreased psychological distress, whereas financial strain and loneliness during the crisis increased this distress. The effect of unemployment on psychological distress did not depend on participants' resource and risk factor levels. Policymakers must develop and extend health initiatives aimed at alleviating the mental health consequences of COVID-19-related unemployment and promote labor market interventions to help young job seekers integrate into employment. These measures, which are in line with the UN sustainable development goals, should be seen as an important route to promote public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Desemprego , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Israel , Solidão , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007985

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive global health crisis. The rapid transmission rate of the virus, as well as the lack of effective medications and vaccines, has posed serious challenges to controlling the spread of the disease. Dealing with this public health crisis has required major changes in people's behavior, including the adoption of social distancing measures such as avoiding meeting with family members and friends, crowded places, and public transportation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors associated with the adoption of these behaviors in China and Israel. We relied on the 3Cs model that has been used to predict the adoption of a specific preventive behavior (vaccinations) with the goal of testing its applicability to other preventive behaviors such as in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The model indicates that confidence in social institutions, complacency (fear of and assessments about the risk of becoming ill) and constraints (levels of self-efficacy and confidence in being able to engage in the behaviors) are predictors of adopting preventive behaviors. Data were collected in China and Israel through an online survey of the population (n = 1406). We used latent variables and structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses derived from the 3Cs model. The findings indicate that there are some differences in the types of preventive behaviors adopted in the two countries. In Israel, higher levels of confidence predicted the adoption of avoidant behaviors and more constraints predicted engaging in fewer avoidant behaviors. In China, more constraints also contributed to the adoption of fewer avoidant behaviors, but people's level of confidence fully mediated this result. The multi-group analysis indicated that the conceptualized model fits the Chinese and Israeli data reasonably well. The findings suggest that the 3Cs model can be generalized from getting vaccinated to adopting avoidant behaviors and that the model can be used across cultures and countries.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Israel , Comportamento Social , Isolamento Social
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of minority groups in times of emergency have tended to focus on risk reduction or on individual resilience, overlooking the community factors that could be bolstered to promote better health and safety outcomes. The current study aimed to examine the role of health-care services in the perceived community resilience of urban and suburban Arab communities in Israel during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHOD: The study included 196 adults age 17-76 years, who filled out on-line questionnaires in May 2020; 112 participants lived in an urban community and 84 lived in a suburban community. Community resilience was evaluated using the Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure (CCRAM), a validated five-factor multidimensional instrument. RESULTS: Residents of the suburban community reported higher community resilience than residents of the urban community. This difference was related to increased preparedness levels and strength of place attachment in the suburban community. Residents of suburban communities were also more satisfied and confident in health-care services than those of urban communities. Regression analysis showed that the satisfaction with primary health-care services, and not community type, significantly predicted community resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the pivotal role of primary health care in building community resilience of minority communities in times of emergency and routine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Satisfação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240393, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119605

RESUMO

The first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Israel on February 21, 2020. Within approximately 30 days, the total number of confirmed cases climbed up to 1, 000, accompanied by a doubling period of less than 3 days. About one week later, after this number exceeded 4, 000 cases, and following some extreme lockdown measures taken by the Israeli government, the daily infection rate started a sharp decrease from the peak value of 1, 131 down to slightly more than 100 new confirmed cases on April 30. Motivated by this encouraging data, similar to the trends observed in many other countries, along with the growing economic pressures, the Israeli government has quickly lifted most of its emergency regulations. Throughout May, the daily number of new cases stayed at a very low level of 20-40 until at the end of May it started a steady increase, exceeding 1, 000 by the end of June and 2, 000 on July 22. As suggested by some experts and popular media, this disturbing trend may be even a part of a "second wave". This article attempts to analyze the data available on Israel at the end of July 2020, compared to three European countries (Greece, Italy, and Sweden), in order to understand the local dynamics of COVID-19, assess the effect of the implemented intervention measures, and discuss some plausible scenarios for the foreseeable future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Previsões , Grécia , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Itália , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Densidade Demográfica , Suécia
17.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7668-7673, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in development since the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence was published in January 2020. The uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine among children will be instrumental in limiting the spread of the disease as herd immunity may require vaccine coverage of up to 80% of the population. Prior history of pandemic vaccine coverage was as low as 40% among children in the United States during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. PURPOSE: To investigate predictors associated with global caregivers' intent to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, when the vaccine becomes available. METHOD: An international cross sectional survey of 1541 caregivers arriving with their children to 16 pediatric Emergency Departments (ED) across six countries from March 26 to May 31, 2020. RESULTS: 65% (n = 1005) of caregivers reported that they intend to vaccinate their child against COVID-19, once a vaccine is available. A univariate and subsequent multivariate analysis found that increased intended uptake was associated with children that were older, children with no chronic illness, when fathers completed the survey, children up-to-date on their vaccination schedule, recent history of vaccination against influenza, and caregivers concerned their child had COVID-19 at the time of survey completion in the ED. The most common reason reported by caregivers intending to vaccinate was to protect their child (62%), and the most common reason reported by caregivers refusing vaccination was the vaccine's novelty (52%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of caregivers intend to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, though uptake will likely be associated with specific factors such as child and caregiver demographics and vaccination history. Public health strategies need to address barriers to uptake by providing evidence about an upcoming COVID-19 vaccine's safety and efficacy, highlighting the risks and consequences of infection in children, and educating caregivers on the role of vaccination.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinas Virais/economia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Cooperação Internacional , Israel/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113914

RESUMO

Considering the potential impact of COVID-19 on the civil society, a longitudinal study was conducted to identify levels of distress, resilience, and the subjective well-being of the population. The study is based on two repeated measurements conducted at the end of the pandemic's "first wave" and the beginning of the "second wave" on a sample (n = 906) of Jewish Israeli respondents, who completed an online questionnaire distributed by an Internet panel company. Three groups of indicators were assessed: signs of distress (sense of danger, distress symptoms, and perceived threats), resilience (individual, community, and national), and subjective well-being (well-being, hope, and morale). Results indicated the following: (a) a significant increase in distress indicators, with effect sizes of sense of danger, distress symptoms, and perceived threats (Cohen's d 0.614, 0.120, and 0.248, respectively); (b) a significant decrease in resilience indicators, with effect sizes of individual, community, and national resilience (Cohen's d 0.153, 0.428, and 0.793, respectively); and (c) a significant decrease in subjective well-being indicators with effect sizes of well-being, hope, and morale (Cohen's d 0.116, 0.336, and 0.199, respectively). To conclude, COVID-19 had a severe, large-scale impact on the civil society, leading to multidimensional damage and a marked decrease in the individual, community, and national resilience of the population.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estresse Psicológico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Israel , Estudos Longitudinais , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
19.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 294, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ever since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, worldwide efforts are being made to "flatten the curve". Israel was amongst the first countries to impose significant restrictions. As a result, cardiac surgeons have been required to scale down their routine practice, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of cardiac surgeries. The aim of this study is to characterize the impact of COVID-19 on cardiac surgery in Israel. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study performed in two cardiac surgery departments in Israel and includes all patients who underwent cardiac surgery in March and April during the years 2019 and 2020. The patient cohort was divided into two groups based on the year of operation. Analysis of the patients' baseline characteristics, operative data, and postoperative outcome, was performed. RESULTS: The 2019 group (n = 173), and the 2020 group (n = 108) were similar regarding their baseline characteristics, previous medical history, and rates of previous revascularization interventions. However, compared to the 2019 group, patients in the 2020 group were found to be more symptomatic (NYHA class IV; 2.4% vs. 6.2%, p = 0.007). While all patients underwent similar procedures, patients in the 2020 group had significantly longer procedural time (p < 0.001). In-hospital mortality rate was found to be significantly higher in group 2020 (13% vs. 5.2%, p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: While the number of patients undergoing cardiac surgery declined during the outbreak period, the rate of surgical mortality increased. One explanation for this might be delayed hospital arrival.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 9(1): 54, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of a new Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) poses dramatic challenges to public health authorities worldwide. One measure put in place to contain the spread of the disease is self-quarantine of individuals who may have been exposed to the disease. While officials expect the public to comply with such regulation, studies suggest that a major obstacle to compliance for self-quarantine is concern over loss of income or employment due to the prolonged absence from work. METHODS: A cohort study of the adult population of Israel was conducted in two time points during the COVID-19 outbreak, the last week of February and the third week of March 2020, in order to assess public attitudes. In particular, public compliance rates to self-quarantine with and without State-sponsored compensation for lost wages were assessed. RESULTS: The results suggest that public attitudes changed as the threat increased, making people more compliant with regulations. In February 2020, compliance rate for self-quarantine dropped from 94% to less than 57% when monetary compensation for lost wages was removed; however, in March 2020 this drop became more moderate (from 96 to 71%). The multivariate logistic regression revealed that older, non-Jewish, worried over COVID-19, and trusting the Ministry of Health were more likely than their counterparts to comply with self-isolation, even when monetary compensation was not assumed. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the effects of threat on people's obedience with regulations, this study demonstrates that providing people with assurances about their livelihood during absence from work remains an important component in compliance with public health regulations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Assistência Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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