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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) heavily hit Italy, one of Europe's most polluted countries. The extent to which PM pollution contributed to COVID-19 diffusion is needing further clarification. We aimed to investigate the particular matter (PM) pollution and its correlation with COVID-19 incidence across four Italian cities: Milan, Rome, Naples, and Salerno, during the pre-lockdown and lockdown periods. METHODS: We performed a comparative analysis followed by correlation and regression analyses of the daily average PM10, PM2.5 concentrations, and COVID-19 incidence across four cities from 1 January 2020 to 8 April 2020, adjusting for several factors, taking a two-week time lag into account. RESULTS: Milan had significantly higher average daily PM10 and PM2.5 levels than Rome, Naples, and Salerno. Rome, Naples, and Salerno maintained safe PM10 levels. The daily PM2.5 levels exceeded the legislative standards in all cities during the entire period. PM2.5 pollution was related to COVID-19 incidence. The PM2.5 levels and sampling rate were strong predictors of COVID-19 incidence during the pre-lockdown period. The PM2.5 levels, population's age, and density strongly predicted COVID-19 incidence during lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Italy serves as a noteworthy paradigm illustrating that PM2.5 pollution impacts COVID-19 spread. Even in lockdown, PM2.5 levels negatively impacted COVID-19 incidence.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Cidade de Roma
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065117

RESUMO

As the COVID-19 outbreak traveled through various Italian regions, all national and local administrations issued measures to counter the spread of the contagion and organize healthcare. The Italian healthcare system is, indeed, a decentralized system with 21 regional health systems (RHSs), with different models of healthcare service delivery and organization. This study investigates whether a different organization of RHSs would have led to different management of the COVID-19 epidemic, and evaluates the effect of different approaches in epidemic management on the COVID-19 epidemiological trend. A set of indicators is identified by conducting an online synchronous Focus Group, involving an experts panel. A Pearson's correlation test was performed on the values assumed by the historical series of indicators investigate correlations among the trends represented by the indicators or between them and external factors. The comparison between the experiences of the different Italian regions, regarding the management of the epidemic, has helped to confirm and emphasize the importance of a community-based approach in health care-integrated with the hospital's functions for the care of complex conditions and the need for specialized assistance.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Organizacionais
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 335, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the COVID-19 pandemic, distance education (DE) replaced traditional "face-to-face" teaching and has become the main method of teaching. The aim of this study was to 1) evaluate the impact of DE by teachers in our department during the second semester of the 2019-20 academic year following the March-May 2020 Italian national lockdown and 2) evaluate the relationship between DE and the emotional well-being of teachers during the period of home confinement. METHODS: Ninety-seven university teachers (51.5% women; most represented age group 60-69 years range, 40.2%) responded to an anonymous online cross-sectional survey between July 15 - September 30, 2020, on the advantages and disadvantages of DE, developed by one online teacher focus group. The emotional conditions were assessed by a short version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The internal consistency reliability survey and the 10-item BDI-II were measured by Cronbach's alpha. A correlation analysis (r-Pearson) was conducted between the overall evaluation of the experience of DE and the variables included in the study. RESULTS: Teachers reported difficulties in technical aspects, and in psychological factors, as the discomfort of "speaking in the void" (64.7%). The absence of "face-to-face" eye contact with the students was complained by 81% of teachers. Significant impairments in sleep patterns and loss of energy were reported, with female teachers having greater difficulty concentrating than their male colleagues. A quarter of teachers showed depressive symptoms of varying severity. The most satisfied teachers were those most stimulated by DE (r = 0.752, p < 0.000), who showed a lower impact of depressive symptoms (r = - 0.289, p = 0.005). The teaching load in hours influenced the perception of disadvantages (r = 0.214, p = 0.035) and contributed to a lower appreciation of the challenges of DE. The more significant the manifestation of depressive symptoms during the lockdown was, the greater the subjective recovery of a good emotional condition once the domestic confinement was over (r = 0.344, p = 0.001), despite maintaining DE. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the impact of technical, didactic, and psychological difficulties of DE, reported by our teachers. The appreciation of their new learning promoted by DE seemed related to better emotional well-being of university teachers accepting this "challenge" in their important role in the high-education system, influencing good learning and promoting students' professional success.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Universidades
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073437

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to evaluate the preparedness of retirement and nursing homes in the city of Sassari at the end of the first wave of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 epidemic, first by investigating the risk perception of epidemic outbreaks by the facility managers and subsequently by carrying out a field assessment of these facilities. To perform the field assessment, a checklist developed by the CDC (Infection Prevention and Control Assessment Tool for Nursing Homes Preparing for COVID-19) and adapted to the Italian context was used. Fourteen facilities took part in the survey (87.5%). The application of good practices for each survey area was expressed as a percentage with the following median values: restriction policies (87.5%), staff training (53.8%), resident training (67.6%), availability of personal protective equipment (41.7%), infection control practices (73.5%) and communication (80%). Among the facilities, considerable variability was observed in these evaluation fields: only the restriction policies and communication activities were applied uniformly. A discrepancy was found between perceived risk and real danger in the facilities, requiring targeted communication actions. At present, it is necessary to promote a new approach based on the prediction of critical events, thereby providing the means to effectively address them.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Casas de Saúde , Aposentadoria , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Prof Inferm ; 74(1): 21-30, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089638

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the Italian and European literature there are still few studies describing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the organization of nursing care in hospitals, on the actions taken by nursing leaders to contain it, and on the outcomes of these interventions. AIM: To describe nursing leaders' experiences with reorganizing healthcare pathways, through management data and personal accounts. METHODS: A retrospective quali-quantitative observational study was conducted at the Mauriziano Hospital in Turin, with 484 beds and over 1,700 workers. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistical indices and integrated with qualitative data collected through semi-structured telephone interviews. The analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data provided an objective and experiential representation of the implemented interventions. RESULTS: We described the impact of interventions introduced by the nursing leadership during the pandemic on hospital services. In particular, the reorganization of the emergency department and of the prevention and psychological support services for the hospital's health workers. In addition, specific initiatives to support the discharge of COVID-19 positive patients, and to support and manage contacts with family members both during the hospitalization of their loved ones and following death are described. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the discussion on some crucial issues: the increasingly clear relationship between adequate staffing and safety of patients and professionals, the importance of a good working environment and a solid leadership, the importance of continuing education for professionals and adequate skill mixes; all highlighted by the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/enfermagem , Liderança , Cuidados de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/organização & administração , Educação Continuada , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Itália , Enfermeiras Administradoras/organização & administração , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Prof Inferm ; 74(1): 31-40, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Media play a key part in shaping nurses' social perception. Newspapers were chosen as the subject of this content analysis, as they are the main resource that Italians use to inform themselves. For this reason, ne wspapers are an appropriate resource to analyse the image of the nurse that, as found in literature, is seen as a dynamic phenomenon that changes according to different scenarios. Given the media focus on nurses during COVID- 19 it seems reasonable to analyse what nurse image was emerged. METHOD: A Content Analysis with an inductive process was conducted. The analysis' objective was to evaluate the image of the nurse in national and local newspapers, published between the 30th of January and the 18th of May 2020. A triangulation methodology was used between the two researchers to ensure data quality. R ESULTS: Five themes were identified. The risks for the nurse's psycho-physic wellbeing. Taking responsibility and human relations despite barriers. The acknowledgment of professional attributes. Uncertainty on the continuity of the nurses' social role emerged from the media. Nurses only wish to be appreciated for what they do. The agreement between the researchers on the themes has a Krippendor ff 's alpha between =0.713 and =0.985. CONCLUSIONS: The media's interest highlighted the nurses' competence in assisting patients with COVID-19. However, there isn't in-depth analysis, of the contemporar y image of the nurse, specifically in relation to leadership. Positive and negative tropes are recalled. The superficiality and fragility of the mediatic phenomena emerged, as opposed to a real positive strengthening of the nurse's social perception.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Jornais como Assunto , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Humanos , Itália , Liderança , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/organização & administração , Percepção Social
7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 197, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation are at risk of ventilator-associated bacterial infections secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study aimed to investigate clinical features of Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (SA-VAP) and, if bronchoalveolar lavage samples were available, lung bacterial community features in ICU patients with or without COVID-19. METHODS: We prospectively included hospitalized patients with COVID-19 across two medical ICUs of the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS (Rome, Italy), who developed SA-VAP between 20 March 2020 and 30 October 2020 (thereafter referred to as cases). After 1:2 matching based on the simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II) and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, cases were compared with SA-VAP patients without COVID-19 (controls). Clinical, microbiological, and lung microbiota data were analyzed. RESULTS: We studied two groups of patients (40 COVID-19 and 80 non-COVID-19). COVID-19 patients had a higher rate of late-onset (87.5% versus 63.8%; p = 0.01), methicillin-resistant (65.0% vs 27.5%; p < 0.01) or bacteremic (47.5% vs 6.3%; p < 0.01) infections compared with non-COVID-19 patients. No statistically significant differences between the patient groups were observed in ICU mortality (p = 0.12), clinical cure (p = 0.20) and microbiological eradication (p = 0.31). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, SAPS II and initial inappropriate antimicrobial therapy were independently associated with ICU mortality. Then, lung microbiota characterization in 10 COVID-19 and 16 non-COVID-19 patients revealed that the overall microbial community composition was significantly different between the patient groups (unweighted UniFrac distance, R2 0.15349; p < 0.01). Species diversity was lower in COVID-19 than in non COVID-19 patients (94.4 ± 44.9 vs 152.5 ± 41.8; p < 0.01). Interestingly, we found that S. aureus (log2 fold change, 29.5), Streptococcus anginosus subspecies anginosus (log2 fold change, 24.9), and Olsenella (log2 fold change, 25.7) were significantly enriched in the COVID-19 group compared to the non-COVID-19 group of SA-VAP patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our study population, COVID-19 seemed to significantly affect microbiological and clinical features of SA-VAP as well as to be associated with a peculiar lung microbiota composition.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
8.
F1000Res ; 10: 89, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055314

RESUMO

Background: The University was among the first structures to be hit by the health emergency, transferring all its teaching and research activities remotely. It was not easy for teachers and students to find themselves suddenly shifted into different teaching and socializing context. Results: This article describes and analyzes the online teaching experience carried out for the course of Microscopy Techniques for Forensic Biology offered as a part of the Master's degree program in Biology at the University of Calabria (Italy). A cross-sectional survey (pilot study) was designed to investigate the accessibility of distance learning along with an evaluation of adjustments needed for the conversion from offline to online instruction. Particular attention has been paid to learning material and lesson duration, with specific emphasis on practical activities. Conclusions: The author's intent is that of opening a comparison between the strengths and weaknesses that emerged in this experience, highlighting, in particular, how the educational relationship between teacher and student has changed.


Assuntos
Biologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Itália , Microscopia , Projetos Piloto
9.
Infez Med ; 29(2): 216-223, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061786

RESUMO

Studies concerning Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in paediatrics are limited to children mainly selected from hospitals, where patients with complications and co-morbidities are managed. We aimed to describe the course of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a population of children enrolled by place of residence, from diagnosis to recovery, with a long-term clinical and serological follow-up. We identified patients aged <14 years old living in the Turin Health District 3 who had SARS-CoV-2 detected in at least one nasopharyngeal swab from 1st March to 1st June 2020. Epidemiological and clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 infection were collected by way of a telephone inquiry. Enrolled patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 serology in order to provide evidence of seroconversion and persistence of specific antibodies some time after the infection. A total of 46 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 were identified. The main pattern of viral transmission was intra-family. Eleven children were totally asymptomatic. If symptoms appeared, the disease had a mild course. A single case of COVID-19-related respiratory insufficiency was registered. Among children who underwent serological evaluation, 84% had seroconversion. No significant differences in antibody development were found according to the age and the burden of the disease. Children tested farther from the primary infection had lower antibody index titre values than the others. In conclusion, COVID-19 has a good prognosis in paediatric age. Children are able to develop a valid immune response, although their index titres seem to decrease a long time after the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Soroconversão , Adolescente , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Características de Residência , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Irmãos , Avaliação de Sintomas
10.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 119, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is often non severe and in the majority of cases does not require long term hospitalization, nevertheless it is burdened with social issues and managing difficulties. To our knowledge there is no literature on telephonic follow up in pediatric patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on rhino-pharyngeal swab after discharge. The aim of the study is to describe our experience in a telephonic follow up which can allow early and safe discharge from hospital while keeping the patients under close clinical monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five children were admitted for SARS-CoV-2 infection at Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital COVID Center from 16th March to 3rd July. We monitored through a telephonic follow-up, using a specific survey, the patients discharged still presenting a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2. We checked if any symptoms occurred at home until recovery, defined as two consecutive negative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on rhino-pharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: During the follow up 7 patients had mild and self-limited symptoms related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while 2 patients were re-hospitalized. One patient had Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), the other patient had an increase in troponin and D-dimers. We also monitored the average time of viral shedding, resulting in a median duration of 28 days. CONCLUSION: Our experience describes the daily telephonic follow up as safe in pediatric patients discharged with positive PCR. As a matter of fact it could avoid long term hospitalization and allow to promptly re-hospitalize children with major complications such as MIS-C.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Telefone , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
11.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 130, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measures to contain the Covid-19 pandemic led to significant lifestyle changes for children and adolescents mainly related to the closure of schools and recreational activities, reduced social interaction, and increased family concerns. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of 78 questions investigating social determinants of health, mood changes, symptoms of anxiety, increase in sleep disorders and unusual repetitive movements was offered to parents living in Italy with children ≤18 years; including families of children with disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, chronic diseases, and specific learning disabilities. The survey was conducted on the Qualtrics platform 6 months after the beginning of the pandemic and distributed in hospitals and paediatricians' waiting rooms as well as through social networks. The primary outcomes were the increase in sleep disorders among children and adolescents. Possible risk factors were investigated through multivariable regression. RESULTS: Six thousand two hundred ten volunteer parents responded to the questions concerning mood changes, sleep disorders and unusual repetitive movements, and were included in the present study. The majority were female (91.8%) and Italian (97.0%). 72.7% answered that their children had become more nervous, worried, or sad (80.2% in children with learning disabilities); 77.6% reported feelings of loneliness and 69.3% more difficulties in children falling asleep, 30.2% in staying asleep, and 18.7% an increase in nightmares and/or sleep terrors. Statistical analysis identified socioeconomic status, parent's job loss, food insecurity, family attitude toward the pandemic, and children's mood swing, feelings of loneliness, or missing outdoor activities, as major risk factors for sleep disorders. CONCLUSION: The first Covid-19 lockdown impacted children's and adolescents' health through an increase in sleep disorders. In the following phases of the pandemic, this evidence may be useful to investigate and treat these disorders as well as make decisions about containment health policies concerning this age group.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 131, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the effective burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in pediatric population are very limited, mostly because of the higher rate of asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic cases among children. Updated data on COVID-19 prevalence are needed for their relevance in public health and for infection control policies. In this single-centre cross-sectional study we aimed to assess prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection through IgG antibodies detection in an Italian pediatric cohort. METHODS: The study was conducted in January 2021 among both inpatients and outpatients referring to Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health "Burlo Garofolo" in Trieste, Friuli Venezia-Giulia, Italy, who needed for blood test for any reason. Collected samples were sent to Italian National Institute of Health for analysis through chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). RESULTS: One hundred sixty-nine patients were included in the study, with a median age of 10.5 ± 4.1 years, an equal distribution for sex (49.7% female patients), and a 55.6% prevalence of comorbidities. Prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 trimeric Spike protein IgG antibodies was 9.5% (n = 16), with a medium titre of 482.3 ± 387.1 BAU/mL. Having an infected cohabitant strongly correlated with IgG positivity (OR 23.83, 95% CI 7.19-78.98, p < 0.0001), while a cohabitant healthcare worker wasn't associated with a higher risk (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.4-5.86, p 0.46). All of the 5 patients who had previously tested positive to a nasopharyngeal swab belonged to the IgG positive group, with a 3-month interval from the infection at most. CONCLUSION: We assessed a 9.5% SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in a pediatric cohort from Friuli Venezia-Giulia region in January 2021, showing a substantial increase after the second peak of the pandemic occurred starting from October 2020, compared to 1% prevalence observed by National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) in July 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
13.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(2): 67-71, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have highlighted the incidence and prevalence of chronic pain, which is an epidemic problem in all career sectors, as well as estimated the economic loss that follows its pathology. Several studies have indicated a high incidence of chronic osteoarticular pain in military service members, particularly in flight personnel. To date, no studies have estimated the incidence of pain pathology in the Italian military population, despite the implications related to flight qualification. METHODS: A survey was conducted on helicopter flight personnel undergoing periodic annual evaluation. RESULTS: A statistically significantly higher incidence of pain pathology than that reported in the global civilian population was demonstrated. More than 80% of the interviewed population reported moderate-to-severe back pain (45% in the lumbar tract and 38% in the cervical tract). Further, it was found that most staff with chronic pain do not use drugs or other treatments for severe pain because of concerns that such treatment approaches may compromise flight qualifications. DISCUSSION: The present study observed a high incidence of pain in Italian military flight personnel and examined the degree to which this problem is undertreated in these individuals. To address this problem, further in-depth and larger investigations that include therapeutic protocols to resolve such pain pathologies should be conducted. Such investigations could help to reduce pain experienced by flight personnel and enhance the productivity of the Italian military forces while considering the pharmacologic limitations related to the task. CONCLUSION: Chronic lumbar and neck pain is more common in military helicopter crews than in the civilian population. The true figure is frequently underestimated because of staff concerns regarding the potential influence of therapies on work activity.


Assuntos
Militares , Cervicalgia , Aeronaves , Dor nas Costas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Cervicalgia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
14.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e233567, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105657

RESUMO

This research was carried out aiming at evaluating the effects of nitrate and ammonium ions on nutrient accumulation, biochemical components and yield of Italian zucchini (cv. Caserta) grown in a hydroponic system under salt stress conditions. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse utilizing an experimental design in randomized blocks, arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with 4 replications. The treatments consisted of two forms of nitrogen (nitrate - NO3- and ammonium - NH4+) and 5 electrical conductivity levels of irrigation water (ECw) (0.5, 2.0, 3.5, 5.0 and 6.5 dS m-1). The analysis of the results indicated that supply of N exclusively in NH4+ form promotes greater damage to the leaf membrane and reduction in accumulation of macronutrients and higher Na+/K+, Na+/Ca++ and Na+/Mg++ ratios in the shoots of zucchini plants. Electrical conductivity of irrigation water above 2.0 dS m-1 reduces the accumulation of nutrients in shoot and yield of Italian zucchini plant. The toxicity of NH4+ under Italian zucchini plants overlap the toxicity of the salinity, since its fertilization exclusively with this form of nitrogen inhibits its production, being the NO3- form the most suitable for the cultivation of the species.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Nitrogênio , Homeostase , Itália , Nitratos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Estresse Salino
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063754

RESUMO

Interpersonal space (IPS) is the area surrounding our own bodies in which we interact comfortably with other individuals. During the COVID-19 pandemic, keeping larger IPS than usual, along with wearing a face mask, is one of the most effective measures to slow down the COVID-19 outbreak. Here, we explore the contribution of actual and perceived risk of contagion and anxiety levels in regulating our preferred social distance from other people during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. In this study, 1293 individuals from six Italian regions with different levels of actual risk of infection participated in an online survey assessing their perceived risk to be infected, level of anxiety and IPS. Two tasks were adopted as measures of interpersonal distance: the Interpersonal Visual Analogue Scale and a questionnaire evaluating interpersonal distance with and without face mask. The results showed that the IPS regulation was affected by how people subjectively perceived COVID-19 risk and the related level of anxiety, not by actual objective risk. This clarifies that the role of threat in prompting avoidant behaviors expressed in increased IPS does not merely reflect environmental events but rather how they are subjectively experienced and represented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Máscaras , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063864

RESUMO

The global pandemic caused by COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown have been widely recognized as traumatic events that pose threats to psychological well-being. Recent studies reported that during such traumatic events, women tend to be at greater risk than men for developing symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Several studies reported that a mindfulness-based stress reduction protocol (MBSR) provides useful skills for dealing with traumatic events. In our study, a sample of Italian females received an 8-week MBSR course plus 6 weeks of video support for meditation practice during the first total lockdown in Italy. We assessed the participants with questionnaires before and after this period to investigate their mindfulness skills, psychological well-being, post-traumatic growth, and psychological flexibility. After the intervention, the meditators group reported improvement in measures associated with self-acceptance, purpose in life, and relation to others compared to the control group. Furthermore, our results showed that participants with greater mindfulness scores showed high levels of psychological flexibility, which in turn was positively associated with higher levels of psychological well-being. We concluded that the MBSR could support psychological well-being, at least in female subjects, even during an unpredictable adverse event, such as the COVID-19 lockdown, by reinforcing key psychological aspects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atenção Plena , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065845

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The first clusters of SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified in an occupational setting, and to date, a significant portion of the cases may result from occupational exposure; thus, COVID-19 should also be considered a new occupational risk that both directly and indirectly impacts the health of workers. Given the significance of occupational-exposure-related infections and deaths, this study aims to assess the roles and tasks of occupational physicians (OPs) in countering the spread of the infection. Indeed, despite the OP's centrality in risk management in the workplace, its activity in the current epidemic context has rarely been mentioned. Materials and Methods: Three different databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and Embase) were questioned using the main keywords "COVID-19" and "SARS-CoV-2" that were crossed, according to different needs, with the terms "occupational medicine", "occupational physician", "workplace", and "risk assessment" using, when possible, the MeSH database research. Additionally, a systematic research of the regulatory changes of workplaces health surveillance was performed on reference sites of international, European, and Italian authorities. Results: Fundamental tasks and duties of OPs in the current COVID-19 outbreak are highlighted by examining their clinical activity and technical action. A risk assessment and management workflow is proposed, and medico-legal implications in case of infection at work are also discussed in the light of recent regulatory changes that clearly attribute to OPs an important role in safeguarding public health. Conclusion: The proposed approach can provide new instruments to contrast the spread of the infection as part of a comprehensive system response to the current pandemic, for which OPs are called to assume full responsibility.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Médicos , Humanos , Itália , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067365

RESUMO

In March 2020, the Italian Government imposed mandatory home confinement to limit the spread of COVID-19. Few studies assessed the psychophysical impact of COVID-19 on chronically ill children. This study examined these effects on children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D) and their caregivers. Seventy-one patients (7-13 years) with T1D and their caregivers were administered a survey created ad hoc and some standardized questionnaires, assessing psychological well-being and anxiety. Medical data (physical and biochemical characteristics) were recorded before (T0, January-February) and after (T1, May-June) the lockdown. Paired Student t-test, Spearman two-tailed correlations, and a linear regression model were used for statistical analysis. Children at T1 showed higher BMI (body mass index), daily total and basal insulin dose, and time spent in therapeutic range, and they showed lower HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin), time spent above the therapeutic range, and standard deviations of the mean glucose values than at T0. A total of 32.9% scored in the clinical range for separation anxiety. The increase in separation anxiety was predicted by younger age, female gender, more recent T1D diagnosis, less time spent in therapeutic range at T1, and higher perceived fear of COVID-19 infection. In a pandemic context, separation anxiety may be stronger in younger females, with more recent T1D diagnosis and poor metabolic control, thus affecting the parent's ability to manage diabetes and to support children's autonomy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Adolescente , Ansiedade de Separação , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070427

RESUMO

In 2013, in a bid to combat Vaccine Hesitancy (VH) and provide information on vaccines by communicating with the general public and the health community (e.g., healthcare workers and public health operators), the Italian Society of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine (S.It.I.) published the national website "VaccinarSì". The project was subsequently extended to ten Italian Regions. This led to the creation of the VaccinarSì Network, whose websites are publicly owned. The aim of this work was to present the framework of the websites of the VaccinarSì Network and to analyse user behaviour in the pre-COVID-19-era (dating from each website's publication until 31 January 2020) and in the COVID-19-era (from 1 February 2020 to 31 January 2021). Some metrics such as the number of visits to the site (sessions, number of users and average session duration), user behaviour (pages viewed, bounce rate and organic search) and the session acquisition path (direct traffic, referrals and social traffic) were searched, extrapolated and processed with Google Analytics. Qualitative and normally distributed quantitative variables were summarised with their absolute (relative) frequencies and means. Statistical differences between the means of the two periods were evaluated through paired t-test. A two-tailed p-value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. When the total values recorded over the period were compared, an overall increase in metrics was observed-the number of individual users, visits and individual pageviews rose in a statistically significant way. Our study aimed to highlight how combining disciplines such as health education and digital communication via Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) represents the best strategy to support citizens. This approach gives them the tools to become independent and responsible players that are capable of voluntarily and consciously choosing to adhere to vaccination programs. The VaccinarSì Network's goal for the future is to reach an even wider audience. By building each user's critical knowledge, this network enables users to be active components of a wider, more empowered community.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comunicação em Saúde , Vacinas , Comunicação , Humanos , Itália , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070468

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has taken a heavy toll on the mental well-being of healthcare workers. This study aims to describe a psychological screening program developed at a large University Hospital in Milan, Italy, and assess the psychological outcomes of employees and associated factors. A survey was electronically conducted among hospital employees between July and October 2020. Sociodemographic data, information about COVID-19 experience and three scales assessing anxiety (STAI-Y1), depression (HAM-D) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-5) were collected. A total of 308 employees (80% women; mean age 45.1 years) responded: 16% physicians, 68% other healthcare professionals, and 16% administrative staff. Employees reported moderate/severe symptoms of anxiety (23%), depression (53%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (40%). At multivariate logistic regression analysis, having suffered a loss for COVID-19 in the personal context was independently associated with higher risk of moderate/severe anxiety (OR = 2.40; 95% CI 1.16-4.98), being female was associated with higher risk of moderate/severe depression (OR = 2.82; 95% CI 1.43-5.59), and having had a family member affected by COVID-19 was associated with higher risk of moderate/severe post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.75; 95% CI 1.01-7.48). COVID-19 personal experience may have a profound impact on hospital workers' mental health and should be considered in supportive interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico
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