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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 640205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485211

RESUMO

The rapid evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emergency involved Italy as the first European country. Meanwhile, China was the only other country to experience the emergency scenario, implementing public health recommendations and raising concerns about the mental health of the population. The Italian National Institute of Health [Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS)] reviewed relevant scientific literature in mental health to evaluate the best clinical practices and established the collaboration with the WHO, World Psychiatry Association, and China to support the public health system in a phase of acute emergency. This process permitted the definition of organizational and practical-operational Italian guidelines for the protection of the well-being of healthcare workers. These guidelines have been extensively disseminated within the Italian territory for maximum stakeholder utilization.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17504, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471196

RESUMO

Chemosensory impairments have been established as a specific indicator of COVID-19. They affect most patients and may persist long past the resolution of respiratory symptoms, representing an unprecedented medical challenge. Since the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic started, we now know much more about smell, taste, and chemesthesis loss associated with COVID-19. However, the temporal dynamics and characteristics of recovery are still unknown. Here, capitalizing on data from the Global Consortium for Chemosensory Research (GCCR) crowdsourced survey, we assessed chemosensory abilities after the resolution of respiratory symptoms in participants diagnosed with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic in Italy. This analysis led to the identification of two patterns of chemosensory recovery, partial and substantial, which were found to be associated with differential age, degrees of chemosensory loss, and regional patterns. Uncovering the self-reported phenomenology of recovery from smell, taste, and chemesthetic disorders is the first, yet essential step, to provide healthcare professionals with the tools to take purposeful and targeted action to address chemosensory disorders and their severe discomfort.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Autorrelato , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501537

RESUMO

The global pandemic caused by a new strain of Coronavirus has brought the Italian government to adopt quarantine, isolation, and lockdown strategies as restrictive measures to reduce the virus spread. Being forced to stay at home could significantly increase the likelihood of episodes of home-based violence and could also be accompanied by a limited possibility of complaints or defense by the victim. The present study aimed to document, through the use of newspaper articles, the characteristics of domestic violence during the lockdown period related to COVID-19 in Italy (from 9 March 2020 up to 18 May 2020) and compare the results with the same period in 2019. The results showed an increase in domestic violence during the lockdown period compared to the same period the year before and highlighted the differences between the dynamics and violent behavior between the two periods examined. The results and limitations of this research are discussed with reference to the literature.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência Doméstica , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501793

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on Syncope Units (SUs) Activities in Italy. Methods: Data about types of SU activities and admissions were obtained from 10 SUs throughout Italy, certified by the Italian Multidisciplinary Working Group on Syncope (GIMSI), from 10 March 2020 to 31 December 2020 and compared with the same time frame in 2019. Results: A remarkable reduction in overall non-invasive diagnostic tests (-67%; p < 0.001) and cardiac invasive procedure. Elective cardiac pacing procedures disclosed a significant decrease (-62.7%; p < 0.001); conversely, the decrease of urgent procedures was not significant (-50%; p = 0.08). There was a significantly increased rate of patients who underwent both telemedicine follow-up visits (+225%, p < 0.001) and cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) remote monitoring follow-up visits (+100%; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The COVID-19 outbreak was associated with a remarkable decrease in all clinical activities of Syncope Units in Italy, including both non-invasive tests and cardiac invasive procedures; conversely, a significant increase in telehealth activities was shown.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Síncope/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501866

RESUMO

The rapid spread of the coronavirus pandemic has caused anxiety around the world. During lockdown, the media became a point of reference for people seeking information. However, little is known on the relationships between anxiety resulting from persistent media exposure to coronavirus-related programs and the effects produced on working memory. In this work, a total of 101 Italian citizens (53.7% female) aged between 18 and 45 years old, who were from 14 provinces in Italy, participated in an online survey. Participants were presented with media exposure and anxiety questionnaires and they were instructed to carry out working memory tasks (visual and auditory n-back). The results showed that media exposure is related to anxiety. It was also found that high levels of anxiety have a negative influence on the performance of both visual and auditory working memory tasks in terms of increased reaction times of responses and decreased accuracy. The results were critically discussed in the light of the Social Compensation Hypothesis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Memória de Curto Prazo , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 378, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to have a devastating impact across the world. A number of pre-existing common clinical conditions were reported to represent risk factors for more severe COVID-19 outcomes. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare vascular heritable disorders, characterized by complications secondary to visceral Arterio-Venous Malformations. The impact of HHT, as well as for many Rare Diseases (RDs) on infection susceptibility profile and clinical adverse outcome risk is an unresolved issue. OBJECTIVES: The main objectives were: to assess the clinical features and outcomes of HHT patients infected with COVID-19; to compare the relative infection risk in these patients with the Italian general population throughout the first pandemic wave; to investigate the factors potentially associated with severe COVID-19 outcome in HHT patients, and the possible impact of COVID-19 infection on HHT-related symptoms/complications. Finally, we aimed to estimate how the lockdown-associated wearing of personal protective equipment/individual protection devices could affect HHT-related telangiectasia bleeding frequency. METHODS: The study is a nation-wide questionnaire-based survey, with a multi-Center retrospective cross-sectional design, addressed to the whole Italian HHT population. COVID-19 cases, occurring throughout the first pandemic wave, were collected by a questionnaire-based semi-structured interview. Only the cases ascertained by laboratory confirmation (molecular/serological) were included for epidemiological estimates. Information concerning eventual SarS-Cov-2 infection, as well as regarding HHT-related manifestations and HHT-unrelated co-morbidities were collected by the questionnaire. Prevalence data were compared to Italian general population in the same period. RESULTS: The survey disclosed 9/296 (3.04%) COVID-19 cases, 8/9 of them being resident in Lombardy, the main epidemic epicenter. Pneumonia was reported by 4/9 patients, which prompted hospital admission and intensive care management in 2 cases. No fatal outcome was recorded. After careful refinement of epidemiological analysis, the survey evidenced overlapping infection risk in HHT compared to general population. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 infection profile parallels geographical distribution of epidemic foci. COVID-19 in HHT patients can lead to highly variable clinical profile, likely overlapping with that of general population. The HHT disease does not seem to involve a different approach in terms of hospital admission and access to intensive care with respect to general population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16533, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400713

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly modified our urban territories. One of the most strongly affected parameters was outdoor noise, caused by traffic and human activity in general, all of which were forced to stop during the spring of 2020. This caused an indubitable noise reduction both inside and outside the home. This study investigates how people reacted to this new unexpected, unwanted and unpredictable situation. Using field measurements, it was possible to demonstrate how the outdoor sound pressure level clearly decreased. Furthermore, by means of an international survey, it was discovered that people had positive reaction to the lower noise level. This preference was generally not related to home typology or location in the city, but rather to a generalized wish to live in a quieter urban environment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16529, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400730

RESUMO

At the beginning of 2020, the Italian Lombardy region was hit by an "epidemic tsunami" which was, at that point in time, one of the worst pandemics ever. At that moment the effects of SARS-COV 2 were still unknown. To evaluate whether the pandemic has influenced ART (Assisted Reproduction Techniques) outcomes in an asymptomatic infertile population treated at one of the major COVID-19 epicentres during the weeks immediately preceding lockdown. All ART procedures performed during two time periods were compared: November 1st, 2018 to February 28th, 2019 (non-COVID-19 risk) and November 1st, 2019 to February 29th, 2020 (COVID-19 risk). In total 1749 fresh cycles (883 non-COVID-19 risk and 866 COVID-19 risk) and1166 embryos and 63 oocytes warming cycles (538 and 37 during non-COVID and 628 and 26 during COVID-19 risk, respectively) were analysed. Clinical pregnancies per cycle were not different: 370 (25.38%) in non-COVID versus 415 (27.30%) (p = 0.237) during COVID-19 risk. There were no differences in biochemical pregnancy rates 52 (3.57%) versus 38 (2.50%) (p = 0.089) nor in ectopic pregnancies 4 (1.08%) versus 3 (0.72%) (p = 0.594), spontaneous miscarriages 84 (22.70%) versus 103 (24.82%) p = 0.487, nor in intrauterine ongoing pregnancies 282 (76.22%) versus 309 (74.46%) p = 0.569. A multivariate analysis investigating differences in spontaneous miscarriage rate showed no differences between the two timeframes. Our results support no differences in asymptomatic infertile couples' ART outcomes between the pre COVID and COVID-19 periods in one of the earliest and most severe pandemic areas.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Infertilidade/terapia , Taxa de Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256095, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398916

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is far more than a health crisis: it has unpredictably changed our whole way of life. As suggested by the analysis of economic data on sales, this dramatic scenario has also heavily impacted individuals' spending levels. To better understand these changes, the present study focused on consumer behavior and its psychological antecedents. Previous studies found that crises differently affect people's willingness to buy necessities products (i.e., utilitarian shopping) and non-necessities products (i.e., hedonic shopping). Therefore, in examining whether changes in spending levels were associated with changes in consumer behavior, we adopted a fine-grained approach disentangling between necessities and non-necessities. We administered an online survey to 3833 participants (age range 18-64) during the first peak period of the contagion in Italy. Consumer behavior toward necessities was predicted by anxiety and COVID-related fear, whereas consumer behavior toward non-necessities was predicted by depression. Furthermore, consumer behavior toward necessities and non-necessities was predicted by personality traits, perceived economic stability, and self-justifications for purchasing. The present study extended our understanding of consumer behavior changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results could be helpful to develop marketing strategies that consider psychological factors to meet actual consumers' needs and feelings.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0248255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411115

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is believed to originate in China from where it spread to other parts of the world. The first cluster of diseased individuals was reported in China as early as in December 2019. It has also been well established that the virus stroke Italy later in January or in February 2020, hence distinctly after the outbreak in China. The work by Apolone et al. published in the Italian Medical Journal in November 2020 and retracted upon expression of concern on 22 March 2021, however propose that the virus could have stroke people already in September 2019, possibly following even earlier outbreak in China. By fitting an early part of the epidemic curve with the exponential and extrapolating it backwards, we could estimate the day-zero of the epidemic and calculated its confidence intervals in Italy and China. We also calculated how probable it is that Italy encountered the virus prior 1 January 2020. We determined an early portion of the epidemic curve representing unhindered exponential growth which fit the exponential model with high determination >0.97 in both countries. We conservatively suggest that the day-zero in China and Italy was 8 December 2019 (95% CI: 3 Dec., 20 Dec.) and 22 January 2020 (95% CI: 16 Jan., 29 Jan.), respectively. Given the uncertainty of the very early data in China and adjusting hence our model to fit the exponentially behaved data only, we can even admit that the pandemic originated through November 2019 (95% CI: 31 Oct., 22 Dec.). With high confidence (p <0.01) China encountered the virus prior Italy. We generally view any pre-pandemic presence of the virus in humans before November 2019 as very unlikely. The later established dynamics of the epidemics data suggests that the country of the origin was China.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16046, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362966

RESUMO

Children that have a parent with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) suffer from the progressive loss of their beloved ones. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the difficulties faced by these children have increased. The study aimed to detect whether there were differences between the minors experiencing a relative's ALS and the minors with no experience of ALS and it aimed also to detect the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on these minors. The study involved Italian participants, in particular: the target group consisted of 38 children (7-18 years) (T0/T1); the control group consisted of 38 children (9-14 years) (T0 only). The following variables were measured: attachment with the Security Scale (SS), affects with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C), behavioural problems with Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), death representation with Testoni Death Representation Scale for Children (TDRS-C), self-concept with the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale (MSCS), resilience and socio-emotional skills with the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA). The results showed higher negative affectivity (p < .001), externalising behaviours (p < .05), uncertainty in reflective function (p < .05) in the target group compared to the control one; after the COVID-19 pandemic minors in the target group showed reduced certainty of mental states (p < .05) and interpersonal and scholastic self-esteem (p < .05). The impact of ALS on these minors is significant and produces negative affect, externalizing behaviours and uncertainty of mental states. The lockdown situation due to the COVID-19 pandemic has further aggravated minors in their school and interpersonal self-esteem.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Afeto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Emoções , Família , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pais , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem
13.
Biol Sex Differ ; 12(1): 45, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity seems to be influenced by genetic background, sex, age, and presence of specific comorbidities. So far, little attention has been paid to sex-specific variations of demographic, clinical, and laboratory features of COVID-19 patients referred to the same hospital in the two consecutive pandemic waves. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected in 1000 COVID-19 patients (367 females and 633 males), 500 hospitalized in the first wave and 500 in the second one, at the ASST Spedali Civili of Brescia from March to December 2020. Statistical analyses have been employed to compare data obtained in females and males, taking into account their age, and during the first and second COVID-19 waves. RESULTS: The mean age at the time of hospitalization was similar in females and males but was significantly higher for both in the second wave; the time elapsed from symptom onset to hospital admission did not differ between sexes in the two waves, and no correlation was observed between delayed hospital admission and length of hospitalization. The number of multi-symptomatic males was higher than that of females, and patients with a higher number of comorbidities were more frequently admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and more frequently died. Older males remained in the ICU longer than females and showed a longer disease duration, mainly the first wave. The highest levels of white blood cells, neutrophils, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen were significantly higher in males and in the first, and along with higher levels of D-dimer, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and procalcitonin which were preferentially documented in patients requiring ICU or died. While the rate of death in ICU was higher in males, the overall death rate did not differ between the sexes; however, the deceased women were older. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that once patients were hospitalized, the risk of dying was similar between females and males. Therefore, future studies should aim at understanding the reasons why, for a given number of SARS-CoV-2 infections, fewer females develop the disease requiring hospitalization. HIGHLIGHTS: Although the hospitalized males were significantly more, the similar number of hospitalizations of the > 75-year-old females and males could be due to the fact that in Brescia province, elderly women are about twice as many as men. Although males spent more days in the hospital, had a longer disease duration, developed a critical illness more frequently, and were admitted and died in the ICU more than females, the total rate of deaths among patients was not significantly different between sexes. Overall, the most frequent comorbidities were cardiovascular diseases, which were preferentially seen among patients hospitalized in the second wave; it is possible that the knowledge gained in the first wave concerning the association between certain comorbidities and worse disease evolution has guided the preferential hospitalization of patients with these predominant comorbidities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046456, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to establish hospitalisation costs of mesothelioma in Italy and to evaluate hospital-related trends associated with the 1992 asbestos ban. DESIGN: This is a retrospective population-based study of Italian hospitalisations treating pleura, peritoneum and pericardium mesothelioma in the period 2001-2018. SETTINGS: Public and private Italian hospitals reached by the Ministry of Health (coverage close to 100%). PARTICIPANTS: 157 221 admissions with primary or contributing diagnosis of pleural, peritoneal or hearth cancer discharged from 2001 to 2018.Primary and secondary outcome measures: number, length and cost of hospitalisations with related percentages. RESULTS: Each year, Italian hospitals treated a mesothelioma in 6025 admissions on average. Mean annual costs by site were €20 293 733, €3183 632 and €40 443 for pleura, peritoneum and pericardium, respectively. Pericardial mesothelioma showed the highest cost per admission (€6117), followed by peritoneal (€4549) and pleural cases (€3809). Percentage of hospitalisation costs attributable to mesothelioma was higher when it is located in pleura (53.4%) and pericardium (51.8%) with respect to peritoneum (41.2%). Overall annual hospitalisation cost, percentages of number and length of admissions showed an inverted U-shape, with maxima (of €25 850 276, 0.064% and 0.096%, respectively) reached in 2011-2013. Mean age at discharge and percentages of surgery and of urgent cases increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: The highest impact of mesothelioma on the National Health System was recorded 20 years after the asbestos ban (2011-2013). Hospitals should expect soon fewer but more severe patients needing more cares. To study the disease prevalence could help assistance planning of next decade.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Pleurais , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/terapia , Alta do Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: since October 2020, a second SARS-CoV-2 epidemic wave has hit Italy. We investigate the frequency of positive nasopharyngeal swabs among HCWs during the two waves and the association with occupation and demographic characteristics. METHODS: this is a retrospective, observational study conducted in a large university hospital in Milan, Northern Italy. We defined two epidemic waves: 1st (February 2020-July 2020) and 2nd (August 2020-January 2021). Occupational and demographic characteristics of HCWs who underwent nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 were collected. RESULTS: in the 1st wave, 242 positive subjects (7.2%) were found among 3378 HCWs, whereas in the 2nd wave, the positive subjects were 545 out of 4465 (12.2%). In both epidemic waves positive NPSs were more frequent among HCWs with health-related tasks and lower among students (p < 0.001). However, in the 2nd wave, workers engaged in non-health-related tasks had a peak of 20.7% positivity. Among 160 positive HCWs in the 1st wave who were tested again in the 2nd wave, the rate of reinfection based on SARS-CoV2 RNA cycle quantification value was 0.6%. CONCLUSIONS: during the 2nd epidemic wave, we confirmed a significant impact of COVID-19 among HCWs. The rise of infection rate among HCWs seems to reflect the increasing spread of SARS-CoV-2 among the overall population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444531

RESUMO

Among the various factors that could influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescence, body mass index (BMI) seems to play a key role as a main anthropometric parameter. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine, in a sample of Italian adolescents, whether HRQoL is associated with the different weight status categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese), according to BMI cut-off points for children, even considering sex differences. Data were collected from 1707 adolescents (n = 828 males) in seven schools. HRQoL was analyzed using the Italian version of KIDSCREEN-52. Males were more overweight and obese than females (13% vs. 10% and 4% vs. 2%, p < 0.05, respectively). In females, BMI categories are associated with physical well-being (p < 0.05), emotion/mood (p < 0.05), self-perception (p < 0.001), financial resources (p < 0.05), and bullying behavior (p < 0.05). In males, weight status is linked to physical well-being dimension (p < 0.001) and perception of self (p < 0.05). Our results may suggest that there is an association between weight status categories and HRQoL, more pronounced in females than in males. Interestingly, the weight status correlated more with the psychological dimension mainly in females, whereas in males, a stronger association between weight and physical status was observed, suggesting that given the complex, multifaceted, and dynamic nature of relationship between health-related quality of life and weight status in adolescents, multiple factors must be considered.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444575

RESUMO

From a socio-ecological perspective, individuals are influenced by the interplay of individual, relational, and societal factors operating as a broader system. Thereby, to support youth adjustment during the critical adolescence period, the interplay between these factors should be investigated. This study aimed to investigate cross-cultural differences in adolescents' maternal and paternal attachment, adolescents' adjustment difficulties and self-control, and in their association. N = 1000 adolescents (mean (M) age = 16.94, SD = 0.48; 45.90% males) from China, Italy, Spain, and Poland participated by completing self-report measures. Results showed cross-country similarities and differences among the considered variables and their associative pattern. Moreover, conditional process analysis evaluating the association between maternal vs. paternal attachment and adjustment difficulties, mediated by self-control, and moderated by country, was performed. Maternal attachment directly, and indirectly through greater self-control, influenced adjustment difficulties in all four countries. This association was stronger among Spaniards. Paternal attachment influenced directly, and indirectly through self-control, on adolescents' adjustment difficulties only in Italy, Spain, and Poland, and was stronger among Polish adolescents. For Chinese adolescents, paternal attachment solely associated with adjustment difficulties when mediated by self-control. Thus, results highlighted both similarities and differences across countries in the interplay between maternal vs. paternal attachment and self-control on adolescents' adjustment difficulties. Implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Autocontrole , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Polônia , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
Med Lav ; 112(4): 306-319, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446687

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies described burnout levels of healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, sex-related differences remain poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To describe sex-related differences in burnout and its determinants among HCWs during the first pandemic wave of the COVID-19 in Italy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed between April and May 2020. The framework given by the Job Demands Resources (JD-R) model was used to assess burnout determinants (risk and protective factors). RESULTS: Male HCWs (n=133) had higher levels of depersonalization than female HCWs (P=0,017) and female HCWs (n=399) reported greater emotional exhaustion rates (P=0,005). Female nurses were the most exposed to burnout (OR=2,47; 95%CI=1,33-4,60; P=0,004), emotional exhaustion (OR=1,89; 95% CI=1,03-3,48; P=0,041), and depersonalization (OR=1,91; 95% CI=1,03-3,53; P=0,039). Determinants of burnout differed between sexes, and some paradoxical associations were detected: the score of job demands was a protective factor in females for burnout, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization, resilience was a risk factor for males. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that the stressors in male and female HCWs tended to be associated with burnout differently. Both sexes showed alarming burnout levels, even if the weights of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization acted in different ways between the sexes. The revealed paradoxical effects in this study could reflect the study's cross-sectional nature, highlighting that more resilient and empathic individuals were more consciously overwhelmed by the challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic, thus reporting higher scores of emotional exhaustion and burnout. Future in-depth and longitudinal analyses are recommended to further explore sex-related differences in burnout among HCWs.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452319

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people globally since its first detection in late 2019. Besides humans, cats and, to some extent, dogs were shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the need for surveillance in a One Health context. Seven veterinary clinics from regions with high incidences of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were recruited during the early pandemic (March to July 2020) for the screening of patients. A total of 2257 oropharyngeal and nasal swab specimen from 877 dogs and 260 cats (including 18 animals from COVID-19-affected households and 92 animals with signs of respiratory disease) were analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) targeting the viral envelope (E) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes. One oropharyngeal swab from an Italian cat, living in a COVID-19-affected household in Piedmont, tested positive in RT-qPCR (1/260; 0.38%, 95% CI: 0.01-2.1%), and SARS-CoV-2 infection of the animal was serologically confirmed six months later. One oropharyngeal swab from a dog was potentially positive (1/877; 0.1%, 95% CI: 0.002-0.63%), but the result was not confirmed in a reference laboratory. Analyses of convenience sera from 118 animals identified one dog (1/94; 1.1%; 95% CI: 0.02-5.7%) from Lombardy, but no cats (0/24), as positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies and neutralizing activity. These findings support the hypothesis that the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pet cat and dog populations, and hence, the risk of zoonotic transmission to veterinary staff, was low during the first wave of the pandemic, even in hotspot areas.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Orofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética
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