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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1044, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythema migrans (EM) is the most common manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. Here, we examined EM patients in Norwegian general practice to find the proportion exposed to tick-transmitted microorganisms other than Borrelia, and the impact of co-infection on the clinical manifestations and disease duration. METHODS: Skin biopsies from 139/188 EM patients were analyzed using PCR for Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. Follow-up sera from 135/188 patients were analyzed for spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia, A. phagocytophilum and Babesia microti antibodies, and tested with PCR if positive. Day 0 sera from patients with fever (8/188) or EM duration of ≥ 21 days (69/188) were analyzed, using PCR, for A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and N. mikurensis. Day 14 sera were tested for TBEV IgG. RESULTS: We detected no microorganisms in the skin biopsies nor in the sera of patients with fever or prolonged EM duration. Serological signs of exposure against SFG Rickettsia and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 11/135 and 8/135, respectively. Three patients exhibited both SFG Rickettsia and A. phagocytophilum antibodies, albeit negative PCR. No antibodies were detected against B. microti. 2/187 had TBEV antibodies without prior immunization. There was no significant increase in clinical symptoms or disease duration in patients with possible co-infection. CONCLUSIONS: Co-infection with N. mikurensis, A. phagocytophilum, SFG Rickettsia, Babesia spp. and TBEV is uncommon in Norwegian EM patients. Despite detecting antibodies against SFG Rickettsia and A. phagocytophilum in some patients, no clinical implications could be demonstrated.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Medicina Geral , Ixodes , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Eritema , Seguimentos , Humanos , Laboratórios
2.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 70(3): 189-198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641693

RESUMO

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a febrile illness caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), frequently manifesting as inflammation of the central nervous system. TBEV is a typical arbovirus, i.e., belongs to a group of viruses transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. Taxonomically, TBEV is a member of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. The disease is endemic in North Eurasia, from western Europe to East Asia. The virus occurs in natural foci of the disease all over Czechia, where it is transmitted predominantly by the castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus). This infection has a potential to cause significant long-term disability affecting the quality of the patients life. Vaccine is available; however, vaccination coverage in Czechia is still low (around 30% of the total population). Lately, attention has been focused on new possibilities for early diagnosis and specific treatment, which so far has only been symptomatic or empirical.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos , Ixodes , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 580102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616701

RESUMO

Background: For the most important and well-known infections spread by Ixodes ticks, Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), there are recommendations for diagnosis and management available from several health authorities and professional medical networks. However, other tick-borne microorganisms with potential to cause human disease are less known and clear recommendations on diagnosis and management are scarce. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of published studies and reviews focusing on evaluation of laboratory methods for clinical diagnosis of human tick-borne diseases (TBDs), other than acute LB and TBE. The specific aim was to evaluate the scientific support for laboratory diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, rickettsiosis, neoehrlichiosis, babesiosis, hard tick relapsing fever, tularemia and bartonellosis, as well as tick-borne co-infections and persistent LB in spite of recommended standard antibiotic treatment. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search in 11 databases for research published from 2007 through 2017, and categorized potentially relevant references according to the predefined infections and study design. An expert group assessed the relevance and eligibility and reviewed the articles according to the QUADAS (diagnostic studies) or AMSTAR (systematic reviews) protocols, respectively. Clinical evaluations of one or several diagnostic tests and systematic reviews were included. Case reports, non-human studies and articles published in other languages than English were excluded. Results: A total of 48 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for evaluation. The majority of these studies were based on small sample sizes. There were no eligible studies for evaluation of tick-borne co-infections or for persistent LB after antibiotic treatment. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need for larger evaluations of laboratory tests using clinical samples from well-defined cases taken at different time-points during the course of the diseases. Since the diseases occur at a relatively low frequency, single-center cross-sectional studies are practically not feasible, but multi-center case control studies could be a way forward.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Laboratórios , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5539, 2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545081

RESUMO

The increasing burden of tick-borne orthonairovirus infections, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, is becoming a global concern for public health. In the present study, we identify a novel orthonairovirus, designated Yezo virus (YEZV), from two patients showing acute febrile illness with thrombocytopenia and leukopenia after tick bite in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2019 and 2020, respectively. YEZV is phylogenetically grouped with Sulina virus detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Romania. YEZV infection has been confirmed in seven patients from 2014-2020, four of whom were co-infected with Borrelia spp. Antibodies to YEZV are found in wild deer and raccoons, and YEZV RNAs have been detected in ticks from Hokkaido. In this work, we demonstrate that YEZV is highly likely to be the causative pathogen of febrile illness, representing the first report of an endemic infection associated with an orthonairovirus potentially transmitted by ticks in Japan.


Assuntos
Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/virologia , Nairovirus/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Febre/sangue , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Ixodes/virologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nairovirus/genética , Nairovirus/imunologia , Nairovirus/ultraestrutura , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírion/ultraestrutura
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 365-372, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current distribution of ticks and predict the suitable habitats of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2017, so as to provide insights into tick control and management of tick-borne diseases in these areas. METHODS: All publications pertaining to tick and pathogen distribution in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration were retrieved, and the geographical location of tick distribution was extracted. The effects of 19 climatic factors on the distribution of ticks were examined using the jackknife method, including the mean temperature of the wettest quarter, precipitation of the coldest quarter, mean temperature of the driest quarter, maximum temperature of the warmest month, precipitation of the driest month, minimal temperature of the coldest month, annual precipitation, mean daily temperature range, precipitation seasonality, annual temperature range, temperature seasonality, annual mean temperature, mean temperature of the warmest quarter, precipitation of the wettest quarter, isothermality, mean temperature of the coldest quarter, precipitation of the wettest month, precipitation of the driest quarter and precipitation of the warmest quarter. The distribution of ticks was analyzed in 2020 using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model, and the potential suitable habitats of ticks were predicted in 2070 using the MaxEnt model based on climatic data. RESULTS: A total of 380 Chinese and English literatures were retrieved, and 148 tick distribution sites were extracted, with 135 sites included in the subsequent analysis. There were 7 genera (Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor, Boophilus, Hyalomma and Amblyomma) and 27 species of ticks detected in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. The climatic factors affecting the distribution of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration mainly included the mean temperature of the wettest quarter and the precipitation of the coldest quarter, with 26.1% and 23.6% contributions to tick distributions. The high-, medium- and low-suitable habitats of ticks were 20 337.08, 40 017.38 km2 and 74 931.43 km2 in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2020, respectively. The climate changes led to south expansion of the suitable habitats of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2070, and the total areas of suitable habitats of ticks was predicted to increase by 18 100 km2. In addition, the high-, medium- and low-suitable habitats of ticks were predicted to increase to 24 317.84, 45 283.02 km2 and 83 766.38 km2 in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2070, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple tick species are widespread in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, and the future climate changes may lead to expansion of tick distribution in these areas.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Rios , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Temperatura
7.
Wiad Lek ; 74(8): 1952-1959, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To analyze the study of the D. reticulatus ticks epidemiology and to carry out their own examinations of ticks for their infection with pathogens of infectious diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Identification of ticks was performed by an optoelectronic SEO system - IMAGLAB. Detection of pathogens in the studied ticks was carried out in research laboratory of I. Horbachevsky TNMU by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in real time using the amplifier "RotorGene - 6000". RESULTS: Results: The review of scientific publications concerning an epidemiological condition of D. reticulatus ticks in particular countries of Europe and in Ukraine is carried out. According to the PCR results, 5 cases out of 21 samples of Borelia burgdorferi s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected. Researchers and students of I. Horbachevsky TNMU during 2017-2019 conducted field meetings in 74 locations from 10 regions of Ukraine: Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Zakarpattia, Ternopil, Volyn, Rivne, Zhytomyr, Chernihiv, Khmelnytsky, Vinnytsia. In 2000-2018, researchers at the Department of Acarology of the I.I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine the distribution of D. reticulatus in 311 locations in 79 settlements of its eastern and southern regions and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea revealed. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Medical geographic information system allows to create electronic cartographic models for scientific research and practical use for systematic monitoring, accounting and control of the medical and geographical situation of the study area on the prevalence of ticks and morbidity.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Dermacentor , Ixodes , Rickettsia , Animais , Humanos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 475, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553290

RESUMO

The emergence of tick-borne diseases has been reported as a serious problem in public health worldwide and many aspects of its epidemiology and effects on the health of its hosts are unclear. We aimed to perform an epidemiological study of tick-borne zoonotic Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Anaplasmataceae in horses from Midwestern Brazil. We also evaluated whether Borrelia spp. and Anaplasmataceae may be associated with hematological disorders in the sampled animals. Blood and serum samples as well as ticks were collected from 262 horses. Serum samples were used to perform serological tests, and hematological analyses were made using whole blood. Furthermore, DNA extracted from whole blood and ticks was used for molecular tests. Campo Grande is enzootic for tick-borne studied bacteria, since we found an overall exposure of 59.9% of the sampled horses, 28.7% of them presented co-exposure. Seropositivity rates of 20.6% for Borrelia spp., 25.6% for Rickettsia spp., and 31.6% for Anaplasmataceae were found in the sampled horses. Considering both molecular and serological tests for Borrelia spp., the infection rate was 48.0% (126/262). None of the tested horses showed molecular positivity for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The horses sampled displayed 7.2% of parasitism by ixodid ticks in single and coinfestations. We did not find DNA of any studied bacteria in the sampled ticks. Positive horses for Borrelia spp. and Anaplasmataceae agents displayed leukopenia, monocytopenia, and lymphopenia. Together, our results suggest that horses may play a role as sentinel host for zoonotic bacteria and Borrelia spp. and Anaplasmataceae agents can impair the health of horses.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Doenças dos Cavalos , Ixodes , Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
9.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(4): 769-783, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379235

RESUMO

In recent years, a new focus of the relict tick Haemaphysalis concinna was discovered in Western Poland, near Wolsztyn, Greater Poland voivodeship. This species may play an important role in the circulation of pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. In the present study we tested 880 juvenile ticks collected from rodents, including 427 H. concinna, 443 Ixodes ricinus and 10 Dermacentor reticulatus for three of the most common pathogens vectored by ticks in Poland: Rickettsia and Babesia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Additionally, molecular techniques were applied for accurate identification of tick host species (the voles Microtus and Alexandromys). Our study found differences in the range and prevalence of vectored pathogens between the three tick species. DNA of all three pathogens was found in I. ricinus. In juvenile H. concinna, DNA of Babesia microti, Borrelia afzelii and Rickettsia sp. was identified. Moreover, DNA of a new unnamed Babesia species related to B. crassa, was found in two H. concinna nymphs. This genotype of Babesia was previously identified in H. concinna in the Far East and then in Central Europe. DNA of Rickettsia raoulti and B. afzelii was detected in D. reticulatus nymphs. Among rodent hosts, Alexandromys oeconomus seems to be host of the highest significance for juvenile tick stages and was the only host species with B. afzelii detected in blood samples. Using phylogenetic methods, we confirmed a clear division between rodents from the genera Microtus and Alexandromys. Moreover, we found that A. oeconomus trapped in Western Poland clustered with a Central European A. oeconomus allopatric phylogroup.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Animais , Filogenia , Polônia , Rickettsia/genética
10.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 85(1): 83-99, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432178

RESUMO

In order to determine whether conserved tick salivary protein AV422 is immunogenic, the goal of our study was to detect specific IgG response within at-risk populations. Study groups included 76 individuals, differing in occurrence of recently recorded tick bites and health status. Western blotting with recombinant (r) protein derived from Ixodes ricinus (Ir) was performed. IgG response to Borrelia/Rickettsia, as indicators of previous tick infestations, was also assessed. Additionally, a detailed in silico AV422 protein sequence analysis was performed, followed by modelling of the interactions between peptides and corresponding MHC II molecules by molecular docking. Anti-rIrAV422 seroprevalences among individuals exposed to ticks were high (62.5, 57.9 and 66.7%) and anti-Borrelia/Rickettsia seroprevalences were 54.2, 15.8 and 44.4% among individuals with/without recent tick bite and patients suspected of tick-borne disease, respectively. In silico analysis of AV422 protein sequence showed a high level of conservation across tick genera, including also the predicted antigenic determinants specific for T and B cells. Docking to the restricted MHC II molecules was performed for all predicted AV422 T cell epitopes, and the most potent (highly immunogenic) epitope determinants were suggested. The epitope prediction reveals that tick salivary protein AV422 may elicit humoral immune response in humans, which is consistent with the high anti-rIrAV422 seroprevalence in tested at-risk subjects. Tick-borne diseases are a growing public health concern worldwide, and AV422 is potentially useful in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Rickettsia , Infestações por Carrapato , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 298: 109539, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375806

RESUMO

Zoonotic babesiosis caused by Babesia divergens, B. microti and B. venatorum is a vector-borne protozoan zoonosis of increasing public health importance worldwide. A complex system of animal reservoirs including a wide range of mammals and a limited number of birds play a central role in maintaining the infection. Governed by the PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the global prevalence, distribution and the diversity of zoonotic Babesia species in animal reservoirs. We pooled data using the random-effects model and determined quality of individual studies, heterogeneity and across study bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal instrument for prevalence studies, Cochran's Q-test and Egger's regression test respectively. Seventy nine studies from 29 countries reported a total 9311 positive cases of zoonotic Babesia infections from 46,649 animal reservoirs, yielding an overall estimated prevalence of 12.45% (95% CI: 10.09-15.27). Continental prevalence ranged between 8.55 (95% CI: 1.90-31.11) in Africa and 27.81% (95% CI: 21.25-35.48) in North America. Estimated prevalence in relation to country income levels, methods of diagnosis, study periods, sample sizes and reservoir categories ranged between 4.97 (95% CI: 1.80-13.00) and 30.12% (95% CI: 22.49-39.04). B. divergens was the most prevalent (12.50%, 95% CI: 8.30-18.39) of the 3 species of zoonotic Babesia reported in animal reservoirs. Zoonotic Babesia infections are prevalent in animal reservoirs across the world with the highest prevalence in North America and domestic animals. B. microti had the widest geographic distribution. We recommend tick control as well as strategic and prophylactic treatment against these parasites in animal reservoirs to curtail the economic losses associated with zoonotic Babesia species and possible transmission to humans.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Biodiversidade , Ixodes , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Ixodes/parasitologia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
12.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 70(2): 118-130, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412488

RESUMO

Borrelia miyamotoi is an emerging tick-borne pathogen phylogenetically belonging to spirochaetes causing relapsing fever. It is primarily transmitted by ticks from the Ixodes ricinus complex, similarly to borreliae causing Lyme borreliosis. Small rodents can serve as reservoir hosts. It is widespread in mild climate areas of the northern hemisphere, with constant low prevalence in ticks, in the range of units of percent. To date more than 200 human cases have been described including five cases of meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Clinical features of illness are non-specific, characterized by fever, fatigue, chills, headaches, muscles and joint pains. It can be treated with antibiotics. The diagnostic approach includes mainly PCR and serological methods. This review summarizes current knowledge on B. miyamotoi with an emphasis on taxonomy, ecology of vectors and reservoir hosts, geographical distribution, diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The review also highlights the need for an accurate determination of the etiology of the disease and its differentiation from Lyme borreliosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Febre Recorrente , Animais , Humanos , Febre Recorrente/diagnóstico , Febre Recorrente/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 685239, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414129

RESUMO

Malaria caused by Plasmodium species and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes affects large human populations, while Ixodes ticks transmit Babesia species and cause babesiosis. Babesiosis in animals has been known as an economic drain, and human disease has also emerged as a serious healthcare problem in the last 20-30 years. There is limited literature available regarding pathogenesis, immunity, and disease caused by Babesia spp. with their genomes sequenced only in the last decade. Therefore, using previous studies on Plasmodium as the foundation, we have compared similarities and differences in the pathogenesis of Babesia and host immune responses. Sexual life cycles of these two hemoparasites in their respective vectors are quite similar. An adult Anopheles female can take blood meal several times in its life such that it can both acquire and transmit Plasmodia to hosts. Since each tick stage takes blood meal only once, transstadial horizontal transmission from larva to nymph or nymph to adult is essential for the release of Babesia into the host. The initiation of the asexual cycle of these parasites is different because Plasmodium sporozoites need to infect hepatocytes before egressed merozoites can infect erythrocytes, while Babesia sporozoites are known to enter the erythrocytic cycle directly. Plasmodium metabolism, as determined by its two- to threefold larger genome than different Babesia, is more complex. Plasmodium replication occurs in parasitophorous vacuole (PV) within the host cells, and a relatively large number of merozoites are released from each infected RBC after schizogony. The Babesia erythrocytic cycle lacks both PV and schizogony. Cytoadherence that allows the sequestration of Plasmodia, primarily P. falciparum in different organs facilitated by prominent adhesins, has not been documented for Babesia yet. Inflammatory immune responses contribute to the severity of malaria and babesiosis. Antibodies appear to play only a minor role in the resolution of these diseases; however, cellular and innate immunity are critical for the clearance of both pathogens. Inflammatory immune responses affect the severity of both diseases. Macrophages facilitate the resolution of both infections and also offer cross-protection against related protozoa. Although the immunosuppression of adaptive immune responses by these parasites does not seem to affect their own clearance, it significantly exacerbates diseases caused by coinfecting bacteria during coinfections.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Babesia , Ixodes , Parasitos , Plasmodium , Animais , Eritrócitos , Feminino , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214027

RESUMO

A previously unrecognized Rickettsia species was isolated in 1976 from a pool of Ixodes pacificus ticks collected in 1967 from Tillamook County, Oregon, USA. The isolate produced low fever and mild scrotal oedema following intraperitoneal injection into male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Subsequent serotyping characterized this isolate as distinct from recognized typhus and spotted fever group Rickettsia species; nonetheless, the isolate remained unevaluated by molecular techniques and was not identified to species level for the subsequent 30 years. Ixodes pacificus is the most frequently identified human-biting tick in the western United States, and as such, formal identification and characterization of this potentially pathogenic Rickettsia species is warranted. Whole-genome sequencing of the Tillamook isolate revealed a genome 1.43 Mbp in size with 32.4 mol% G+C content. Maximum-likelihood phylogeny of core proteins places it in the transitional group of Rickettsia basal to both Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia asembonensis. It is distinct from existing named species, with maximum average nucleotide identity of 95.1% to R. asembonensis and maximum digital DNA-DNA hybridization score similarity to R. felis at 80.1%. The closest similarity at the 16S rRNA gene (97.9%) and sca4 (97.5%/97.6% respectively) is to Candidatus 'Rickettsia senegalensis' and Rickettsia sp. cf9, both isolated from cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). We characterized growth at various temperatures and in multiple cell lines. The Tillamook isolate grows aerobically in Vero E6, RF/6A and DH82 cells, and growth is rapid at 28 °C and 32 °C. Using accepted genomic criteria, we propose the name Rickettsia tillamookensis sp. nov., with the type strain Tillamook 23. Strain Tillamook 23 is available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Rickettsial Isolate Reference Collection (WDCM 1093), Atlanta, GA, USA (CRIRC accession number RTI001T) and the Collection de Souches de l'Unité des Rickettsies (WDCM 875), Marseille, France (CSUR accession number R5043). Using accepted genomic criteria, we propose the name Rickettsia tillamookensis sp. nov., with the type strain Tillamook 23 (=CRIRC RTI001=R5043).


Assuntos
Ixodes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rickettsia/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Cobaias , Masculino , Oregon , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Parasitol Res ; 120(9): 3255-3261, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292377

RESUMO

Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted Gram-negative endosymbiont of onchocercid nematodes and arthropods, has a role in the biology of their host; thus it has been exploited for the filariasis treatment in humans. To assess the presence and prevalence of this endosymbiont in reptiles and their ectoparasites, blood and tail tissue as well as ticks and mites collected from them were molecularly screened for Wolbachia DNA using two sets of primers targeting partial 16S rRNA and Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) genes. Positive samples were screened for the partial 12S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes for filarioids. Of the different species of lizards (Podarcis siculus, Podarcis muralis and Lacerta bilineata) and snakes (Elaphe quatuorlineata and Boa constrictor constrictor) screened from three collection sites, only P. siculus scored positive for Wolbachia 16S rRNA. Among ectoparasites collected from reptiles (Ixodes ricinus ticks and Neotrombicula autumnalis, Ophionyssus sauracum and Ophionyssus natricis mites), I. ricinus (n = 4; 2.8%; 95% CI, 0.9-7) from P. siculus, N. autumnalis (n = 2 each; 2.8%; 95% CI, 0.9-6.5) from P. siculus and P. muralis and O. natricis (n = 1; 14.3%; 95% CI, 0.7-55.4) from Boa constrictor constrictor scored positive for Wolbachia DNA. None of the positive Wolbachia samples scored positive for filarioids. This represents the first report of Wolbachia in reptilian hosts and their ectoparasites, which follows a single identification in the intestinal cells of a filarioid associated with a gecko. This data could contribute to better understand the reptile filarioid-Wolbachia association and to unveil the evolutionary pattern of Wolbachia in its filarial host.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Ácaros , Répteis/microbiologia , Wolbachia , Animais , Ixodes/microbiologia , Ácaros/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Répteis/parasitologia , Wolbachia/genética , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação
16.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101782, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274573

RESUMO

We developed a transwell assay to quantify migration of the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), toward Ixodes scapularis salivary gland proteins. The assay was designed to assess B. burgdorferi s.s. migration upward against gravity through a transwell polycarbonate membrane overlaid with 6% gelatin. Borreliae that channeled into the upper transwell chamber in response to test proteins were enumerated by flow cytometry. The transwell assay measured chemoattractant activity for B. burgdorferi s.s. from salivary gland extract (SGE) harvested from nymphal ticks during bloodmeal engorgement on mice 42 h post-attachment and saliva collected from adult ticks. Additionally, SGE protein fractions separated by size exclusion chromatography demonstrated various levels of chemoattractant activity in the transwell assay. Sialostatin L, and Salp-like proteins 9 and 11 were identified by mass spectrometry in SGE fractions that exhibited elevated activity. Recombinant forms of these proteins were tested in the transwell assay and showed positive chemoattractant properties compared to controls and another tick protein, S15A. These results were reproducible providing evidence that the transwell assay is a useful method for continuing investigations to find tick saliva components instrumental in driving B. burgdorferi s.s. chemotaxis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Borrelia burgdorferi/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia , Ixodes/química , Parasitologia/métodos , Animais , Borrelia burgdorferi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Saliva/química
17.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280697

RESUMO

Babesia canis, a widely distributed European tick-borne protozoan haemoparasite, causes canine babesiosis, the most important tick-borne disease afflicting dogs worldwide. The meadow tick, Dermacentor reticulatus, is considered to be the primary vector of this parasite in central Europe. Females of the more broadly distributed and medically important castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, also commonly feed upon dogs, but their role in the enzootic transmission cycle of B. canis is unclear. Here, we screened 1,598 host-seeking I. ricinus ticks collected from two different ecosystems, forest stands vs. urban recreational forests, for the presence of B. canis DNA. Ticks were sampled during their two seasonal peaks of activity, spring (May/June) and late summer (September). Babesia species were identified by amplification and sequencing of a hypervariable 18S rRNA gene fragment. Babesia canis was the only piroplasm detected in 13% of 200 larvae and 8.2% of 324 nymphs in the forest ecosystems. In urban recreational areas, B. canis DNA was found in 1.5% of 460 nymphs, 3.5% of 289 females and 3.2% of 280 males. Additionally, three samples, including one female, one male, and one nymph, were co-infected with B. venatorum and one nymph with B. divergens or B. capreoli. Our findings implicate that B. canis can be transmitted transovarially and maintained transstadially within populations of I. ricinus, but the vector competence of I. ricinus for transmitting B. canis remains to be investigated.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Ixodes/parasitologia , Animais , Cidades , Ecossistema , Florestas , Polônia
18.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101789, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280699

RESUMO

In the western United States, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls (Acari: Ixodidae) is the primary vector of the agents causing Lyme disease and granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans. The geographic distribution of the tick is associated with climatic variables that include temperature, precipitation, and humidity, and biotic factors such as the spatial distribution of its primary vertebrate hosts. Here, we explore (1) how climate change may alter the geographic distribution of I. pacificus in California, USA, during the 21st century, and (2) the spatial overlap among predicted changes in tick habitat suitability, land access, and ownership. Maps of potential future suitability for I. pacificus were generated by applying climate-based species distribution models to a multi-model ensemble of climate change projections for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 (moderate emission) and 8.5 (high emission) scenarios for two future periods: mid-century (2026-2045) and end-of-century (2086-2099). Areas climatically-suitable for I. pacificus are projected to expand by 23% (mid-century RCP 4.5) to 86% (end-of-century RCP 8.5) across California, compared to the historical period (1980-2014), with future estimates of total suitable land area ranging from about 88 to 133 thousand km2, or up to about a third of California. Regions projected to have the largest area increases in suitability by end-of-century are in northwestern California and the south central and southern coastal ranges. Over a third of the future suitable habitat is on lands currently designated as open access (i.e. publicly available), and by 2100, the amount of these lands that are suitable habitat for I. pacificus is projected to more than double under the most extreme emissions scenario (from ~23,000 to >51,000 km2). Of this area, most is federally-owned (>45,000 km2). By the end of the century, 26% of all federal land in the state is predicted to be suitable habitat for I. pacificus. The resulting maps may facilitate regional planning and preparedness by informing public health and vector control decision-makers.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Mudança Climática , Clima , Ixodes/fisiologia , Animais , California , Previsões , Modelos Biológicos , Parques Recreativos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148697, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252768

RESUMO

How weather affects tick development and behavior and human Lyme disease remains poorly understood. We evaluated relations of temperature and humidity during critical periods for the tick lifecycle with human Lyme disease. We used electronic health records from 479,344 primary care patients in 38 Pennsylvania counties in 2006-2014. Lyme disease cases (n = 9657) were frequency-matched (5:1) by year, age, and sex. Using daily weather data at ~4 km2 resolution, we created cumulative metrics hypothesized to promote (warm and humid) or inhibit (hot and dry) tick development or host-seeking during nymph development (March 1-May 31), nymph activity (May 1-July 30), and prior year larva activity (Aug 1-Sept 30). We estimated odds ratios (ORs) of Lyme disease by quartiles of each weather variable, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and other weather variables. Exposure-response patterns were observed for higher cumulative same-year temperature, humidity, and hot and dry days (nymph-relevant), and prior year hot and dry days (larva-relevant), with same-year hot and dry days showing the strongest association (4th vs. 1st quartile OR = 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.36, 0.43). Changing temperature and humidity could increase or decrease human Lyme disease risk.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Humanos , Umidade , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Temperatura
20.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(4): 825-834, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251570

RESUMO

Ticks may carry several pathogens as vectors and their pathogen load may vary due to differences in geography, climate and vegetation. In this study, we collected ticks from 39 districts of Istanbul (Turkey) between May and October, from 2013 to 2017, and identified them under stereo-microscope. In addition, we investigated the pathogens that the ticks carry (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia sp. and Babesia sp.) by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. We collected a total of 875 ticks from the ground and from various animals and kept them at 4 °C until experiments. We identified 248 Rhipicephalus bursa (28.3% of the total), 205 (23.4%) Rhipicephalus annulatus, 197 (22.5%) Haemaphysalis concinna, 149 (17.0%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 24 (2.7%) Hyalomma marginatum, 21 (2.4%) Ixodes ricinus, 13 (1.5%) Rhipicephalus kohlsi, 5 (0.6%) Hyalomma anatolicum, 5 (0.6%) Hyalomma aegyptium, 5 (0.6%) Dermacentor niveus and 3 (0.3%) Ixodes hexagonus. We included a total of 328 questing ticks in the study: 63 R. bursa, 63 R. sanguineus, 63 R. annulatus, 63 H. concinna, 24 H. marginatum, 21 I. ricinus, 13 R. kohlsi, 5 H. anatolicum, 5 H. aegyptium, 5 D. niveus and 3 I. hexagonus. Multiplex PCR indicated that 80 (24.4%) ticks were infected with Rickettsia sp., 5 (1.5%) with B. burgdorferi and 1 (0.3%) with Babesia sp. Our study indicated that Rickettsia is more common in ticks collected around Istanbul.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Animais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Rickettsia/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
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