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1.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 16(1): 75, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298108

RESUMO

Household responses to COVID-19 in different corners of the world represent the primary health care that communities have relied on for preventing and mitigating symptoms. During a very complex and confusing time, in which public health services in multiple countries have been completely overwhelmed, and in some cases even collapsed, these first-line household responses have been quintessential for building physical, mental, and social resilience, and for improving individual and community health. This editorial discusses the outcomes of a rapid-response preliminary survey during the first phase of the pandemic among social and community contacts in five metropolises heavily affected by the COVID-19 health crisis (Wuhan, Milan, Madrid, New York, and Rio de Janeiro), and in twelve rural areas or countries initially less affected by the pandemic (Appalachia, Jamaica, Bolivia, Romania, Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Georgia, Turkey, Pakistan, Cambodia, and South Africa). We summarized our perspectives as 17 case studies, observing that people have relied primarily on teas and spices ("food-medicines") and that there exist clear international plant favorites, popularized by various new media. Urban diasporas and rural households seem to have repurposed homemade plant-based remedies that they use in normal times for treating the flu and other respiratory symptoms or that they simply consider healthy foods. The most remarkable shift in many areas has been the increased consumption of ginger and garlic, followed by onion, turmeric, and lemon. Our preliminary inventory of food medicines serves as a baseline for future systematic ethnobotanical studies and aims to inspire in-depth research on how use patterns of plant-based foods and beverages, both "traditional" and "new", are changing during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Our reflections in this editorial call attention to the importance of ethnobiology, ethnomedicine, and ethnogastronomy research into domestic health care strategies for improving community health.


Assuntos
/terapia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais , Bebidas/provisão & distribução , Bolívia , Brasil , /prevenção & controle , Camboja , China , Alimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Itália , Jamaica , Lituânia , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Paquistão , Polônia , Romênia , População Rural , África do Sul , Espanha , Turquia , População Urbana
2.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53008

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To assess the status of the HIV epidemic and programmatic implementation in Jamaica while identifying strategies for achieving effective HIV control. Methods. The assessment included a review of the core indicators of the UNAIDS Global Monitoring Framework, a desk review of program reports, and unstructured interviews of stakeholders. Results. HIV prevalence among adults in Jamaica was 1.5% in 2018 with an estimated 32 617 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) and 27 324 persons (83.8%) diagnosed with HIV; 12 711 (39.0% of all PLHIV or 46.5% aware of their status) were on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in the public health sector and 61.8% PLHIV on ART were virally suppressed. HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men remains high (31.4% in 2011, 29.6% in 2017) but has declined among female sex workers (12% in 1990, 2% in 2017). HIV prevalence among public sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees, prison inmates and the homeless has increased in recent years. During 2018 approximately 200 000 persons (14% of the population 15-49 years) were tested with 1 165 newly diagnosed PLHIV, indicating that many of the estimated 1 600 newly infected persons in 2018 were unaware of their status. Conclusions. Critical policy initiatives are needed to reduce barriers to HIV services, ensure young persons have access to condoms and contraceptives, affirm the rights of the marginalized, reduce stigma and discrimination, and introduce pre-exposure prophylaxis. While HIV spread in Jamaica has slowed, the UNAIDS Fast Track goals are lagging. The HIV program must be strengthened to effectively control the epidemic.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Evaluar el estado de la epidemia de la infección por el VIH en Jamaica y de la ejecución programática, y determinar las estrategias para lograr un control eficaz de la infección por el VIH. Métodos. La evaluación incluyó una revisión de los indicadores básicos del Marco de Vigilancia Mundial del ONUSIDA, un estudio teórico de informes programáticos y entrevistas no estructuradas a los interesados directos. Resultados. La prevalencia de la infección por el VIH en adultos en Jamaica fue del 1,5% en el 2018, con unas 32 617 personas infectadas y unas 27 324 personas (83,8%) con diagnóstico de infección por el VIH; 12 711 personas (39,0% del total de personas con infección por el VIH, o el 46,5% de las que conocían su estado) estaban bajo tratamiento antirretroviral en el sector de salud pública, y el 61,8% de las personas con infección por el VIH que recibieron tratamiento antirretroviral alcanzó la supresión viral. La prevalencia de la infección por el VIH en hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres sigue siendo alta (31,4% en el 2011, 29,6% en el 2017), aunque ha descendido en las trabajadoras sexuales (12% en 1990, 2% en el 2017). En los últimos años, la prevalencia de la infección por el VIH en personas que acuden a centros públicos de atención de infecciones de transmisión sexual, presidiarios y personas sin hogar ha aumentado. En el 2018, aproximadamente 200 000 personas (14% de la población entre 15 y 49 años) se sometieron a la prueba de VIH, de las cuales 1 165 fueron diagnosticadas como personas recién infectadas por el HIV, lo cual indica que muchas de las 1 600 personas recién infectadas en el 2018 desconocían su estado. Conclusões. Se necesitan iniciativas políticas fundamentales para reducir los obstáculos que impiden el acceso a los servicios de atención de la infección por el VIH, asegurar que las personas jóvenes tengan acceso a preservativos y anticonceptivos, afirmar los derechos de las personas marginadas, reducir la estigmatización y la discriminación, e introducir la profilaxis previa a la exposición. Si bien la propagación de la infección por el VIH se ha desacelerado en Jamaica, el logro de los Objetivos de Respuesta Rápida del ONUSIDA está demorado. Debe fortalecerse el Programa contra el VIH para controlar eficazmente la epidemia.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Avaliar a situação da epidemia de HIV e a implementação do Programa Nacional de HIV na Jamaica, identificando estratégias eficazes para controlar o HIV. Métodos. A avaliação incluiu uma revisão dos indicadores-chave da Estrutura de Monitoramento Global do UNAIDS, uma revisão documental dos relatórios do programa e entrevistas não estruturadas com participantes. Resultados. A prevalência de infecção pelo HIV em adultos na Jamaica foi de 1,5% em 2018. Estima-se que haja 32.617 pessoas vivendo com o HIV (PVHIV), das quais 27.324 (83,8%) foram diagnosticadas; 12.711 (39,0% de todas as PVHIV, e 46,5% das que conhecem seu diagnóstico) estavam em terapia antirretroviral (TAR) no setor da saúde pública, e 61,8% das PVHIV em ART alcançaram a supressão viral. A prevalência de HIV entre homens que fazem sexo com homens continua alta (31,4% em 2011, 29,6% em 2017), mas diminuiu entre mulheres profissionais do sexo (12% em 1990, 2% em 2017). A prevalência de HIV entre os pacientes que frequentam clínicas públicas de atenção a infecções sexualmente transmissíveis, presidiários e desabrigados tem aumentado nos últimos anos. No ano de 2018, aproximadamente 200.000 pessoas (14% da população de 15 a 49 anos) foram testadas, sendo feitos 1.165 novos diagnósticos de infecção pelo HIV, o que indica que muitas das 1.600 pessoas recém-infectadas estimadas em 2018 não estavam cientes de sua infecção. Conclusões. São necessárias iniciativas políticas essenciais para reduzir as barreiras no acesso aos serviços de HIV, assegurar que os jovens tenham acesso a preservativos e métodos contraceptivos, afirmar os direitos dos marginalizados, reduzir o estigma e a discriminação e introduzir a profilaxia pré-exposição. Embora a propagação do HIV na Jamaica tenha perdido velocidade, o progresso para alcançar as metas da estratégia Fast Track do UNAIDS tem sido lento. Para controlar a epidemia de forma eficaz, é preciso fortalecer o Programa Nacional de HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Populações Vulneráveis , Comportamento Sexual , Jamaica , Infecções por HIV , Populações Vulneráveis , Comportamento Sexual , Infecções por HIV , Populações Vulneráveis , Comportamento Sexual
3.
Zootaxa ; 4853(2): zootaxa.4853.2.6, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056377

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Agoo Bahder Bartlett, Agoo beani sp. n. was found associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) in Jamaica. This species was discovered as part of a survey of the Caribbean basin to document planthopper diversity on palms. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 18S sequence data strongly support placement of the new species in Agoo. The morphological features of Omolicna cocoana Rodriguez-Leon Hidalgo-Gato from Cuba are reviewed and this species transferred into the genus Agoo.


Assuntos
Cocos , Hemípteros , Animais , Jamaica
4.
Prostate ; 80(15): 1365-1372, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) risk increases with African ancestry and a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Also, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in toll-like receptor (TLR) genes influence PC risk. This pilot study explores interactions between STIs and TLR-related SNPs in relation to PC risk among Jamaican men. METHODS: This case-control study evaluates two TLR related SNPs in 356 Jamaican men (194 controls and 162 cases) with or without history of STIs using stepwise penalized logistic regression in multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1>.12; p < .001) and IRF3_rs2304206 GG genotype (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.29-0<.78; p = .003) modulated PC risk in people with history of STIs. In the population with no history of STIs, resulting interactions between risk factors did not survive correction for multiple hypothesis testing. CONCLUSION: Overall, an interaction between the IFR3_rs2304206 variant and a history of exposure to STIs leads to greater decrease of PC risk than the presence of polymorphic genotype alone. These findings are suggestive and require further validation. Identification of gene variants along with detection of lifestyle behaviors may contribute to identification of men at a greater risk of PC development in the population.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/complicações , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236034, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the single-disease paradigm does not accurately reflect the individual experience, with increasing prevalence of chronic disease multimorbidity, and subtle yet important differences in types of co-occurring diseases. Knowledge of multimorbidity patterns can aid clarification of individual-level burden and needs, to inform prevention and treatment strategies. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity in Jamaica, identify population subgroups with similar and distinct disease profiles, and examine consistency in patterns identified across statistical techniques. METHODS: Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine multimorbidity patterns in a sample of 2,551 respondents aged 15-74 years, based on data from the nationally representative Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007/2008 and self-reported presence/absence of 11 chronic conditions. Secondary analyses compared results with patterns identified using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). RESULTS: Nearly one-quarter of the sample (24.1%) were multimorbid (i.e. had ≥2 diseases), with significantly higher burden in females compared to males (31.6% vs. 16.1%; p<0.001). LCA revealed four distinct classes, including a predominant Relatively Healthy class, comprising 52.7% of the sample, with little to no morbidity. The remaining three classes were characterized by varying degrees and patterns of multimorbidity and labelled Metabolic (30.9%), Vascular-Inflammatory (12.2%), and Respiratory (4.2%). Four diseases determined using physical assessments (obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia) were primary contributors to multimorbidity patterns overall. EFA identified three patterns described as "Vascular" (hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, stroke); "Respiratory" (asthma, COPD); and "Cardio-Mental-Articular" (cardiovascular disease, arthritis, mental disorders). CONCLUSION: This first study of multimorbidity in the Caribbean has revealed a high burden of co-existing conditions in the Jamaican population, that is predominantly borne by females. Consistency across methods supports the validity of patterns identified. Future research into the causes and consequences of multimorbidity patterns can guide development of clinical and public health strategies that allow for targeted prevention and intervention.


Assuntos
Análise de Classes Latentes , Multimorbidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111288, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658667

RESUMO

Surficial marine sediments were sampled along the south-east coast and in Discover Bay Jamaica. Total elemental composition was determined for the sediments using three techniques. Total mass fractions of Al, As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, La, Mn, Sb, Sc, Th, U, V, and Zn were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis; Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zr using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence; and Hg using a direct mercury analyser. Potential anthropogenic hotspots were assessed using indices including enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), ecological risk (Er) and potential ecological risk index (Ri). The quality of the sediments was also assessed using the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). Temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen and organic carbon content (OC) were determined to assess variation across sample sites. Results indicated moderate to severe ecological risk at sites in Port Royal and Discovery Bay with ecological risk values as high as 381.9.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Jamaica , Medição de Risco
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008490, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716942

RESUMO

Owing to the increased reports in Aedes-borne diseases in the Caribbean and Latin America, the United States Agency for International Development assisted the Jamaican Ministry of Health and Wellness in conducting insecticide susceptibility tests on Aedes aegypti populations. Sentinel sites were established in seven parishes of Jamaica (St. Catherine, Kingston and St. Andrew, St. Thomas, Portland, St. Mary and St. Ann) and Aedes aegypti eggs were collected, reared to adults per collected population and their susceptibility to varying pyrethroids and organophosphates were tested using the World Health Organization paper bioassays for these insecticides. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassay was used to assess susceptibility to the carbamate, bendiocarb. The voltage gated sodium channel gene mutations V1016I and I1011V, normally associated with pyrethroid resistance, were also analysed. The results showed that Aedes aegypti collected from all parishes exhibited resistance to pyrethroids at the following concentrations, permethrin 0.25-2.5%; deltamethrin 0.03-0.15%; lambda-cyhalothrin 0.03-0.3%; and etofenprox 0.5-2.5%. The insecticide deltamethrin at concentration 0.3% was the only pyrethroid tested that resulted in high mortality, 94.9 ± 0.34% knockdown within 1 hour of exposure and 98.95 ± 0.01% mortality (p <0.01) at 24 hours post exposure. The frequency of the voltage gated sodium channel gene mutation V1016I was high in the tested population, possibly accounting for the reduced sensitivity to pyrethroids. Organophosphate resistance was also observed in all populations tested. Mortality rates for 0.8% Malathion was 0.8 ± 0.70-60.68 ± 0.38% after 24 hour and 0.00-47.10 ± 3.02%, for pirimiphos-methyl 0.21%. Bendiocarb applied as 12.5 µg/ bottle resulted in mortality rates of 76.25 ± 4.30-100 ± 0.00% after 30 minutes of exposure. The results showed that Ae. aegypti from the seven parishes analysed demonstrated resistance to the insecticides tested. Deltamethrin and bendiocarb at concentrations 0.3% and 12.5µg respectively, were considered most effective, causing high mortality in the local populations. Routine monitoring and evaluations of Ae. aegypti populations from the included parishes are recommended. Additionally, the study results represent the most comprehensive testing to date with local Aedes aegypti populations distributed across different parishes of Jamaica and should be useful to guide national and sub national strategies for vector control and surveillance.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Jamaica
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369951

RESUMO

Over the years, Jamaica has experienced sporadic cases of dengue fever. Even though the island is vulnerable to dengue, there is paucity in the spatio-temporal analysis of the disease using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing tools. Further, access to time series dengue data at the community level is a major challenge on the island. This study therefore applies the Water-Associated Disease Index (WADI) framework to analyze vulnerability to dengue in Jamaica based on past, current and future climate change conditions using three scenarios: (1) WorldClim rainfall and temperature dataset from 1970 to 2000; (2) Climate Hazard Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) rainfall and land surface temperature (LST) as proxy for air temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the period 2002 to 2016, and (3) maximum temperature and rainfall under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 climate change scenario for 2030 downscaled at 25 km based on the Regional Climate Model, RegCM4.3.5. Although vulnerability to dengue varies spatially and temporally, a higher vulnerability was depicted in urban areas in comparison to rural areas. The results also demonstrate the possibility for expansion in the geographical range of dengue in higher altitudes under climate change conditions based on scenario 3. This study provides an insight into the use of data with different temporal and spatial resolution in the analysis of dengue vulnerability.


Assuntos
Dengue , Populações Vulneráveis , Mudança Climática , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Imagens de Satélites , Análise Espacial
9.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(7): 651-662, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358695

RESUMO

PURPOSE: General and central adiposity are associated with the risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa), but the role of these exposures on PCa survival among men of African ancestry are less studied. This study aimed to investigate the association of anthropometry at diagnosis with all-cause and PCa-specific mortality and evaluate whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) modulated this risk. METHODS: Associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) at diagnosis and mortality were examined in 242 men with newly diagnosed PCa enrolled between 2005 and 2007 and re-evaluated 10.9 years later. Multi-variable Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine associations of body size variables (using standard WHO cut-points and as continuous variables) with mortality, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, Gleason score, smoking, diabetes, primary treatment, and ADT therapy. RESULTS: A total of 139 deaths (all-cause mortality 6.98/100 person-years) occurred (PCa-specific deaths, 56; other causes, 66; causes unknown, 17). In multi-variable analysis BMI, WC and WHR categories at diagnosis were not associated with all-cause mortality even after adjusting for ADT. While WHR (but not BMI or WC) when included as a continuous variable predicted lower PCa-specific mortality (multi-variable adjusted WHR per 0.1 difference: HR, 0.50; 95%CI 0.28, 0.93), the effect disappeared with ADT covariance and excluding deaths within the first 2 years. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that central adiposity as measured by WHR may improve long-term survival among men of African ancestry. Metabolic studies to understand the mechanism for this association are needed.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Seguimentos , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Sleep Health ; 6(4): 469-477, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between self-reported sleep duration and cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors in African-origin adults residing in five countries spanning the epidemiologic transition. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Ghanaian (n = 491), South African (n = 503), Jamaican (n = 508), Seychellois (n = 501) and American (n = 480) men and women. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported sleep duration was obtained using questionnaires. Sex- and site-stratified logistic regression analyses investigated relationships between sleep duration, individual CM risk factors and a binary CM risk variable (presence of ≥3 CM risk factors), adjusting for age, physical activity and education. RESULTS: Sleep duration distributions varied by cohort: 44.5%, 41.4%, 35.9%, 16.8% and 2.5% of American, Jamaican, Seychellois, Ghanaian and South African men reported <7 h sleep per night respectively (p < 0.001). Similarly, 42.6%, 28.6%, 25.2%, 12.8% and 1.5% of American, Jamaican, Seychellois, Ghanaian and South African women reported <7 h sleep respectively (p < 0.001). American men reporting ≤6 h sleep were more likely to be in the elevated CM risk group (OR: 2.52, 95%CI: 1.02, 6.22, p = 0.045) and to have a high waist circumference (OR: 2.44, 95%CI: 1.07, 5.57, p = 0.034) compared to those reporting 8 h sleep. Jamaican women reporting ≤6 h sleep (OR: 2.53, 95%CI: 1.19, 5.36, p = 0.016) and American women reporting 7 h sleep (OR: 2.71, 95%CI: 1.17, 6.26, p = 0.002) were more likely to be obese than those reporting 8 h sleep. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between short sleep and CM risk factors were only evident in the American men and women and Jamaican women. Future interventions to address CM risk and sleep health may need to be country-specific when targeting high-risk populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Sono , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Seicheles/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231654, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340024

RESUMO

In marine environments, tropical and subtropical habitats are considered to be inherently less productive than more temperate systems. As such, foraging site fidelity among vertebrate predators occupying low-latitude marine systems is generally low as a response to an increased unpredictability of resources. We investigated the foraging movements of Masked Boobies breeding on Middle Cay, Jamaica using GPS loggers to examine if the presence of a nearby bathymetric feature influenced foraging site fidelity in a tropical system, the Caribbean Sea. According to the movements of tracked individuals, this population of boobies shows a high degree of spatial fidelity in foraging site selection, concentrated on the northern edge of Pedro Bank. We suggest this feature as an important location for marine conservation in the region and demonstrate its utility to foraging boobies via habitat modeling using a maximum entropy approach of relevant habitat variables. Finally, we place this study into the global context of Masked Booby foraging by examining the published literature of relevant tracking studies for population-level similarity in foraging metrics. According to hierarchical clustering of foraging effort, Masked Boobies demonstrate a density-dependent response to foraging effort regardless of colony origin or oceanic basin consistent with the principles of Ashmole's Halo.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Comportamento Consumatório , Comportamento Espacial , Animais , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Jamaica , Movimento
13.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024025

RESUMO

Many Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean experience a triple burden of malnutrition with high rates of obesity, undernutrition in children, and iron deficiency anemia in women of reproductive age, driven by an inadequate, unhealthy diet. This study aimed to map the complex dynamic systems driving unhealthy eating and to identify potential points for intervention in three dissimilar countries. Stakeholders from across the food system in Jamaica (n = 16), St. Kitts and Nevis (n = 19), and St. Vincent and the Grenadines (n = 6) engaged with researchers in two group model building (GMB) workshops in 2018. Participants described and mapped the system driving unhealthy eating, identified points of intervention, and created a prioritized list of intervention strategies. Stakeholders were also interviewed before and after the workshops to provide their perspectives on the utility of this approach. Stakeholders described similar underlying systems driving unhealthy eating across the three countries, with a series of dominant feedback loops identified at multiple levels. Participants emphasized the importance of the relative availability and price of unhealthy foods, shifting cultural norms on eating, and aggressive advertising from the food industry as dominant drivers. They saw opportunities for governments to better regulate advertising, disincentivize unhealthy food options, and bolster the local agricultural sector to promote food sovereignty. They also identified the need for better coordinated policy making across multiple sectors at national and regional levels to deliver more integrated approaches to improving nutrition. GMB proved to be an effective tool for engaging a highly diverse group of stakeholders in better collective understanding of a complex problem and potential interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Formulação de Políticas , Análise de Sistemas , Adolescente , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , São Cristóvão e Névis/epidemiologia , São Vicente e Granadinas/epidemiologia , Participação dos Interessados , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Behav Med ; 27(4): 378-388, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence reduces sex workers' ability to enforce consistent condom use. Less is known of violence and condom use among gender diverse sex workers in Jamaica, where both sex work and same-sex practices are criminalized. We examined pathways from violence to consistent condom use among sex workers in Jamaica. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a peer-driven sample of sex workers (n = 340: n = 124 cisgender men, n = 115 cisgender women, n = 101 transgender women) in Kingston, Ocho Rios, and Montego Bay, Jamaica. We conducted structural equation modeling using weighted least square estimation methods to test the direct effects of police harassment (ever), intimate partner violence (IPV) (ever), and recent (past 6-month) client violence on consistent condom use, and indirect effects via condom use self-efficacy, adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Moderation analysis was conducted to estimate the effect of binge drinking on condom use self-efficacy. We conducted a second SEM taking into consideration measurement invariance to test gender differences. RESULTS: Over half of participants reported police harassment, half intimate partner violence, and one-third client violence. Overall, the direct path from police harassment to consistent condom use was significant. Condom use self-efficacy mediated associations between client violence and IPV with consistent condom use. Binge drinking moderated the association between client violence and condom use self-efficacy. There were gender differences in these pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Violence has direct and indirect effects on condom use outcomes among sex workers in Jamaica. Multilevel, gender-tailored interventions at policy, police, and community levels can promote sex workers' health and human rights.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Jamaica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sexo Seguro , Autoeficácia , Trabalho Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
15.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-01-27.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51834

RESUMO

Mental health is critical to personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and successful contributions to society. Mental health conditions consequently impose a high burden not only on individuals, families and society, but also on economies. In Jamaica, mental health conditions are highly prevalent and major contributors to morbidity, disability, and premature mortality. Encouragingly, with timely and effective treatment, individuals suffering from mental health conditions can lead productive and satisfying lives. This publication, the first of its kind, provides evidence and guidance to support the development, financing, and implementation of mental health interventions in Jamaica. Specifically, it estimates the return on investment (ROI) from scaling up treatment for anxiety, depression, and psychosis. The results from this analysis show that Jamaica can significantly reduce the health and economic burden of mental health conditions by investing in cost-effective recommended interventions designed to improve mental health.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Doença Crônica , Indicadores de Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Economia da Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Jamaica
16.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-01. (PAHO/NMH/19-019).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51828

RESUMO

[Extract]. Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) and Mental Health (MH) conditions are major drivers of morbidity and mortality in Jamaica. Beyond the toll on health, they also impose a significant burden on the national economy since treatment for NCDs leads to high expenditures and individuals with NCDs or MH conditions are more likely to exit the labor force, miss days of work, and/or work at a reduced capacity. In addition, MH conditions generate high social costs as MH is critical to personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and successful contributions to society. These two investment cases were developed to help strengthen Jamaica’s capacity to generate and use economic evidence on NCDs and MH in order to support the development, financing, and implementation of national multisectoral prevention and control strategies. They estimate the return on investment (ROI), over the next 15-year period, from implementing priority policy interventions for tobacco and alcohol control, clinical interventions to reduce cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, and scaling up treatment for depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Though NCDs and MH conditions pose a significant health and economic burden, the results from these two investment cases show that Jamaica can significantly reduce this burden by investing in recommended interventions designed to improve NCDs and MH.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Indicadores de Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Economia da Saúde , Jamaica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Tabagismo
17.
J Homosex ; 67(4): 468-488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526442

RESUMO

Jamaica has been called one of the world's most anti-gay countries. However, little empirical research has investigated methods of reducing this prejudice. Intergroup contact-(positive) interaction with someone from a different social group-is one of the most widely tested and strongly favored methods of reducing prejudice. However, the role of contact in this specific context is not clear, particularly the relative importance of contact compared to other variables that predict (less) prejudice. This current cross-sectional research investigated that question using a large, representative sample of Jamaican participants (N = 942). As in prior research, contact predicted less anti-gay prejudice, and the (negative) relationship between contact and anti-gay behaviors was mediated by intergroup anxiety and attitudes, even when other important predictors were taken into account. However, contact was a less important predictor than gender, education, or religiosity. Implications for intergroup contact and prejudice-reduction strategies in Jamaica are discussed.


Assuntos
Homofobia , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Ansiedade , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero
18.
J Transcult Nurs ; 31(3): 304-311, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441706

RESUMO

Introduction: This study explored how global health service learning supported nursing student engagement in the process of cultural humility and how it shaped student understanding of themselves and their ability to develop supportive intercultural relationships. Methods: Written reflections were collected from eight second-year students while on a 9-day practicum in a low-resource Caribbean country. Six students participated in posttrip interviews. Thematic analysis was used to illuminate the students' lived experience. Results: Four student themes emerged: (1) overcoming challenges, (2) opening our eyes, (3) seeing difference as a strength, and (4) learning with and from each other. While participants were inherently ethnocentric, the process of cultural humility curbed their sense of superiority and enabled the development of supportive intercultural relationships with their hosts. Discussion: This global health service learning was an effective strategy to enhance student nurses' learning about themselves and intercultural relationships and to develop the attributes of cultural humility.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Enfermeiras Internacionais/educação , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Competência Cultural/psicologia , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/tendências , Saúde Global/educação , Humanos , Jamaica , Enfermeiras Internacionais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(2): 180-185, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778181

RESUMO

We examine whether marijuana decriminalization in Jamaica, a country that historically has had relatively widespread use of the drug, has led to an increase in its use, the frequency of use and the money spent on it. To this end, we use a national drug survey dataset with extensive information on people's use of, attitudes towards, access to marijuana. Our econometric analysis shows that awareness of the legislation has a positive correlation with the use of the substance. Worryingly, decriminalization positively correlates with the likelihood of first time and general use for youths. There is also some evidence that the legislation results in a substitution away from alcohol towards marijuana consumption for youths. From a policy perspective, a marijuana monitoring system can be implemented to follow the consumption patterns of youths. This should involve establishing school-level programmes that monitor students, and where potential drug users are identified, school officials should intervene to curb students' drug appetite before an escalated use of marijuana.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Fumar Maconha , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar Maconha/tendências , Modelos Econométricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Nurse Educ Today ; 84: 104221, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International service learning is becoming widely used in nursing education as a means to provide global learning opportunities as well as part of a clinical learning experiences. Concrete outcomes for these experiences have not been clearly supported in previous research. Professional nursing values are an important learning outcome for nursing students and development of professional nursing values has been found to occur through various learning experiences. Determining if international service learning experiences facilitate the development of professional nursing values can support the use of international service learning as a viable pedagogy. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine if there was a difference in professional nursing values development in students who participate in international service learning as part of their clinical experiences compared to those who do not. DESIGN: The research was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test design. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Undergraduate students participating in one week international service learning as part of their clinical hours were compared with students who did not participate in international service learning. METHODS: Comparison of professional nursing values development between the experimental and control group was completed using the Nurses Professional Values Scale. RESULTS: The study showed the use of international service learning as part of clinical was at least equivalent in the development of professional nursing values as traditional clinical. In addition, it supported the development of professional nursing values through clinical learning overall. CONCLUSION: The use of international service learning is a viable option for clinical experiences as a means to develop professional nursing values.


Assuntos
Intercâmbio Educacional Internacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Valores Sociais , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Jamaica , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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