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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 16(1): 3, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We report our experience with a validated waist-worn activity monitor in Jamaican adolescents attending urban high schools. Seventy-nine adolescents from the Global Diet and Activity Research (GDAR) study, recruited from 5 urban Jamaican high schools (two coeducational (n = 37), two all-female schools (n = 32) and one all-boys school (n = 10)) were asked to wear Actigraph wGT3X-BT accelerometers for 7 days (24-h), removing the device only when bathing or swimming. They also logged wake up and bed times in an activity diary. Accelerometry was considered valid if at least 4 days with ≥ 10-h monitor wear were recorded. Validity was compared by adolescent demographic and school characteristics. We also reviewed the students' written feedback on objective physical activity measurement. RESULTS: Participants, 80.5% female, had a mean age of 15.5 ± 0.8 years with 60% attending schools in low-income communities. Accelerometer return rates were > 98% with 84% providing valid data. Validity did not vary by age group, sex and school setting. While participants were excited about participating in the accelerometer sub-study, commonly reported challenges included monitor discomfort during sleep and maintaining the study diary. Objective measurement of physical activity using 24-h waist-worn accelerometers is feasible and acceptable in Jamaican adolescents.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Jamaica , Estudantes , Natação
2.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 66(1): 61-83, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580548

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined the speech acoustic characteristics of Jamaican Creole (JC) and English in bilingual preschoolers and adults using acoustic duration measures. The aims were to determine if, for JC and English, (a) child and adult acoustic duration characteristics differ, (b) differences occur in preschoolers' duration patterns based on the language spoken, and (c) relationships exist between the preschoolers' personal contextual factors (i.e., age, sex, and percentage of language [%language] exposure and use) and acoustic duration. METHOD: Data for this cross-sectional study were collected in Kingston, Jamaica, and New York City, New York, United States, during 2013-2019. Participants included typically developing simultaneous bilingual preschoolers (n = 120, ages 3;4-5;11 [years;months]) and adults (n = 15, ages 19;0-54;4) from the same linguistic community. Audio recordings of single-word productions of JC and English were collected through elicited picture-based tasks and used for acoustic analysis. Durational features (voice onset time [VOT], vowel duration, whole-word duration, and the proportion of vowel to whole-word duration) were measured using Praat, a speech analysis software program. RESULTS: JC-English-speaking children demonstrated developing speech motor control through differences in durational patterns compared with adults, including VOT for voiced plosives. Children's VOT, vowel duration, and whole-word duration were produced similarly across JC and English. The contextual factor %language use was predictive of vowel and whole-word duration in English. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study contribute to a foundation of understanding typical bilingual speech characteristics and motor development as well as schema in JC-English speakers. In particular, minimal acoustic duration differences were observed across the post-Creole continuum, a feature that may be attributed to the JC-English bilingual environment. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.21760469.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Fonética , Criança , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Jamaica , Estudos Transversais , Idioma , Acústica
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1040952, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36582373

RESUMO

Introduction: Violence against children (VAC) is a violation of child rights, has high prevalence in low- and middle-income countries, is associated with long-term negative effects on child functioning, and with high economic and social costs. Ending VAC at home and at school is thus a global public health priority. Methods: In Jamaica, we evaluated an early childhood, teacher-training, violence-prevention programme, (the Irie Classroom Toolbox), in a cluster-randomised trial in 76 preschools. The programme led to large reductions to teachers' use of VAC, although the majority of teachers continued to use VAC at times. In this paper, we describe a mixed-method evaluation of the Irie Classroom Toolbox in the 38 Jamaican preschools that were assigned to the wait-list control group of the trial. In a quantitative evaluation, 108 preschool teachers in 38 preschools were evaluated at pre-test and 91 teachers from 37 preschools were evaluated at post-test. One preschool teacher from each of these 37 preschools were randomly selected to participate in an in-depth interview as part of the qualitative evaluation. Results: Preschool teachers were observed to use 83% fewer instances of VAC across one school day after participating in the programme, although 68% were observed to use VAC at least once across two days. The qualitative evaluation confirmed these findings with all teachers reporting reduced use of violence, but 70% reporting continued use of VAC at times. Teachers reported that the behaviour change techniques used to deliver the intervention increased their motivation, knowledge and skills which in turn led to improved child behaviour, improved relationships and improved professional well-being. Direct pathways to reduced use of VAC by teachers were through improved child behaviour and teacher well-being. The main reasons for continued use of VAC were due to barriers teachers faced using positive discipline techniques, teachers' negative affect, and child behaviours that teachers perceived to be severe. Discussion: We describe how we used the results from the mixed-method evaluation to inform revisions to the programme to further reduce teachers' use of VAC and to inform the processes of training, supervision and ongoing monitoring as the programme is scaled-up through government services.


Assuntos
Professores Escolares , Violência , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Violência/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Motivação , Jamaica
4.
Neotrop Entomol ; 51(6): 830-839, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331802

RESUMO

Flies of the family Calliphoridae, commonly called blow flies, are important in the decomposition process. Knowledge on their succession pattern on corpses, species identification and the duration of their life cycle stages can be useful in forensic investigations especially when estimating the post-mortem interval. We performed linear-based morphometrics on the cephalopharyngeal skeleton of four blow fly species found in Jamaica to distinguish species and determine larval development stage. We collected eggs from pigs' heads used as bait in the field and conducted rearing exercises in the laboratory. We used the internal skeletonized structure, the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, to develop a practical and efficient method for species identification. For the first instar, we found species can be differentiated using all the measurements analysed in the study. We found that the mouth hook length may be useful in distinguishing larvae in the second instar. For the larvae in the third instar, the whole length of the skeleton, from mouth hook to length of the dorsal cornue, may be useful for separating species. We provide information on the cephalopharyngeal skeleton of Lucilia lucigerens (James), a blow fly species endemic to Jamaica, for the first time. Our work provides relevant information that could be utilized for species identification and life stage determination if fly evidence is to be incorporated in forensic investigations in Jamaica.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae , Entomologia Forense , Animais , Calliphoridae/anatomia & histologia , Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Jamaica , Larva , Suínos , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Kingston; PAHO; 2022-11-23. (PAHO/JAM/22-0001).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56352

RESUMO

This Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Annual Report outlines contributions and achievements in Jamaica, Bermuda, and the Cayman Islands in the year 2021. The report also reinforces PAHO/WHO's core mission, through focus on the country level, recognizing that progress toward sustainable development hinges on improved health at the local and national levels. In 2021, PAHO/WHO supported Jamaica, Bermuda and the Cayman Islands on their path toward disaster risk reduction as well as the ongoing implementation of Phase II of the Smart Health Care Facilities in the Caribbean Project. This project, which aims to enhance the resilience of health facilities to ensure continuity of service delivery before, during and after hazards, such as hurricanes, has led to the upgrade of nine facilities so far. Working toward the upcoming restructuring of the Jamaican Ministry of Health and Wellness (MOHW) and Regional Health Authorities (RHAs) and health care reform in Jamaica, the country signed a technical cooperation agreement with PAHO to provide a national voluntary contribution, with projects developed to strengthen public financial management and results-based management, as well as a strategic plan for health information systems and a concept note for policy on health research. PAHO supported Jamaica’s efforts as the pandemic impact underscored the need to include mental health in emergency and disaster management, as well as activities that contributed to achieving milestones in tobacco control and road safety. Furthermore, PAHO assisted with initiatives to tackle the high prevalence of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) in the population and promote better nutrition, such as the National Infant and Young Child Feeding Policy and Strategic Plan and front-of-package labelling.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emergências , Sistemas de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Equidade , Equidade de Gênero , Diversidade Cultural , Cooperação Técnica , Região do Caribe , Jamaica , Bermudas , Índias Ocidentais
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292793

RESUMO

Aluminum (Al) is a metallic toxicant at high concentrations following natural or unnatural exposures. Dietary intake is considered as the main source of aluminum exposure in children. We used data from 366 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2-8 years) who participated as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study in Jamaica. We investigated additive and interactive associations among environmental factors and children's genotypes for glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes (GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1), in relation to having a detectable blood aluminum concentration (BAlC) of >5.0 µg/L, using multivariable logistic regression models. Findings from interactive models revealed that the odds of having a detectable BAlC was significantly higher among children who ate string beans (p ≤ 0.01), whereas about 40% lower odds of having a detectable BAlC was observed in children with higher parental education level, (p = 0.02). A significant interaction between consumption of saltwater fish and GSTP1 in relation to having a detectable BAlC using either co-dominant or dominant genetic models (overall interaction p = 0.02 for both models) indicated that consumption of saltwater fish was associated with higher odds of having a detectable BAlC only among children with the GSTP1 Ile105Val Ile/Ile genotype using either co-dominant or dominant models [OR (95% CI) = 2.73 (1.07, 6.96), p = 0.04; and OR (95% CI) = 2.74 (1.08, 6.99), p = 0.03]. Since this is the first study from Jamaica that reports such findings, replication in other populations is warranted.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Polimorfismo Genético , Alumínio/toxicidade , Jamaica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética
8.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 34(10): 1103-1105, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191071
9.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 53(3): 583-592, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36214244

RESUMO

Although reports of tumors in chiropteran species are rare, postmortem examinations conducted on aging captive populations suggest that neoplasia may be more prevalent and clinically more significant contributors to morbidity and mortality than previously appreciated in these animals. A retrospective study was conducted to describe cases of neoplasia identified in Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) under human care at the Vancouver Aquarium between 01 January 2013 and 31 March 2021. Approximately 13.2% (N = 47/355) of the bat population died within this time span, and gross and histologic postmortem examinations were performed on 28 of 47 individuals. There were eight malignant and three benign neoplasms detected in 10 cases (eight females, two males), including: malignant histiocytoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, two squamous cell carcinomas, spindle cell sarcoma, periosteal chondrosarcoma, uncharacterized uterine neoplasia with unrelated multicentric pulmonary carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. Benign variants included three suspected uterine leiomyomas. A wide variety of tumor types and tissue predilections were identified, suggesting a complex and perhaps multifactorial pathogenesis in neoplastic transformation in microchiropterans. To the authors' knowledge, these tumor types have not been previously described in Artibeus sp., and some of these neoplasms have not previously been reported in chiropterans.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Neoplasias , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 49(4): 359-365, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054809

RESUMO

Jamaican adults with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in South Florida often believe taking conventional medications can cause harm. In an effort to limit adverse effects of these medicines, they frequently engage in folk care. However, this practice could actually increase risks of DM-associated complications, such as chronic kidney disease. Little is known about what folk care Jamaican adults are integrating into everyday health care. This focused ethnography explored and described how Jamaican adults with DM who live in South Florida use folk care for managing their DM. Knowing what folk care is part of everyday health practices among ethnical and racially diverse populations, such as Jamaican adults in this study, can help inform nephrology nursing practice and support future research.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus , Adulto , Florida , Humanos , Jamaica , Autocuidado
11.
Cancer Control ; 29: 10732748221131225, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and serum calcium have been associated with incident prostate cancer (PCa). However, there is limited data on whether these metabolites predict survival in men of African descent, a population disproportionately affected by PCa. We studied the relationship of 25(OH)D at PCa diagnosis with all-cause and cancer-specific mortality among Jamaican men and examined whether serum calcium modified any associations. METHODS: Serum 25(OH)D from 152 Jamaican men with incident PCa within the Prostate Cancer Risk Evaluation (PROSCARE) study were re-evaluated approximately 11 years after enrollment. 25(OH)D analyses were stratified using the using Holick criteria. PCa-specific and all-cause mortality were examined in Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression models adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking and Gleason score. Restricted cubic splines evaluated nonlinear associations. Serum calcium was assessed as an effect modifier of the association between 25(OH)D and mortality. RESULTS: Of cases with available 25(OH)D, 64 men with PCa survived, 38 deaths were PCa specific and 36 died of other causes. At baseline, 9.9% of cases were vitamin D deficient and 61.2% were vitamin D sufficient. Compared to 25(OH)D sufficient men, those with 25(OH)D <20.0 ng/mL concentrations were associated with higher PCa-specific mortality (adjusted HR, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.68, 14.63, P = .004) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 2.40; 95%CI, 1.33, 4. 32, P = .003). Serum calcium was not associated with survival and did not modify any associations with 25(OH)D. CONCLUSIONS: 25(OH)D deficiency at PCa diagnosis predicted decreased survival for overall and PCa-specific cancer in Caribbean men of African ancestry.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Próstata , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 184: 114148, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155411

RESUMO

Microplastic transfer between horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) and migratory shorebirds through consumption of crab eggs was examined in Jamaica Bay, New York. Fertilized and unfertilized crab eggs, shorebird fecal pellets, beach sand, and bay water were processed with a hydrogen peroxide solution to remove organic material, then stained with a Nile Red to identify microplastics using fluorescence microscopy. Microplastics were present in all samples and ranged from approximately26-1300 µm. Unfertilized and fertilized eggs contained significantly higher numbers of microplastic particles per gram than shorebird fecal pellets, beach sand, and bay water. The presence of microplastics in unfertilized egg samples indicates that microplastics undergo maternal transfer during oogenesis. We estimated that 1 g of horseshoe crab eggs could contain approximately 426 to 840 microplastic particles, suggesting that shorebirds feeding on this resource could be ingesting a substantial burden of microplastics during their migratory stopover, much of which appears to be retained by shorebirds, rather than being eliminated in their fecal pellets.


Assuntos
Caranguejos Ferradura , Microplásticos , Animais , Plásticos , Baías , New York , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Jamaica , Areia , Água
13.
J Med Screen ; 29(4): 219-223, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the diagnostic challenges of newborn screening for abnormal haemoglobins. SETTING: Cord blood samples from 13 hospitals in southwest Jamaica taken in 2008-2019. METHODS: Blood spots, collected from the umbilical cord, were analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to reveal phenotypes for HbSS and HbCC, but genotype confirmation may require parental studies or gene sequencing. Such cases that were successfully traced were analysed in this follow-up study. RESULTS: HPLC screening of 121,306 samples detected HbAS in 11,846 (9.8%), HbAC in 4508 (3.7%) and other electrophoretic abnormalities in 1090 babies. Among 101 previously unconfirmed cases, 34/90 (38%) with HPLC evidence of a HbSS phenotype had other genotypes, and 7/11 (64%) with a HbCC phenotype had other genotypes. Syndromes from the interaction of ß thalassaemia occurred in 112 babies (85 with HbS, 27 with HbC) and of genes for hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) in 18 (12 with HbS, 6 with HbC). Variants other than HbS and HbC occurred in 270 babies, 16 in combination with either HbS or HbC, and 254 as traits. Most variants are benign even when inherited with HbS, although HbO Arab, HbD Punjab, or Hb Lepore Washington, which occurred in 6 cases, may cause sickle cell disease. CONCLUSIONS: Genes for ß thalassaemia and HPFH are common in western Jamaica and when associated with HbS may present diagnostic challenges in newborns, as HbF and HbA2 have not reached diagnostic levels. Family and DNA studies may be necessary for genotype confirmation.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Hemoglobinas Anormais , Talassemia beta , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , DNA , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina Falciforme/genética , Hemoglobinas Anormais/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Jamaica , Triagem Neonatal/métodos
14.
Violence Vict ; 37(5): 625-640, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973811

RESUMO

The association between adolescents' involvement in sexual intercourse and their experiences with adolescent dating violence (ADV) is an understudied topic. This study examined this relationship for 178 Jamaican adolescents in Grades 9-11. The expectation that adolescents who reported having had sexual intercourse would report greater victimization and greater perpetration than adolescents who had not had intercourse was consistent only for sexual abuse. Analyses also showed that sexually experienced males perpetrated and experienced more psychological abuse compared to males who were not so experienced. These results suggest different experiences based on adolescents' sex and so support others' calls for ADV research to do more examinations by sex. Also, it endorses the importance of doing research on both victims and perpetrators of intimate abuse. Implications of these findings for sexual and relationship education of adolescents are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Jamaica , Masculino , Abstinência Sexual
15.
Matern Child Health J ; 26(10): 2126-2136, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960420

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The 2030 health agenda for the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals promote exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 months of life as a central step towards ensuring the survival of infants. As Jamaica attempts to achieve this goal, monitoring the rates of EBF is desirable. Currently, EBF rate is measured by questionnaires which are subject to recall and social desirability biases. We determined the rate of EBF using the Deuterium-oxide dose-to-mother (DTM) method and 24-h recall. The concordance of both methods and urban-rural differences of EBF were evaluated. Additionally, the growth of infants who were exclusively breastfed was compared to the infants who were mixed-fed. METHODS: Sixty-one healthy mother-child pairs were followed from birth. EBF was measured at 6 weeks. Growth was determined using standard anthropometric measurements. Differences in means were assessed by independent t-test or ANOVA. The agreement between the DTM and 24-h recall method was assessed with the kappa statistic. Differences in anthropometry and location were determined using a repeated measure model approach. RESULTS: Thirty (49%) women exclusively breastfed their infants with mean breast milk intake of 1024.3 ± 256.9 g/day. There was moderate agreement between the methods (Agreement 69%, kappa 0.37, p = 0.002). Rural women (65%) were more likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding. There was no significant difference between the growth of the exclusively breastfed infant and mixed-fed infants. CONCLUSION: EBF rate was successfully measured using the DTM method. Women from urban settings are less likely to practice EBF. Further research may be needed to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors affecting breastfeeding practices in urban Jamaica.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Mães , Deutério , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Jamaica , Masculino , Óxidos
16.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, ago. 2022. Special Issue Improving Household Nutrition Security and Public Health in the CARICOM
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56280

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify and assess the determinants of unhealthy dietary habits among a sample of survey participants in Jamaica. Methods. Because of resource constraints, this cross-sectional assessment is based on a three-stage non-probability sample of 374 survey respondents in Jamaica aged ≥18 years. Firstly, three administrative areas (parishes) were randomly selected. Secondly, the main commercial areas within the selected parishes were identified, from which a non-probability sample of establishments was drawn. A broad selection of establishments covering public, private, and nongovernmental organizations was chosen. This array of establishments was selected to capture a sample of respondents that was as representative as possible. Patrons and employees in the selected establishments were asked to complete a questionnaire. Results. Respondents’ self-assessment of their general consumption revealed that 48.4% were unhealthy eaters. Among these, the top reasons for generally unhealthy dietary choices were greater accessibility of unhealthy foods (63.5%) and limited time to prepare healthy meals (61.3%). Additionally, 52.5% indicated “unhealthy foods cost less,” and 47.0% identified affordability as the main factor in the food choice equation. Findings revealed that the determinants of eating unhealthily tended to vary across income, age, and gender. Female, younger, and lower-income respondents have a higher likelihood of being impacted by the factors. Conclusions. The largest proportions of the sample identified limited time to prepare healthy meals and the ease of access to unhealthy foods as the foremost determinants of unhealthy eating habits. These barriers to healthy eating are more likely to impact survey participants in the 18–34 age group.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar y evaluar los determinantes de los hábitos alimentarios poco saludables en una muestra de encuestados en Jamaica. Métodos. Debido a las limitaciones de recursos, esta evaluación transversal se basa en una muestra no probabilística de tres etapas de 374 encuestados en Jamaica de edad igual o superior a los 18 años. Primero, se seleccionaron al azar tres parroquias (áreas administrativas). Luego, se identificaron las principales áreas comerciales dentro de las parroquias seleccionadas, y se extrajo una muestra no probabilística de establecimientos de esas áreas comerciales. Se escogió una amplia selección de establecimientos que abarcaban organizaciones públicas, privadas y no gubernamentales. Se seleccionó este rango de establecimientos para reunir una muestra de encuestados que fuera lo más representativa posible. Se pidió a los clientes y empleados de los establecimientos seleccionados que llenaran un cuestionario. Resultados. La autoevaluación de los encuestados sobre su consumo general reveló que 48,4 % tenían una alimentación poco saludable. Entre estos, las principales razones tras estas decisiones alimentarias generalmente poco saludables fueron un mayor acceso a alimentos poco saludables (63,5 %) y limitaciones en el tiempo para preparar comidas saludables (61,3 %). Además, 52,5 % indicó que “los alimentos poco saludables cuestan menos”, y 47,0 % identificó la asequibilidad como el factor principal en la ecuación relativa a la selección de alimentos. Los resultados revelaron que los determinantes de una alimentación poco saludable tendían a variar según los ingresos, la edad y el sexo. Entre los encuestados, las mujeres más jóvenes y con menores ingresos tenían una mayor probabilidad de verse afectadas por los factores. Conclusiones. La mayoría de los encuestados identificó las limitaciones con el tiempo necesario para preparar comidas saludables y la facilidad de acceso a alimentos poco saludables como los principales determinantes de hábitos alimentarios poco saludables. Es más probable que estas barreras para una alimentación saludable afecten a los encuestados del grupo etario de 18 a 34 años.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar e analisar os determinantes de hábitos alimentares não saudáveis em uma amostra de participantes de pesquisa na Jamaica. Métodos. Por limitação de recursos, esta análise transversal foi realizada a partir de uma amostra não probabilística com 374 participantes maiores de 18 anos na Jamaica. A amostragem seguiu um processo de três estágios. Primeiro, três áreas administrativas (localidades) foram selecionadas de forma aleatória e, em seguida, foram identificadas as áreas comerciais centrais em cada localidade selecionada. Para garantir a representatividade da população, uma amostra não probabilística de estabelecimentos comerciais em setores variados (público e privado e organizações não governamentais) foi obtida, com a aplicação do questionário da pesquisa aos seus clientes e funcionários. Resultados. Os participantes avaliaram o próprio consumo alimentar em geral, o que demonstrou que 48,4% consumiam alimentos não saudáveis. Os principais fatores para escolhas alimentares pouco saudáveis foram maior acesso a alimentos não saudáveis (63,5%) e falta de tempo para o preparo de refeições saudáveis (61,3%), sendo que 52,5% indicaram que “os alimentos pouco saudáveis são mais baratos” e 47,0% citaram os preços acessíveis como o principal fator na escolha dos alimentos. Os determinantes da alimentação pouco saudável tenderam a variar de acordo com o gênero, idade e o nível de renda, afetando mais as mulheres, os jovens e pessoas de baixa renda. Conclusões. Uma grande parcela da amostra estudada apontou a falta de tempo para o preparo de refeições saudáveis e a facilidade de acesso a alimentos pouco saudáveis como determinantes de hábitos alimentares não saudáveis. Os obstáculos à alimentação saudável repercutem mais entre os participantes jovens de 18 a 34 anos de idade.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Dieta , Avaliação Nutricional , Ingestão de Alimentos , Jamaica , Comportamento Alimentar , Dieta , Avaliação Nutricional , Comportamento Alimentar , Avaliação Nutricional
17.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-08-15. (PAHO/CRB/COVID-19/22-0001).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56262

RESUMO

Health workers are crucial in the preparedness and response to COVID-19, but the pandemic has evidenced the shortage of human resources for health (HRH) in certain countries, reduced or lack of protective equipment, and timely protocols to address occupational, health and safety issues. Health workers have been infected by the virus with consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality. Consequently, available staff workload is expected to increase. While the COVID-19 pandemic has stressed health workforce shortages in countries, it has also led to identifying ways to rapidly hire and train the health workforce. The recognition and understanding of the mechanisms used by countries (such as recruitment processes, type of redeployment, incentives) will provide evidence on ways to address health worker shortages during such outbreaks and therefore implementation gaps will be reduced. This report informs and analyzes the impact of COVID-19 on health workers' occupational health and safety concerns, working conditions, as well as policy responses to address these issues and to increase HRH surge capacity in Belize, Grenada, and Jamaica. The report also describes elements related to HRH and COVID-19 vaccination in selected countries and shares the experiences from Belize, Grenada, and Jamaica (members of CARICOM), which represent different areas of the Caribbean. The report will also inform the HRH Action Task Force and its contribution to technical cooperation and HRH management support. The target audience includes policy-makers, academics, and researchers on addressing health worker issues during health emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Recursos Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Belize , Granada , Jamaica
20.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assesses the effectiveness of a campaign "Are We Drinking Ourselves Sick?" that ran nationally in Jamaica in four phases from 2017 to 2019 to increase knowledge about the harms of sugary drinks, shift attitudes, and build support for policy actions to address sugary drink consumption, including a tax and a ban in schools. METHODS: Campaign impact was measured in representative cross-sectional household surveys of adults ages 18 to 55. A baseline survey was conducted before the launch of the campaign (n = 1430). Evaluation surveys were conducted mid-campaign (n = 1571) and post-campaign (n = 1500). Campaign impact was assessed by comparing changes across survey periods on key knowledge, attitudinal and policy support outcome indicators. The independent association between campaign awareness and outcomes was analyzed using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The campaign was recalled by more than 80% of respondents and was well-received with 90% or more respondents describing it as believable and relevant. There was a decline in knowledge on the harms of sugary drinks from the baseline to post-campaign period, notably on risks of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio or AOR = 0.62, p < 0.001), overweight and obesity (AOR = 0.58, p < 0.001), and heart disease (AOR = 0.79, p < 0.003). However, post-campaign awareness was independently associated in logistic regression analysis with improved knowledge of the harms of sugary drinks, including risks of diabetes (AOR = 1.45, p = 0.019), overweight or obesity (AOR = 1.65, p = 0.001), and heart disease (AOR = 1.44, p = 0.011). Support for government action remained high across survey waves (≥90%), and campaign awareness was independently associated with increased policy support for sugary drinks taxes (Mid-campaign: AOR = 1.43, p = 0.019; post-campaign: AOR = 1.46, p = 0.01) and restrictions on sugary drinks in schools (AOR = 1.55, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the role that media campaigns can play in maintaining knowledge and concern about the health harms of sugary drinks and increasing support for policy passage.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Jamaica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Políticas , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
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