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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371950

RESUMO

Long-chain omega-3 PUFAs, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are of increasing interest because of their favorable effect on cardiometabolic risk. This study explores the association between omega 6 and 3 fatty acids intake and cardiometabolic risk in four African-origin populations spanning the epidemiological transition. Data are obtained from a cohort of 2500 adults aged 25-45 enrolled in the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS), from the US, Ghana, Jamaica, and the Seychelles. Dietary intake was measured using two 24 h recalls from the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR). The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk was analyzed by comparing the lowest and highest quartile of omega-3 (EPA+ DHA) consumption and by comparing participants who consumed a ratio of arachidonic acid (AA)/EPA + DHA ≤4:1 and >4:1. Data were analyzed using multiple variable logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, activity, calorie intake, alcohol intake, and smoking status. The lowest quartile of EPA + DHA intake is associated with cardiometabolic risk 2.16 (1.45, 3.2), inflammation 1.59 (1.17, 2.16), and obesity 2.06 (1.50, 2.82). Additionally, consuming an AA/EPA + DHA ratio of >4:1 is also associated with cardiometabolic risk 1.80 (1.24, 2.60), inflammation 1.47 (1.06, 2.03), and obesity 1.72 (1.25, 2.39). Our findings corroborate previous research supporting a beneficial role for monounsaturated fatty acids in reducing cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Seicheles/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1197, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable disease (NCD) multimorbidity is associated with impaired functioning, lower quality of life and higher mortality. Susceptibility to accumulation of multiple NCDs is rooted in social, economic and cultural contexts, with important differences in the burden, patterns, and determinants of multimorbidity across settings. Despite high prevalence of individual NCDs within the Caribbean region, exploration of the social epidemiology of multimorbidity remains sparse. This study aimed to examine the social determinants of NCD multimorbidity in Jamaica, to better inform prevention and intervention strategies. METHODS: Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine social determinants of identified multimorbidity patterns in a sample of 2551 respondents aged 15-74 years, from the nationally representative Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007/2008. Multimorbidity measurement was based on self-reported presence/absence of 11 chronic conditions. Selection of social determinants of health (SDH) was informed by the World Health Organization's Commission on SDH framework. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between individual-level SDH and class membership. RESULTS: Approximately one-quarter of the sample (24.05%) were multimorbid. LCA revealed four distinct profiles: a Relatively Healthy class (52.70%), with a single or no morbidity; and three additional classes, characterized by varying degrees and patterns of multimorbidity, labelled Metabolic (30.88%), Vascular-Inflammatory (12.21%), and Respiratory (4.20%). Upon controlling for all SDH (Model 3), advancing age and recent healthcare visits remained significant predictors of all three multimorbidity patterns (p < 0.001). Private insurance coverage (relative risk ratio, RRR = 0.63; p < 0.01) and higher educational attainment (RRR = 0.73; p < 0.05) were associated with lower relative risk of belonging to the Metabolic class while being female was a significant independent predictor of Vascular-Inflammatory class membership (RRR = 2.54; p < 0.001). Material circumstances, namely housing conditions and features of the physical and neighbourhood environment, were not significant predictors of any multimorbidity class. CONCLUSION: This study provides a nuanced understanding of the social patterning of multimorbidity in Jamaica, identifying biological, health system, and structural determinants as key factors associated with specific multimorbidity profiles. Future research using longitudinal designs would aid understanding of disease trajectories and clarify the role of SDH in mitigating risk of accumulation of diseases.


Assuntos
Multimorbidade , Qualidade de Vida , Região do Caribe , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Classe Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
3.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 187-194, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976549

RESUMO

Background: Ideal cardiovascular health behaviour (CVHB) measures four ideal health behaviours (non-smoking, body mass index <85th Percentile, healthy diet, and physical activity). This study aimed to determine the prevalence, distribution, and correlates of ideal CVHB among adolescents in the Caribbean. Methods: Nationally representative cross-sectional data of 2016 or 2017 with complete CVHB measurements were analysed from 7556 school adolescents from four Caribbean countries. Results: The prevalence of 0-1 ideal metrics CVHB was 20.4%, 2 ideal metrics 48.7%, and 3-4 ideal metrics 30.8%. Only 5.0% had all 4 ideal CVHB metrics, 41.0% intermediate CVH (≥1 metric in the intermediate category and none in the poor category), and 54.0% had poor CVH (≥1 metric in poor category). In adjusted logistic regression analysis, compared to students from Dominican Republic, students from Jamaica (Adjusted Odds Ratio-AOR: 1.36, 95% confidence interval-CI: 1.01-1.85), students from Trinidad and Tobago (AOR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.17-1.82) and male sex (AOR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.11-1.64) were positively associated with meeting 3-4 ideal CVHB metrics. In addition, in unadjusted analysis, rarely or sometimes experiencing hunger was negatively and high peer and parent support were positively associated with meeting 3-4 ideal CVHB metrics. Conclusion: The proportion of meeting 3-4 ideal CVHB metrics was low among adolescents in four Caribbean countries. Both high-risk and school-wide intervention programmes should be implemented in aiding to improve CVHB in Caribbean countries. Several factors associated with ideal CVHB were identified, which can be targeted in school health interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , não Fumantes , Medição de Risco , Suriname/epidemiologia , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
4.
BJOG ; 128(10): 1703-1710, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document pregnancy outcome in homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease and in age-matched controls with a normal haemoglobin genotype followed from birth for up to 45 years. METHODS: A total of 100 000 consecutive non-operative deliveries screened for sickle cell disease at the main Government maternity hospital in Kingston, Jamaica between 1973 and 1981 detected 311 (149 female) babies with SS disease who were matched by age and gender with 250 (129 female) controls with an AA haemoglobin phenotype. These individuals have been followed from birth with prospective assessment of menarche and detailed documentation of all pregnancies. RESULTS: There were 177 pregnancies in 71 SS patients and 226 pregnancies in 74 AA controls. Mothers with SS disease had more spontaneous abortions (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.1), fewer live births (aRR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.9) and their offspring were more likely to have a gestational age <37 weeks (aRR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.7) and low birthweight <2.5 kg (aRR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.3). They were more prone to acute chest syndrome (aRR 13.7, 95% CI 4.1-45.5), urinary tract infection (aRR 12.8, 95% CI 1.3-125.9), pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (aRR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.8), retained placenta (aRR 10.1, 95% CI 1.1-90.3), sepsis (Fisher's Exact test 0.04) and pregnancy-related deaths (Fisher's Exact test 0.02). Four of five deaths were attributable to acute chest syndrome. There was no genotypic difference in pregnancy-induced hypertension or postpartum haemorrhage. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy in SS disease carries risks for both mother and child. The variable characteristics of pregnancy-related deaths complicate their prevention. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Pregnancy in SS disease compared with controls showed increased abortions and stillbirths, fewer live births and maternal deaths in 7% patients.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Morte Materna , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Natimorto , Adulto Jovem
5.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(5): 795-803, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the classical description of normal liver anatomy, the umbilical fissure is a long, narrow groove that receives the ligamentum teres hepatis. The pons hepatis is an anatomic variant, where the umbilical fissure is converted into a tunnel by an overlying bridge of liver parenchyma. We carried out a study to evaluate the existing variations of the umbilical fissure in a Caribbean population. METHODS: We observed all consecutive autopsies performed at a facility in Jamaica and selected cadavers with a pons hepatis for detailed study. A pons hepatis was considered present when the umbilical fissure was covered by hepatic parenchyma. We recognized two variants: an open-type (incomplete) pons hepatis in which the umbilical fissure was incompletely covered by parenchyma ≤ 2 cm in length and a closed type (complete) pons hepatis in which the umbilical fissure was covered by a parenchymal bridge > 2 cm and thus converted into a tunnel. We measured the length (distance from transverse fissure to anterior margin of the parenchymatous bridge), width (extension across the umbilical fissure in a coronal plane) and thickness (distance from the visceral surface to the hepatic surface measured at the mid-point of the parenchymal bridge in a sagittal plane) of each pons hepatis. A systematic literature review was also performed to retrieve data from relevant studies. The raw data from these retrieved studies was used to calculate the global point prevalence of pons hepatis and compared the prevalence in our population. RESULTS: Of 66 autopsies observed, a pons hepatis was present in 27 (40.9%) cadavers. There were 15 complete variants, with a mean length of 34.66 mm, mean width of 16.98 mm and mean thickness of 10.98 mm. There were 12 incomplete variants, with a mean length of 17.02 mm, width of 17.03 mm and thickness of 9.56 mm. The global point prevalence of the pons hepatis (190/5515) was calculated to be or 3.45% of the global population. CONCLUSIONS: We have proposed a classification of the pons hepatis that is reproducible and clinically relevant. This allowed us to identify a high prevalence of pons hepatis (41%) in this Afro-Caribbean population that is significantly greater than the global prevalence (3.45%; P < 0.0001).


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Fígado/anormalidades , Ligamentos Redondos/anormalidades , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
6.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245163, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The simultaneous or intermittent use of alternative treatments and prescription medications for hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus can have adverse health effects. OBJECTIVES: To identify beliefs and practices associated with the use of alternative treatments for hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus among patients. METHODS: A mixed-methods study including an investigator-administered survey and focus group discussion sessions using convenience sampling was conducted among patients aged ≥18 years during May to August 2018. Descriptive statistics were used to describe and compare demographic characteristics among groups of survey participants using JMP Pro 14.0. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the qualitative data using NVivo. RESULTS: Most study participants (87-90%) were on prescription medication for their condition. Of survey participants, 69% reported taking their medication as prescribed and 70% felt that prescription medicine was controlling their condition. Almost all participants (98%) reported using alternative treatments, mainly herbal medications, and 73-80% felt that herbal medicines controlled their conditions. One-third believed that herbal medicines are the most effective form of treatment and should always be used instead of prescription medication. However, most participants (85%) did not believe that prescription and herbal treatments should be used simultaneously. Most (76-90%) did not discuss herbal treatments with their healthcare providers. Four themes emerged from the focus group sessions: 1) Simultaneous use of herbal and prescription medicine was perceived to be harmful, 2) Patients did not divulge their use of herbal medicine to healthcare providers, 3) Alternative medicines were perceived to be highly effective, and 4) Religiosity and family elders played key roles in herbal use. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides useful insights into perceptions and use of alternative treatments by patients that can be used by healthcare providers in developing appropriate interventions to encourage proper use of prescription medicines and alternative medicines resulting in improved management of these chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Medicina Herbária/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Herbária/tendências , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Plantas Medicinais , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Affect Disord ; 283: 172-178, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Youth non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide are major public health concerns, but limited data are available on the prevalence and correlates of these problems in developing countries. The aim of this study is to describe experiences of three suicidal phenomena (NSSI, suicidal ideation [SI], and suicide attempt [SA]) among children and adolescents from two developing countries. We also examine how depression, anxiety, sleep problems, child maltreatment, and other socio-demographic variables associate with the risk of NSSI only, SI only, SA only, and co-occurring NSSI/SI/SA. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of school-based Ugandan and Jamaican children and adolescents. Participants were 11,518 (52.4% female) Ugandan and 7,182 (60.8% female) Jamaican youths aged 9-17 years. RESULTS: The estimated lifetime prevalence of NSSI, SI, and SA was 25.5%, 25.6%, and 12.8% respectively among Ugandan boys and 23.2%, 32.5%, and 15.3% respectively among Ugandan girls. As for the Jamaican sample, the estimated lifetime prevalence of NSSI, SI, and SA was 21%, 27.7%, and 11.9% respectively among boys and 32.6%, 48.6%, and 24.7% respectively among girls. The odds of experiencing SI only, SA only, and co-occurring NSSI/SI/SA were significantly elevated among participants with mild, moderate, and severe depression in both countries. LIMITATIONS: The current study relied on retrospective data. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that suicidal phenomena are common among youths from Uganda and Jamaica, with rates substantially higher than among youths from high-income countries. The risk of suicidal phenomena was especially high among youths with severe depression.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
Ann Hematol ; 100(4): 913-919, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479847

RESUMO

Numb chin syndrome is an uncommon presentation that has been reported as secondary to metastatic disease, trauma, and infections of the maxilla, mandible, or oral cavity. The hypoesthesia, paraesthesia, or pain are a result of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve, which is particularly vulnerable as it exits the mandible through the mandibular foramen as the mental nerve. In persons with sickle cell disease, it has been reported as a manifestation of mandibular vaso-occlusive crisis. This case series presents 13 patients with sickle cell disease who presented with numb chin syndrome, the largest number of cases that has been described in the literature to date. The report illustrates the wide variety of presentations and therefore possible differential diagnoses to consider. In this case series, the symptoms were associated with vaso-occlusive crises, allergic reactions, dental infections, malignancy, rheumatoid arthritis, and pregnancy. Most appeared to be self-limiting; however, one patient was having his second episode, and the numbness has persisted in three patients. The series illustrates that it is important not only to ensure that the source of the local vaso-occlusive crisis is treated, but also to not miss important differentials such as metastatic disease, where this can be the first presentation of malignancy and would represent a very poor prognosis. There is no reported successful treatment for the hypoesthesia in this case series, and this presents an area for further research.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Queixo/inervação , Hipestesia/etiologia , Nervo Mandibular/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Queixo/irrigação sanguínea , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dor Facial/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipestesia/epidemiologia , Hipestesia/fisiopatologia , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Traumatismos do Nervo Mandibular/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int Nurs Rev ; 68(2): 153-158, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the way things are done in walks of life including nursing education in both developing and developed countries. Nursing schools all over the world as well as in developing countries responded to the pandemic following the guidelines of the World Health Organisation and different countries specific guidelines regarding the pandemic. AIM: This reflective piece aims to describe the effect of COVID-19 on nursing education in developing countries. RESULT: Face-to-face teaching and learning were converted to virtual remote learning and clinical experiences suspended to protect the students from the pandemic. Specific but broader responses to the pandemic in the Caribbean and other developing countries have been shaped by financial, political and other contextual factors, especially the level of information technology infrastructure development, and the attendant inequities in access to such technology between the rural and urban areas. Internet accessibility, affordability and reliability in certain areas seem to negatively affect the delivery of nursing education during the COVID-19 lockdown. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING AND/OR HEALTH POLICY: The impact of COVID-19 on nursing education in the Caribbean and other parts of the world has shown that if adequate measures are put in place by the way of disaster preparedness and preplanned mitigation strategies, future crises like COVID-19 will have less impact on nursing education. Therefore, health policymakers and nursing regulatory bodies in the developing countries should put policies in place that will help in responding, coping and recovering quickly from future occurrences.


Assuntos
COVID-19/enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2
10.
AIDS Behav ; 25(2): 330-343, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666244

RESUMO

The HIV prevention cascade is understudied among sex workers in Jamaica, where sex work and same sex practices are criminalized. We implemented a cross-sectional survey with cisgender women, transgender women, and cisgender men sex workers in Jamaica. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with PrEP and PEP awareness and acceptability. Participants (n = 340) included cisgender men (n = 124), transgender women (n = 101), and cisgender women (n = 115). PEP awareness was low (33.2%), yet acceptability was high (70.8%). In multivariable analyses, recent sexual violence, recent client violence, and sex work social cohesion were associated with PEP awareness and acceptability. One-third (32.7%) reported PrEP awareness, with high acceptability (80.2%). Relationship status and recent physical violence were associated with PrEP awareness and acceptability. In multivariable analyses, gender identity was not associated with differences in PEP/PrEP awareness/acceptability. Findings highlight the need to increase PEP and PrEP awareness and access among sex workers in Jamaica.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Profissionais do Sexo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Parceiros Sexuais
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e040664, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ideal cardiovascular health (ICH) is associated with greater longevity and reduced morbidity, but no research on ICH has been conducted in Jamaica. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of ICH in urban Jamaica and to evaluate associations between ICH and community, household, and individual socioeconomic status (SES). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Urban communities in Jamaica. PARTICIPANTS: 360 men and 665 women who were urban residents aged ≥20 years from a national survey, the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2016-2017. EXPOSURES: Community SES, using median land values (MLV); household SES, using number of household assets; and individual SES, using education level. PRIMARY OUTCOME: The main outcome variable was ICH, defined as having five or more of seven ICH characteristics (ICH-5): current non-smoking, healthy diet, moderate physical activity, normal body mass index, normal blood pressure, normal glucose and normal cholesterol. Prevalence was estimated using weighted survey design and logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of overall ICH (seven characteristics) was 0.51%, while the prevalence of ICH-5 was 22.9% (male 24.5%, female 21.5%, p=0.447). In sex-specific multivariable models adjusted for age, education, and household assets, men in the lower tertiles of community MLV had lower odds of ICH-5 compared with men in the upper tertile (lowest tertile: OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.91, p=0.032; middle tertile: OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.04, p=0.062). Women from communities in the lower and middle tertiles of MLV also had lower odds of ICH-5, but the association was not statistically significant. Educational attainment was inversely associated with ICH-5 among men and positively associated among women. CONCLUSION: Living in poorer communities was associated with lower odds of ICH-5 among men in Jamaica. The association between education level and ICH-5 differed in men and women.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 78(2): 603-609, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia has no known cure and age is its strongest predictor. Given that populations in the Caribbean are aging, a focus on policies and programs that reduce the risk of dementia and its risk factors is required. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of dementia in the Jamaican setting attributable to key factors. METHODS: We analyzed the contribution of five modifiable risk factors to dementia prevalence in Jamaica using a modified Levin's Attributable Risk formula (low educational attainment, diabetes, smoking status, depression, and physical inactivity). Four sources of data were used: risk factor prevalence was obtained from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey, 2008, relative risk data were sourced from published meta-analyses, shared variance among risk factors was determined using cross-sectional data from the Health and Social Status of Older Persons in Jamaica Study. Estimated future prevalence of dementia in Jamaica was sourced from a published ADI/BUPA report which focused on dementia in the Americas. We computed the number of dementia cases attributable to each risk factor and estimated the effect of a reduction in these risk factors on future dementia prevalence. RESULTS: Accounting for the overlapping of risk factors, 34.46% of dementia cases in Jamaica (6548 cases) were attributable to the five risk factors under study. We determined that if each risk factor were to be reduced by 5% -10% per decade from 2010-2050, dementia prevalence could be reduced by up to 14.0%. CONCLUSION: As the risk factors for dementia are shared with several of the main causes of death in Jamaica, a reduction in risk factors by even 5% can result in considerable public health benefit.


Assuntos
Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Demência/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia
13.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(12): 1186-1194, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928052

RESUMO

Sex workers' work environment shapes HIV transmission dynamics. We applied the Structural HIV Determinants Framework to examine associations between the work environment of public spaces and HIV infection risks among sex workers in Jamaica, considering macro-structural (police harassment) and intrapersonal (depression) pathways. We implemented a cross-sectional survey with sex workers in Kingston, Ocho Rios, Montego Bay, and nearby towns in Jamaica. We conducted structural equation modeling to examine direct and indirect associations between place of sex work on HIV serostatus via mediators of police harassment and depression. Results indicate that public place of sex work had a significant indirect effect on self-reported HIV-positive serostatus; depression and police harassment mediated this relationship. Findings suggest that in contexts of criminalization, the sex work environment can elevate exposure to police violence and depression, in turn increasing HIV vulnerabilities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Trabalho Sexual , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e033839, 2020 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To derive estimates of the associations between measures of the retail food environments and mean body mass index (BMI) in Jamaica, a middle-income country with increasing prevalence of obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2008 (JHLS II), a nationally representative population-based survey that recruited persons at their homes over a 4-month period from all 14 parishes and 113 neighbourhoods defined as enumeration districts. PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 2529 participants aged 18-74 years from the JHLS II who completed interviewer-administered surveys, provided anthropometric measurements and whose addresses were geocoded. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Mean BMI, calculated as weight divided by height squared (kg/m2). RESULTS: There was significant clustering across neighbourhoods for mean BMI (intraclass correlation coefficients=4.16%). Fully adjusted models revealed higher mean BMI among women, with further distance away from supermarkets (ß=0.12; 95% CI 8.20×10-3, 0.24; p=0.036) and the absence of supermarkets within a 1 km buffer zone (ß=1.36; 95% CI 0.20 to 2.52; p=0.022). A 10 km increase in the distance from a supermarket was associated with a 1.7 kg/m2 higher mean BMI (95% CI 0.03 to 0.32; p=0.020) in the middle class. No associations were detected with fast-food outlets or interaction by urbanicity. CONCLUSIONS: Higher mean BMI in Jamaicans may be partially explained by the presence of supermarkets and markets and differ by sex and social class. National efforts to curtail obesity in middle-income countries should consider interventions focused at the neighbourhood level that target the location and density of supermarkets and markets and consider sex and social class-specific factors that may be influencing the associations.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Região do Caribe , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e038245, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753453

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Extant international research suggests that people with severe and enduring mental illness (PWSEMI) experience increased rates of chronic physical illness (CPI), reduced life expectancy and higher mortality than those in the general population. The high prevalence of CPI among PWSEMI is associated with a number of barriers that this population experiences when accessing physical healthcare. Although substantial research has been conducted in North America, Europe and Australia, there appears to be a paucity of research exploring CPI among PWSEMI in the Caribbean region, although this region has reported very high rates of non-communicable diseases within its populations. The current study will be situated in Jamaica and will explore the enablers and barriers to PWSEMI accessing healthcare for CPI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A convergent mixed-method design will explore the enablers and barriers to accessing healthcare for CPI among PWSEMI. This cross-sectional study will collect data from PWSEMI, caregivers and family members, community health aides, primary care physicians, psychiatrists and health policymakers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study findings will provide baseline data describing the prevalence of CPI among PWSEMI in Jamaica and will identify enablers for, and barriers to, PWSEMI accessing CPI care. Findings will be disseminated widely in Jamaica and internationally to key stakeholders through publications and conferences. Institutional ethical approval was granted from Jamaica's Ministry of Health and Wellness Medico-legal Ethics Review Panel (# 2019/49), the Curtin University Human Research and Ethics Committee (HRE 2020-0022) and the University of the West Indies FMS Ethics Committee (ECP 101, 19/20).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , América do Norte
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236034, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the single-disease paradigm does not accurately reflect the individual experience, with increasing prevalence of chronic disease multimorbidity, and subtle yet important differences in types of co-occurring diseases. Knowledge of multimorbidity patterns can aid clarification of individual-level burden and needs, to inform prevention and treatment strategies. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity in Jamaica, identify population subgroups with similar and distinct disease profiles, and examine consistency in patterns identified across statistical techniques. METHODS: Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine multimorbidity patterns in a sample of 2,551 respondents aged 15-74 years, based on data from the nationally representative Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007/2008 and self-reported presence/absence of 11 chronic conditions. Secondary analyses compared results with patterns identified using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). RESULTS: Nearly one-quarter of the sample (24.1%) were multimorbid (i.e. had ≥2 diseases), with significantly higher burden in females compared to males (31.6% vs. 16.1%; p<0.001). LCA revealed four distinct classes, including a predominant Relatively Healthy class, comprising 52.7% of the sample, with little to no morbidity. The remaining three classes were characterized by varying degrees and patterns of multimorbidity and labelled Metabolic (30.9%), Vascular-Inflammatory (12.2%), and Respiratory (4.2%). Four diseases determined using physical assessments (obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia) were primary contributors to multimorbidity patterns overall. EFA identified three patterns described as "Vascular" (hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, stroke); "Respiratory" (asthma, COPD); and "Cardio-Mental-Articular" (cardiovascular disease, arthritis, mental disorders). CONCLUSION: This first study of multimorbidity in the Caribbean has revealed a high burden of co-existing conditions in the Jamaican population, that is predominantly borne by females. Consistency across methods supports the validity of patterns identified. Future research into the causes and consequences of multimorbidity patterns can guide development of clinical and public health strategies that allow for targeted prevention and intervention.


Assuntos
Análise de Classes Latentes , Multimorbidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(7): 1275-1281, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516505

RESUMO

This study evaluates a simple clinical audit tool for assessing quality of care and blood pressure control among persons with hypertension in primary care clinics. A systematic random sampling of persons with diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) attending five health centers in Kingston, Jamaica, was conducted. A modified Ministry of Health paper-based audit tool captured quality of care and outcome indicators (blood pressure and glycemic control). Additional chart audits were conducted by a physician and nurse to assess reliability. One hundred and forty-nine charts were audited between January and September 2017. One hundred and thirty-eight persons (92.6%) had hypertension (27 men and 111 women); 77 persons (51.7%) had DM (14 men and 63 women). The median age was 64 years old. Approximately two-thirds of persons with HTN and DM had electrolytes, lipid profile, and ECG done within the last year. One-fifth of persons with hypertension (18.5% men and 19.8% women, P = 1.000) had adequate blood pressure control with greater control among persons with HTN only compared to persons with both DM and HTN. Poor glycemic control was recorded for 69% of persons with DM (57% men and 71% women, P = .297). Moderate to substantial inter-rater agreement was observed for quality of care indicators. Our findings confirmed that hypertension and glycemic control are inadequate among persons attending primary care clinics in Jamaica's capital city. Simplified clinical audits can provide important quality of care and outcome indicators without losing the meaningfulness of the data collected.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Auditoria Clínica , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(7): 651-662, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358695

RESUMO

PURPOSE: General and central adiposity are associated with the risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa), but the role of these exposures on PCa survival among men of African ancestry are less studied. This study aimed to investigate the association of anthropometry at diagnosis with all-cause and PCa-specific mortality and evaluate whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) modulated this risk. METHODS: Associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) at diagnosis and mortality were examined in 242 men with newly diagnosed PCa enrolled between 2005 and 2007 and re-evaluated 10.9 years later. Multi-variable Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine associations of body size variables (using standard WHO cut-points and as continuous variables) with mortality, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, Gleason score, smoking, diabetes, primary treatment, and ADT therapy. RESULTS: A total of 139 deaths (all-cause mortality 6.98/100 person-years) occurred (PCa-specific deaths, 56; other causes, 66; causes unknown, 17). In multi-variable analysis BMI, WC and WHR categories at diagnosis were not associated with all-cause mortality even after adjusting for ADT. While WHR (but not BMI or WC) when included as a continuous variable predicted lower PCa-specific mortality (multi-variable adjusted WHR per 0.1 difference: HR, 0.50; 95%CI 0.28, 0.93), the effect disappeared with ADT covariance and excluding deaths within the first 2 years. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that central adiposity as measured by WHR may improve long-term survival among men of African ancestry. Metabolic studies to understand the mechanism for this association are needed.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Seguimentos , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369951

RESUMO

Over the years, Jamaica has experienced sporadic cases of dengue fever. Even though the island is vulnerable to dengue, there is paucity in the spatio-temporal analysis of the disease using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing tools. Further, access to time series dengue data at the community level is a major challenge on the island. This study therefore applies the Water-Associated Disease Index (WADI) framework to analyze vulnerability to dengue in Jamaica based on past, current and future climate change conditions using three scenarios: (1) WorldClim rainfall and temperature dataset from 1970 to 2000; (2) Climate Hazard Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) rainfall and land surface temperature (LST) as proxy for air temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the period 2002 to 2016, and (3) maximum temperature and rainfall under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 climate change scenario for 2030 downscaled at 25 km based on the Regional Climate Model, RegCM4.3.5. Although vulnerability to dengue varies spatially and temporally, a higher vulnerability was depicted in urban areas in comparison to rural areas. The results also demonstrate the possibility for expansion in the geographical range of dengue in higher altitudes under climate change conditions based on scenario 3. This study provides an insight into the use of data with different temporal and spatial resolution in the analysis of dengue vulnerability.


Assuntos
Dengue , Populações Vulneráveis , Mudança Climática , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Imagens de Satélites , Análise Espacial
20.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(4): 326-332, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461396

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease in Central India runs a more severe clinical course than reports from other areas of India. The current study was undertaken to compare the disease in Central India (Nagpur) with that in Jamaica, both populations defined by newborn screening. Methods: The Nagpur cohort included infants born to sickling-positive mothers from May 2008 to 2012, examined by high-pressure liquid chromatography and DNA analysis. The Jamaican cohort screened 100,000 consecutive non-operative deliveries between June 1973 and December 1981, analyzed by haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis and confirmed by family studies and compatible HbA2levels. Results: In Nagpur, 103 SS patients were detected, but only 78 (76%) were followed up. In Jamaica, 311 cases were followed from birth and compliance with follow up remained 100 per cent up to 45 years. In the Nagpur cohort all had the Asian haplotype, and 82 per cent of Jamaicans had at least one Benin chromosome; none had the Asian haplotype. Compared to Jamaica, Nagpur patients had higher foetal Hb, less alpha-thalassaemia, later development of splenomegaly and less dactylitis. There were also high admission rates for febrile illness and marked anaemia. Invasive pneumococcal disease occurred in 10 per cent of Jamaicans but was not seen in Nagpur. Interpretation & conclusions: There were many differences between the disease in Nagpur, Central India and the African form observed in Jamaica. The causes of severe anaemia in Nagpur require further study, and reticulocyte counts may be recommended as a routine parameter in the management of SS disease. The role of pneumococcal prophylaxis needs to be determined in Nagpur patients. Future studies in India must avoid high default rates.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal , Homozigoto , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Jamaica/epidemiologia
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