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1.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to confirm the association of the status of implementation of nonsmoking at eating and drinking establishments with the prevalence of persons with subjective symptoms, the prevalence of persons with diseases under treatment, medical expenses, and mortality rate using prefectural data. METHODS: The prefectural rate of eating and drinking establishments implementing nonsmoking (hereafter, nonsmoking rate) was calculated using the data from "Tabelog®". The variables of interest were the prevalence of persons with subjective symptoms, the prevalence of persons with diseases under treatment, medical expenses (total, hospitalization and nonhospitalization expenses), and the mortality rates of malignant neoplasms (lung cancer, stomach cancer, and colon cancer), heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, cerebral infarction, and pneumonia in each prefecture. The partial correlation coefficient was estimated between the nonsmoking rate and the variable of interest using the smoking rate by prefectural as the control variable. RESULTS: The nonsmoking rate showed a significantly negative correlation with the medical expenses. When eating and drinking establishments were divided into "restaurant", "café", and "bar", the nonsmoking rate also indicated a significantly negative correlation with the medical expenses in any category. It was negatively related to the mortality rates of cerebrovascular disease, cerebral infarction, and pneumonia. The negative correlation was stronger in females than in males. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the implementation of nonsmoking at eating and drinking establishments may reduce the mortality rates of diseases, such as cerebrovascular disease, cerebral infarction, and pneumonia, and medical expenses. Thus, it is important to implement nonsmoking at eating and drinking establishments in line with the Revised Health Promotion Act.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Prevalência
2.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2735-2745, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486907

RESUMO

Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is unique among endogenous retroviruses because its endogenization is still active. Two major KoRV subtypes, KoRV-A and B, have been described, and KoRV-B is associated with disease and poses a health threat to koalas. Here, we investigated the co-prevalence of KoRV-A and KoRV-B, detected by type-specific PCR and sequencing, and their impact on the health of koalas in three Japanese zoos. We also investigated KoRV proviral loads and found varying amounts of genomic DNA (gDNA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that 100% of the koalas examined were infected with KoRV-A and 60% (12/20) were coinfected with KoRV-B. The KoRV-A sequence was highly conserved, whereas the KoRV-B sequence varied among individuals. Interestingly, we observed possible vertical transmission of KoRV-B in one offspring in which the KoRV-B sequence was similar to that of the father but not the mother. Moreover, we characterized the KoRV growth patterns in concanavalin-A-stimulated PBMCs isolated from KoRV-B-coinfected or KoRV-B-uninfected koalas. We quantified the KoRV provirus in gDNA and the KoRV RNA copy numbers in cells and culture supernatants by real-time PCR at days 4, 7, and 14 post-seeding. As the study population is housed in captivity, a longitudinal study of these koalas may provide an opportunity to study the transmission mode of KoRV-B. In addition, we characterized KoRV isolates by infecting tupaia cells. The results suggested that tupaia may be used as an infection model for KoRV. Thus, this study may enhance our understanding of KoRV-B coinfection and transmission in the captive koalas.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Gammaretrovirus/patogenicidade , Phascolarctidae/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Retrovirus Endógenos/classificação , Retrovirus Endógenos/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Gammaretrovirus/classificação , Gammaretrovirus/genética , Gammaretrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Provírus/genética , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Tupaia/virologia , Carga Viral
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17165, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517868

RESUMO

A thyroid cancer ultrasonography screening for all residents 18 years old or younger living in the Fukushima prefecture started in October 2011 to investigate the possible effect of the radiological contamination after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accidents as of March 12 to 15, 2011. Thyroid cancer in 184 cases was reported by February 2017. The question arises to which extent those cancer cases are a biological consequence of the radiation exposure or an artefactual result of the intense screening of a large population.Experiences with the Chernobyl accident suggest that the external dose may be considered a valid surrogate for the internal dose of the thyroid gland. We, therefore, calculated the average external effective dose-rate (µSv/h) for the 59 municipalities of the Fukushima prefecture based on published data of air and soil radiation. We further determined the municipality-specific absolute numbers of thyroid cancers found by each of the two screening rounds in the corresponding municipality-specific exposed person-time observed. A possible association between the radiation exposure and the thyroid cancer detection rate was analyzed with Poisson regression assuming Poisson distributed thyroid cancer cases in the exposed person-time observed per municipality.The target populations consisted of 367,674 and 381,286 children and adolescents for the 1st and the 2nd screening rounds, respectively. In the 1st screening, 300,476 persons participated and 270,489 in the 2nd round. From October 2011 to March 2016, a total of 184 cancer cases were found in 1,079,786 person-years counted from the onset of the exposure to the corresponding examination periods in the municipalities. A significant association between the external effective dose-rate and the thyroid cancer detection rate exists: detection rate ratio (DRR) per µSv/h 1.065 (1.013, 1.119). Restricting the analysis to the 53 municipalities that received less than 2 µSv/h, and which represent 176 of the total 184 cancer cases, the association appears to be considerably stronger: DRR per µSv/h 1.555 (1.096, 2.206).The average radiation dose-rates in the 59 municipalities of the Fukushima prefecture in June 2011 and the corresponding thyroid cancer detection rates in the period October 2011 to March 2016 show statistically significant relationships.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Doses de Radiação , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
4.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(2): 238-247, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tooth agenesis is the most common dental anomaly in humans and is often found in orthodontic patients. However, severe tooth agenesis (oligodontia) is rare and its characteristics are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate tooth agenesis patterns of Japanese orthodontic patients with nonsyndromic oligodontia. METHODS: Panoramic radiographs of 228 orthodontic patients (141 females, 87 males) with nonsyndromic oligodontia were selected and permanent tooth agenesis excluding third molars was evaluated. Influence of cutoff age was tested, tooth agenesis patterns for each quadrant were calculated, and antagonistic maxillary and mandibular quadrants were merged as the occluding tooth agenesis pattern. Full-mouth tooth agenesis patterns were also evaluated. RESULTS: The highest prevalence of tooth agenesis was observed in maxillary and mandibular second premolars, followed by maxillary first premolars. Prevalence of a symmetric pattern between right and left quadrants was significantly higher than matched patterns between maxillary and mandibular antagonistic quadrants. Among 456 possible tooth agenesis patterns, 51 and 49 patterns were observed for the maxillary and mandibular quadrants, respectively, but 215 patterns for the occluding patterns were observed. In addition, 180 full-mouth tooth agenesis patterns were observed in the 228 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct characteristics in highly ranked patterns were observed compared with studies from other geographic areas, especially in the maxillary arch. Occluding and full-mouth tooth agenesis patterns showed wide variation, suggesting difficulty in orthodontic diagnosis.


Assuntos
Anodontia/epidemiologia , Anodontia/patologia , Ortodontia , Adolescente , Anodontia/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Pré-Molar/anormalidades , Dente Pré-Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mandíbula/patologia , Maxila/patologia , Dente Serotino/anormalidades , Dente Serotino/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Radiografia Panorâmica , Anormalidades Dentárias/epidemiologia
5.
Ann Hematol ; 98(9): 2213-2220, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327025

RESUMO

Alemtuzumab is the treatment choice for patients with T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL). However, patients with T-PLL have a poor prognosis, and the option of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains controversial in these patients. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of allogeneic HCT among patients with T-PLL to identify the potential clinical efficacy of allogeneic HCT. We retrospectively analyzed data from 20 patients with T-PLL, including five patients with complex chromosomal abnormalities at diagnosis who received an allogeneic HCT between 2000 and 2016. The median follow-up of survivors was 51 months in allogeneic HCT from human leukemia antigen (HLA)-matched donors. All five patients with complex chromosomal abnormalities died after allogeneic HCT. Our data suggest that allogeneic HCT from an HLA-matched donor can be considered for patients with T-PLL without complex chromosomal abnormalities. New treatment strategies of allogeneic HCT are required to improve the safety and efficacy of allografting in patients with T-PLL and complex chromosomal abnormalities. Potential approaches that identify patients with T-PLL and complex chromosomal abnormalities for allogeneic HCT with better disease control may allow identification of individuals who are suitable for allogeneic HCT.


Assuntos
Alemtuzumab/administração & dosagem , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Prolinfocítica de Células T , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Leucemia Prolinfocítica de Células T/genética , Leucemia Prolinfocítica de Células T/mortalidade , Leucemia Prolinfocítica de Células T/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16216, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277131

RESUMO

To assess the indications, outcomes and time to recurrence of phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) for anterior corneal pathology.This study involved 714 eyes of 477 consecutive patients (mean age: 66.0 ±â€Š15.2 years; range: 6-101 years) who underwent PTK as the initial surgical intervention for an anterior corneal pathology. In case of each patient, the cornea treated by PTK, followed up by slit-lamp examination and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) testing. Main outcome measures included Slit-lamp findings (1), CDVA (2), patients' complaints (3).The mean follow-up period was 44.0 ±â€Š38.8 months (range: 1-156 months).We treated 376 granular corneal dystrophy (GCD) eyes, 238 band keratopathy (BK) eyes, 23 epithelium attachment disorder eyes, 16 gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD) eyes, 13 lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD) eyes, and 48 eyes with other corneal diseases. The CDVA significantly improved from LogMAR 0.65 ±â€Š0.61 pre PTK to LogMAR 0.26 ±â€Š0.39 post PTK. A 2 or more lines increase of CDVA was observed in GCD eyes (67.8%), BK eyes (49.2%), epithelium attachment disorder eyes (57.1%), GDLD eyes (87.5%), LCD eyes (76.9%), and other corneal disease eyes (60.4%). The recurrence of BK was rare. GCD recurred slowly. Epithelium attachment disorder eyes remitted simultaneously, and recurred comparatively faster.PTK was proved to be a successful therapy for all 6 corneal disease categories. Disease recurrence after PTK differed among the diseases, and surgeons should recognize the different rates of disease recurrence after PTK surgery.


Assuntos
Córnea/cirurgia , Doenças da Córnea/cirurgia , Ceratectomia Fotorrefrativa/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Córnea/patologia , Doenças da Córnea/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int Heart J ; 60(4): 830-835, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257332

RESUMO

Uric acid is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors. Here, we examined the association between the serum uric acid level and incident metabolic syndrome in a Japanese general population. This retrospective, observational study was based on data obtained from an annual health checkup program in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. We evaluated 14,793 participants who did not use antihypertensive or antidiabetic medications and did not present with CVD or metabolic syndrome at the study baseline in 2009. Metabolic syndrome was defined as per the Japanese diagnostic criteria. A discrete proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate the association between the serum uric acid level at baseline and the incident metabolic syndrome through 2012 and was adjusted for age, gender, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride. At baseline, the average age of the participants was 48.9 years, who were comprised of 40% women. The mean serum uric acid level at baseline was 5.3 ± 1.4 mg/dL. During the three-year follow-up, 7% of the cohort (n = 1,031) developed metabolic syndrome. The uric acid level was strongly associated with incident metabolic syndrome in the multivariable model (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.17; P < 0.01 per 1 mg/dL increase for uric acid). Higher uric acid levels were independently associated with a greater risk of incident metabolic syndrome in a Japanese general population.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Int Heart J ; 60(4): 876-885, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257340

RESUMO

The clinical scenario, which is based on systolic blood pressure (SBP) upon admission, is useful for classifying and determining initial treatment for acute heart failure (HF). However, the prognostic significance of SBP following the initial treatment is unclear.The Japanese Heart Failure Syndrome with Preserved Ejection Fraction (JASPER) registry is a nationwide, observational, and prospective registration of consecutive Japanese patients hospitalized with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 50%. We divided 525 patients into three groups based on their SBP on the day following hospitalization: high (SBP > 140 mmHg, n = 72, 13.7%); normal (100 ≤ SBP ≤ 140 mmHg, n = 379, 72.2%); and low (SBP < 100 mmHg, n = 74, 14.1%) groups. This analysis had two primary endpoints: (1) all-cause death and (2) all-cause death or rehospitalization for HF. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, both of the endpoints were the highest in the low group (Log-Rank < 0.05, respectively). Compared to the normal and high groups, the low group demonstrated a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (67.1%, 63.9%, and 47.8%, P = 0.026) and the lowest left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral determined by echocardiography (16.4 cm, 19.4 cm, and 23.3 cm, P = 0.001). In the multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis, low SBP on the day following hospitalization was an independent predictor of all-cause death (hazard ratio 1.868, 95% confidence interval 1.024-3.407, P = 0.042) and the composite endpoint (hazard ratio 1.660, 95% confidence interval 1.103-2.500, P = 0.015).Classification based on SBP on the day following initial treatment predicts post-discharge prognosis in hospitalized patients with HFpEF.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Alta do Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Sístole
9.
Int Heart J ; 60(4): 812-821, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308323

RESUMO

Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) of atrial fibrillation (AF) can reduce the AF burden and, potentially, reduce the long-term risk of strokes and death. However, it remains unclear whether anticoagulants can be stopped after PVI because of post-ablation AF recurrence in some patients. This study aimed to investigate the discontinuation rate of anticoagulants and long-term incidence of strokes after PVI.We enrolled 512 consecutive Japanese patients with AF (mean age, 63.4 ± 10.4 years; 123 women; 234 with non-paroxysmal AF; CHADS2 score/CHA2DS2-VASC score, 1.32 ± 1.12/2.21 ± 1.54) who underwent PVI between 2012 and 2015. During a 28.0 ± 17.1 -month follow-up, anticoagulants were terminated in 230 (44.9%) of the 512 patients, AF recurred in 200 (39.1%), and 10 (1.95%) suffered from a stroke. Death occurred in 5 (0.98%) patients. Although the incidence of strokes, by a Kaplan-Meier analysis, was similar, the incidence of death was lower (Hazard ratio 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.93, P = 0.041) in the AF ablation group than the control group without ablation after 1:1 propensity score matching (the control data was derived from 2,986 patients in the SAKURA AF Registry, a large-cohort AF registry).Anticoagulants were discontinued in nearly half the patients who underwent AF ablation; of these, 39.1% experienced AF recurrences, 1.95% suffered from strokes, and 0.98% died, but the risk of death after AF ablation appeared to be lower than that in a propensity score-matched control group without ablation during long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Eletrocardiografia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2429-2433, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracranial arteriosclerotic disease (ICAD) is common in Asians and has been presumed to be largely associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the risks for asymptomatic ICAD detectable in examinations of the brain, among other tests, are not well known. The present study is aimed at identifying the risks for asymptomatic ICAD using data on risk factors obtained in health checkups, including data from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chest computed tomography (CT), and neck echography. METHODS: Subjects comprised 103 examinees more than equal to 40 years old (56.9 ± 4.7 years, 93 men) who underwent head MRI, chest CT, and carotid echography in the same period in a workplace health checkup between April and September 2014. Subjects were evaluated for ICAD based on stenosis of bilateral middle cerebral arteries and the basilar artery on previously reported scores from magnetic resonance angiography. Evaluations for extracranial arteriosclerotic disease (ECAD) were based on findings from carotid echography, and total calcium scores were calculated based on the number, areas, and peak Hounsfield computed tomographic numbers of the aortic arch calcified lesion detected. RESULTS: ICAD, including mild cases with stenosis less than 50%, was seen in 21 subjects (20.3%); and MetS was evident in 12 subjects (11.7%). Logistic regression analysis with multivariate adjustment for major vascular risk factor demonstrated that echogenic of plaque was significantly associated with the ICAD (OR 3.69, 95%CI 1.02-13.3), however age was significant predictor of the risk profile in patients with ECAD. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid atherosclerosis could predict intracranial atherosclerosis in middle-aged people. However, further study with large sample size is warranted.


Assuntos
Artéria Basilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Saúde do Trabalhador , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia , Local de Trabalho , Fatores Etários , Doenças Assintomáticas , Artéria Basilar/patologia , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/patologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Projetos Piloto , Placa Aterosclerótica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2434-2441, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In recent years, interest in the quality of medical care has rapidly increased worldwide. However, quality indicators that contribute to establishing standard treatment in stroke medicine, especially rehabilitation, are not well-developed in Japan. Japan has established Kaifukuki (convalescent) rehabilitation wards, and the development of quality indicators for stroke rehabilitation in the convalescent phase is an urgent issue. METHODS: We first reviewed the literature regarding quality indicators for stroke rehabilitation. Next, we extracted candidate indicators from identified reports and guidelines and surveyed educational hospitals certified by the Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Medicine. On the basis of the survey results, we reevaluated the suitability of the proposed indicators in discussions with an expert panel. RESULTS: The questionnaire survey highlighted several important items that revealed there is room for improvement in adherence. For stroke rehabilitation in the convalescent phase, we adopted 15 indicators that were feasible as indicators to be used for comparisons between facilities, based on scoring by and opinions of the expert panel. These indicators measured structure (2 indicators), process (5 indicators), and outcome (8 indicators). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to establish quality indicators to standardize stroke rehabilitation in Japan. We developed this set of 15 indicators using an evidence-based approach. However, many tasks remain for continuous quality improvement.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104710, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311633

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an emerging and/or re-emerging disease of pigs in several countries, with high morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets. Farms affected with PED perform various intervention practices to control and/or eliminate the PED virus. The objectives of the present study were to assess the effect of biosecurity measures and intervention practices to control PED on time to absence of clinical signs (TAC) and number of dead suckling piglets during TAC. A questionnaire was administered to 120-PED affected farms located across Japan between 2013, when the first case was reported in Japan, and 2014. Farms were asked to provide information on farm characteristics and internal or external biosecurity measures during PED outbreak, as well as on intervention practices to control PED. The TAC was defined as the number of days from the date that clinical PED signs appeared to the date that clinical PED signs disappeared. The number of dead piglets per sow (DP/S) was calculated as the number of dead suckling piglets during TAC divided by the sow inventory. Regarding the effect of biosecurity measures during PED outbreak on TAC and DP/S, longer TAC was observed in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-positive farms and farms outsourcing pig transport to the slaughterhouse (p <  0.05). In addition, farms with divided truck entrances had lower DP/S than those without divided entrances (p <  0.05).Regarding the effect of intervention practices to control PED on TAC and DP/S, farms that performed feedback at 2 weeks or later after PED outbreak had longer TAC and higher DP/S than other farms (p <  0.05). Farms that fixed the hours staff worked in farrowing barn had lower DP/S than the other farms (p <  0.05). In conclusion, variables associated with long TAC were Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae -positive farms, farms outsourcing pig transport to the slaughterhouse, and farms performing feedback at 2 week or later after PED outbreak. Additionally, those associated with high DP/S were farms without divided entrances, farms without a fixed hours worked in the barn, and farms that performed feedback at 2 week or later after PED outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/mortalidade , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Japão/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Tempo
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(9): 1383-1390, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347997

RESUMO

Introduction. In 2016-2017, there was an increase in the number of paediatric invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Serotype 12F is one of the major causative serotypes of IPD following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 (PCV13), and outbreaks of IPD caused by serotype 12F have recently been reported in several countries.Aim. Our goal here was to clarify the relationship among local outbreak strains and the outbreak strains in other countries, and for this we analysed clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae serotype 12F using several genetic identification methods.Methodology. All reported IPD cases caused by serotype 12F were reviewed and bacterial strains were collected and analysed. We also analysed S. pneumoniae serotype 12F strains isolated from other time periods, geographical areas, cases of adult IPD and respiratory specimens as control strains. Multi-locus sequence typing, PFGE and multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were conducted on all isolates.Results. All 26 S. pneumoniae serotype 12F isolates, including control strains, belonged to a single sequence type (ST4846) that was the specific ST in Japan. All tested strains demonstrated five MLVA patterns and two PFGE patterns.Conclusion. We determined that the 2016-2017 outbreak of IPD in Chiba Prefecture was caused by clonally related isolates of serotype 12F. The continuous monitoring of IPD caused by serotype 12F is important for evaluating the impact of re-emerging pneumococcal serotypes following the PCV13 introduction era, and MLVA could be a useful tool for identification of outbreak strains.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Repetições Minissatélites , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética
14.
Cancer Sci ; 110(9): 2884-2893, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265163

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the standard of care for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring EGFR mutations. However, almost all patients develop resistance after approximately 1 y of treatment, with >50% of cases due to the T790M secondary mutation of the EGFR gene. A large global Phase III study (AURA3) demonstrated that osimertinib significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) over platinum-doublet chemotherapy in patients with T790M-positive NSCLC who had progressed on previous EGFR-TKI therapy. However, it is not clear whether efficacy or safety of osimertinib in Japanese patients is similar to the overall population. We report a pre-planned subgroup analysis of pooled Phase II data from the AURA Extension and AURA2 trials to investigate the efficacy and safety of osimertinib in Japanese patients. This study included 81 Japanese patients. Patients were administered 80 mg osimertinib orally once daily until disease progression. The main endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), PFS, and safety. The ORR was 63.6% and median PFS was 13.8 mo. Overall survival rate at 36 mo was 54.0%. The most common all-cause adverse events (AEs) were rash (grouped term; 65.4%), diarrhea (51.9%), paronychia (grouped term; 49.4%), and dry skin (grouped term; 39.5%). Most AEs were grade 1-2. Five patients (6.2%) developed interstitial lung disease, resulting in two deaths (2.5%). Osimertinib demonstrated favorable ORR and PFS in Japanese patients, similar to the overall population. Additionally, osimertinib has good efficacy and a manageable safety profile in Japanese patients with NSCLC who had acquired resistance due to the T790M mutation.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Acrilamidas/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compostos de Anilina/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Exantema/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paroniquia/induzido quimicamente , Paroniquia/epidemiologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Cancer Sci ; 110(9): 2924-2932, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336012

RESUMO

This multicenter, open-label phase 1/2 study evaluated single-agent carfilzomib in 50 heavily pretreated Japanese patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (median of five prior treatments). In phase 1, patients were dosed at three levels: 15, 20, or 20/27 mg/m2 . Maximum tolerated dosage was not reached at the tolerability evaluation. Patients in phase 2 were treated with 20/27 mg/m2 carfilzomib. Median duration of exposure to carfilzomib in the 20/27 mg/m2 group at this final analysis was 4.7 months (range: 0.3-39.4). Overall response rate in the 20/27 mg/m2 group, primary endpoint of the study, was 22.5% (n = 9) (95% confidence interval, 12.3-37.5) with 2.5% (n = 1) stringent complete response. Median progression-free survival and overall survival in the 20/27 mg/m2 group were 5.1 months (95% CI, 2.8-13.6) and 22.9 months (95% CI, 14.1-not estimable), respectively. Frequently occurring grade ≥3 adverse events in the 20/27 mg/m2 group included lymphopenia (72.5%), neutropenia (40.0%), and leukopenia (32.5%). Giving long-term carfilzomib monotherapy led to long-term overall survival for heavily pretreated multiple myeloma patients with a favorable safety profile. Carfilzomib monotherapy can be a good option for heavily pretreated multiple myeloma patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Leucopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/epidemiologia , Oligopeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Cancer Sci ; 110(9): 2894-2904, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348579

RESUMO

Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody against the immune checkpoint receptor programmed death-1, inhibiting binding to programmed death-ligand 1 or 2 (PD-L1 or PD-L2). This phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in patients with advanced/recurrent uterine cervical cancer, uterine corpus cancer, or soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Patients received nivolumab 240 mg at 2-week intervals. Primary endpoint was objective response rate; secondary endpoints included overall survival, progression-free survival, and safety. PD-L1 expression and microsatellite-instability (MSI) status were analyzed as potential efficacy biomarkers. Objective response rate was 25%, 23%, and 0% in patients with cervical cancer (n = 20), corpus cancer (n = 22), and STS (n = 21), respectively. The lower 80% confidence intervals of objective response rates in patients with cervical or corpus cancer exceeded the threshold rate (5%); the primary endpoint was met in cervical and corpus cancer, but not in STS. Median progression-free survival was 5.6, 3.4, and 1.4 months, and 6-month overall survival was 84%, 73%, and 86% in cervical cancer, corpus cancer, and STS, respectively. The objective response rate was higher in patients with cervical cancer with PD-L1-positive (n = 5/15; 33%) versus PD-L1-negative (n = 0/5; 0%) tumors. The two patients with corpus cancer classified as MSI-high responded; the six patients classified as microsatellite stable did not respond. Overall, nivolumab showed acceptable toxicity in all cohorts, with evidence of clinical activity in uterine cervical or corpus cancer, but not in STS. PD-L1 expression in cervical cancer and MSI-high in corpus cancer may predict clinical activity of nivolumab in these cancers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Japão/epidemiologia , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Sarcoma/genética , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Útero/patologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 852, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well known that there are educational inequalities in incidences of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Unlike most preceding studies, this study examined this issue using a hazards model analysis, with specific reference to the potential mediating effects of socioeconomic status (SES), other than educational level, and health behaviour as well as gender differences. METHODS: Data were obtained from a 12-wave longitudinal nationwide survey conducted from 2005 to 2016 with middle-aged individuals in Japan. Participants included 31,210 individuals (15,127 men and 16,083 women) who were aged 50-59 years at wave 1. Incidences of six NCDs (diabetes, heart disease, stroke, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and cancer), initially diagnosed between waves 2 and 12, were considered. Cox proportional hazards models were estimated to examine their associations with educational level, adjusted for baseline SES and health behaviour. Educational inequalities were measured by the relative indices of inequality (RII). RESULTS: Lower educational level was associated with higher incidences of diabetes and stroke among both men and women, and with hypertension only among women. After controlling for baseline SES, health behaviour, and regional areas, the RII ranged from 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.85) for stroke among men to 2.65 (95% CI, 2.09-3.36) for diabetes among women. Small to moderate parts (0.0-32.7%) of the RII were explained by baseline SES and health behaviour. A negative association with education was observed for diabetes and hypertension among women. CONCLUSIONS: Results underscored the importance of educational level as a predictor of the incidences of selected NCDs, especially among women, with limited mediating effects of other SES and health behaviour.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 586, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination is recognized as a primary public health intervention which prevents the illness of patients and relieves the societal burdens of influenza for medical community as well as the economy. To date, no effectiveness study of influenza vaccination has been conducted including a large population with a wide age span, in Japan. Here, we evaluated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in a large Japanese population. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using a large-scale claims database for employee health care insurance plans. Vaccination status was identified using plan records for influenza vaccination subsidies. We excluded people aged 65 years or more because of the unavailability of vaccination records. Effectiveness of vaccination in preventing influenza and its complication was evaluated with doubly robust methods using inversed probability treatment weighting to adjust health conscious behaviours and other confounders. RESULTS: During the 2013/2014 influenza season, 369,425 subjects with age range from 1 to 64 years were eligible. Vaccination rate was 39.5% and an estimated odds ratio (OR) for influenza onset was 0.775 after doubly robust adjustment. Age-stratified ORs were significantly reduced in all age groups; lowest in subjects aged 1 to 4 years (0.600) and highest in those aged 13 to 19 (0.938). ORs for all the influenza complication outcomes were also statistically significant (0.403-0.709). CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in people aged 1 to 64 years. Influenza vaccination significantly prevented influenza onset and was more effective in reducing secondary risks of influenza complications.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estações do Ano , Resultado do Tratamento , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Anticancer Res ; 39(6): 3059-3065, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Induction chemotherapy (IC) for head and neck cancer (HNC) often causes severe side-effects. However, it has still been challenging to predict the adverse events. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of hematological inflammatory markers in predicting severe side-effects caused by IC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 54 HNC patients who underwent IC were enrolled. The association between severe side-effects and pre-treatment hematological inflammatory markers [the C-reactive protein (CRP) to albumin ratio (CAR), the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR)] were evaluated. RESULTS: In the univariate analysis, the incidence of whole severe side-effects (grade 4), febrile neutropenia (above grade 3), and hyponatremia (above grade 3) were significantly higher in the high CAR and high GPS groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that high CAR and mGPS were independent predictors of these side-effects. CONCLUSION: CAR and mGPS were significant predictors of severe side-effects. These data can potentially offer patients an improved quality of life during cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/sangue , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/diagnóstico , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hiponatremia/sangue , Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Contagem de Plaquetas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(6): 287-294, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231098

RESUMO

Objective The aim of this nationwide study was to estimate the duration of formal long-term care, provided by Japanese long-term care insurance (LTCI) services, among frail Japanese elderly people living in the community.Methods The study subjects were 2,188,397 (men: 579,422, women: 1,124,022, age≥65 years) beneficiaries who used LTCI services for community living in June 2013. The duration of LTCI services for community living per diem per capita was estimated by converting the benefit amount to duration of care using the code for service in claims bills according to gender and care levels, which are a nationally certified classification of individual needs for long-term care (care level 1: lowest need, care level 5: highest need). Subsequently, LTCI services for community living were categorized into respite services and community services. Community services were further subcategorized into home visiting services and daycare services.Results The overall average duration of formal care per diem per capita for men and women were 97.4 and 112.7 minutes for care level 1, 118.3 and 149.1 for care level 2, 186.9 and 246.4 for care level 3, 215.2 and 273.2 for care level 4, and 213.1 and 261.4 for care level 5, respectively. Length of respite services increased gradually with care level, whereas duration of community services peaked at care level 3 and decreased at care levels 4 and 5. With regard to the community service subcategories, duration of home visiting services increased with care level, but duration of daycare services peaked at care level 3.Conclusion Although the care levels in the LCTI system are designed to assess the need for formal care in terms of duration of care, our results suggest that the use of formal LTCI services for community living is not vertically equitable. Services that efficiently increase duration of formal care for those with higher needs for care may improve the equity and sustainability of formal long-term care services for community living.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo/economia , Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/economia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/economia , Japão/epidemiologia , Assistência de Longa Duração/economia , Masculino
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