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1.
Oecologia ; 194(3): 465-480, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079266

RESUMO

Urban green spaces such as gardens often consist of native and exotic plant species, which provide pollen and nectar for flower-visiting insects. Although some exotic plants are readily visited by pollinators, it is unknown if and at which time of the season exotic garden plants may supplement or substitute for flower resources provided by native plants. To investigate if seasonal changes in flower availability from native vs. exotic plants affect flower visits, diversity and particularly plant-pollinator interaction networks, we studied flower-visiting insects over a whole growing season in 20 urban residential gardens in Germany. Over the course of the season, visits to native plants decreased, the proportion of flower visits to exotics increased, and flower-visitor species richness decreased. Yet, the decline in flower-visitor richness over the season was slowed in gardens with a relatively higher proportion of flowering exotic plants. This compensation was more positively linked to the proportion of exotic plant species than to the proportion of exotic flower cover. Plant-pollinator interaction networks were moderately specialized. Interactions were more complex in high summer, but interaction diversity, linkage density, and specialisation were not influenced by the proportion of exotic species. Thus, later in the season when few native plants flowered, exotic garden plants partly substituted for native flower resources without apparent influence on plant-pollinator network structure. Late-flowering garden plants support pollinator diversity in cities. If appropriately managed, and risk of naturalisation is minimized, late-flowering exotic plants may provide floral resources to support native pollinators when native plants are scarce.


Assuntos
Jardins , Polinização , Animais , Cidades , Flores , Alemanha , Plantas
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095838

RESUMO

Visiting parks and gardens supports physical and mental health. We quantified access to public parks and gardens in urban areas of England and Wales, and the potential for park crowdedness during periods of high use. We combined data from the Office for National Statistics and Ordnance Survey to quantify (i) the number of parks within 500 and 1,000 metres of urban postcodes (i.e., availability), (ii) the distance of postcodes to the nearest park (i.e., accessibility), and (iii) per-capita space in each park for people living within 1,000m. We examined variability by city and share of flats. Around 25.4 million people (~87%) can access public parks or gardens within a ten-minute walk, while 3.8 million residents (~13%) live farther away; of these 21% are children and 13% are elderly. Areas with a higher share of flats on average are closer to a park but people living in these areas visit parks that are potentially overcrowded during periods of high use. Such disparity in urban areas of England and Wales becomes particularly evident during COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown when local parks, the only available out-of-home space option, hinder social distancing requirements. Cities aiming to facilitate social distancing while keeping public green spaces safe might require implementing measures such as dedicated park times for different age groups or entry allocation systems that, combined with smartphone apps or drones, can monitor and manage the total number of people using the park.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Planejamento Ambiental , Jardins , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Parques Recreativos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Logradouros Públicos , População Urbana , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
3.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 153-157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965267

RESUMO

The research objectives were to study the introduction process of different aromatic and spice plants in the Batumi Botanical Garden and the content of bioactive compounds in aromatic plants introduced and grown in the soil and climatic conditions of the garden.; Among the aromatic plants introduced to the BBG by the authors, the following species are having full vegetative and generative development in the open ground:Cuminum cyminum L.; Polianthes tuberosa L.; Iris pallida Lam.;Geranium macrorrhizum L., Piper suaveolens Ham., Piper piperita L., Thymus citriodorus Schreb., Satureja Montana L., Mentha piperita L., Origanum vulgare L., Mentha longifolia L., Hyssopus officinalis L.; Phyla scaberrima Moldenke, Ruta graveolens L.; Vegetative organs reach the full development, but without blooming:Curcuma longa L..; Zingiber officinale Roscoe.; Elettaria cardamomum Maton.; Coffea arabica L.; Coffea conephera L..; Vanilla planifolia Jacks.; Cassia acutifolia Delile.; For the purpose of studying the content of bioactive compounds in plants introduced to the soil and climatic conditions of the BBG with the help of green technologies, the following species were taken for analysis:Cassia acutifolia Delile. - seed, flower, leaf; Cuminum cyminum L. - seed; Coffea conefera L. andCoffea Arabica L., leaves and seeds; Vanilla planifolia Jacks. - leaves; Elletaria cardamomum Maton. -Cardamom leaves.With the help of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry GC-MS method, there were identified bioactive compounds of various classes. The content of essential oils is identified in all research objects.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Satureja , Jardins , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta
4.
Public Health ; 186: 83-86, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between ownership of a potted street garden (PSG) and depression levels in a densely populated, disadvantaged Moroccan neighbourhood. STUDY DESIGN: The study design used was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data were collected through a face-to-face survey conducted in January 2019. In total, there were 388 participants, in three densely populated neighbourhoods of the Beni-Makada district of Tangier, Morocco. We measured depression levels using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and data were analysed using weighted moderated ordinary least squared regression analysis. RESULTS: PSG ownership was associated with a .74-point increase in depression score (b = .74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .38, 1.10, ß = .22, Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) = 1.15; P < .001). PSG ownership also moderated the negative association between depression levels and neighbourhood life satisfaction (F [3,336] = 5.058, P < .001, R2 change = .039). A one-level increase in PSG being perceived as a public amenity by their owners was associated with a .36-point decrease in depression score (b = -.36, 95% CI = -.71, -.01, ß = -.14, VIF = 1.08; P < .05), whereas a 1-min increase in PSG daily care duration was associated with .04-point increase in depression score (b = .04, 95% CI = .01, .06, ß = .24, VIF = 1.68; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PSG ownership might have a negative impact on mental health in densely populated, disadvantaged neighbourhoods. This negative association might be due to the fact of PSGs being deemed as private property present in an unsafe and uncontrolled environment.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Jardins/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Propriedade , Saúde Pública , Qualidade de Vida , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235569, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735584

RESUMO

The palm family (Arecaceae) is of high ecological and economic value, yet identification in the family remains a challenge for both taxonomists and horticulturalists. The family consists of approximately 2600 species across 181 genera and DNA barcoding may be a useful tool for species identification within the group. However, there have been few systematic evaluations of DNA barcodes for the palm family. In the present study, five DNA barcodes (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, ITS, ITS2) were evaluated for species identification ability across 669 samples representing 314 species and 100 genera in the Arecaceae, employing four analytical methods. The ITS gene region was found to not be a suitable barcode for the palm family, due in part, to low recovery rates and paralogous gene copies. Among the four analyses used, species resolution for ITS2 was much higher than that achieved with the plastid barcodes alone (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA), and the barcode combination ITS2 + matK + rbcL gave the highest resolution among all single barcodes and their combinations, followed by ITS2 + matK. Among 669 palm samples analyzed, 110 samples (16.3%) were found to be misidentified. The 2992 DNA barcode sequences generated in this study greatly enriches the existing identification toolbox available to plant taxonomists that are interested in researching genetic relationships among palm taxa as well as for horticulturalists that need to confirm palm collections for botanical garden curation and horticultural applications. Our results indicate that the use of the ITS2 DNA barcode gene region provides a useful and cost-effective tool to confirm the identity of taxa in the Palm family.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/classificação , Arecaceae/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Jardins
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 39531-39546, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651787

RESUMO

CH4 flux measured by a portable chamber using an infrared analyzer was compared with the flux by static chamber measurement for CW at 13 different sites from May 2012 to May 2017 in the Living Water Garden (LWG) in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China, over 4 timescales (daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual). During the measurement period, a total of 1443 data were collected. CH4 fluxes were measured using the portable chamber method and the results showed that the annual mean and median CH4 flux values in the LWG were 17.4 mg m-2 h-1 and 6.2 mg m-2 h-1, respectively, ranging from - 19.7 to 98.0 mg m-2 h-1. Cumulative CH4 emissions for LWG ranged from - 0.17 to 0.86 kg m-2 year-1. Global warming potential (GWP, 25.7 kg CO2eq m-2 year-1) was at a high level, which means that the LWG was a source of CH4 emissions. Significant temporal variations on the 4 timescales were observed. And the asymmetry of measurement uncertainty of CH4 flux increases with the timescale. Although the total mean CH4 flux measured by the portable chamber method was 42.1% lower than that of the static chamber method, the temporal variation trends of CH4 flux were similar. The uncertainty of CH4 flux measured in portable chamber was more symmetrical than that in static chamber. These results suggest that the portable chamber method has considerable value as a long-term measurement method for CH4 flux temporal variations.


Assuntos
Metano/análise , Água , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Cidades , Jardins , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Estações do Ano
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140889, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711317

RESUMO

Nowadays, the use of constructed wetlands for on-site greywater treatment is a very promising option. The successful application of this nature-based solution at full scale requires public acceptance, economic feasibility and the production of high-quality treated greywater. This work focuses on the use of ornamental plants as vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) vegetation for greywater treatment, aiming to improve aesthetic and acceptability of the system. The performance and economic feasibility of the proposed green technology were examined during a 2-years study. Results show that Pittosporum tobira and Hedera helix can grow in VFCW operating with greywater without any visible symptoms. These species tolerated both drought and flooding conditions, making them ideal for use not only in residential buildings but also in seasonal hotels and holiday homes. In contrast, partial defoliation of Polygala myrtifolia plants was observed during the winter period. High average removal efficiencies were observed for BOD (99%), COD (96%) and TSS (94%) in all examined VFCWs including unplanted beds. Phosphorus removal gradually decreased from 100% during first months of operation to 15% during second year of operation. In addition, total coliforms concentration reduced by 2.2 log units in the effluent of all planted systems, while lower removal efficiency was observed in the absence of plants. The mean concentration of BOD and TSS in the treated greywater met the standards for indoor reuse (<10 mg/L). Cost payback periods for the installation of the proposed technology in a multi-family building, a single house and a hotel in Greece were found 4.7, 16.6 and 2.5 years, respectively. Overall, the "treatment gardens" proposed in this study provide a technically and economically feasible solution for greywater treatment, with the additional benefit of improving the aesthetic of urban, semi-urban and touristic areas.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Áreas Alagadas , Jardins , Grécia , Fósforo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 734: 139263, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475721

RESUMO

Garden bird feeding constitutes a massive provision of food that can support bird communities, but there is a growing concern it might favour the establishment of exotic species that could be detrimental to others. How bird species compete with novel species for this anthropogenic food resources needs to be assessed. Here, we investigated competition in wintering bird communities at garden birdfeeders. We evaluated whether - and how much - bird access to resources is hampered by the presence of putative superior competing species, among which the Rose-ringed parakeet, the most abundant introduced species across Europe. Using the nation-wide citizen science scheme BirdLab, in which volunteers record in real-time bird attendance on a pair of birdfeeders during 5-minute sessions, we tested whether i) cumulative bird presence time and richness at birdfeeders, and ii) species probability of presence at birdfeeders, were influenced by three large species (the Eurasian magpie, the Eurasian collared-dove, and the Rose-ringed parakeet). Additionally, we assessed whether the Rose-ringed parakeet occupied resources significantly more than others. Presence of the Rose-ringed parakeet or the Eurasian collared-dove similarly reduced community cumulative presence time at birdfeeders, but only the dove reduced community richness. Each of the three large species influenced the presence of at least one of the six smaller species that could be separately modelled, but effects varied in strength and direction. The Rose-ringed parakeet and the Eurasian collared-dove were among the three species monopolising birdfeeders the longest, substantially more than the Eurasian magpie. Our findings confirm the competitive abilities of the large species studied, but do not suggest that garden bird feeding may alarmingly favour introduced species with detrimental effects on native species. Given the variability of large species' effects on small passerines, direct and indirect interactions among all species must be examined to fully understand the ecological net effects at stake.


Assuntos
Jardins , Espécies Introduzidas , Ração Animal , Animais , Columbidae , Europa (Continente) , Jardinagem , Estações do Ano
10.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(5): 1039-1051, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541120

RESUMO

Many studies have been conducted on water volume reduction and pollutants purification of rain gardens. However, the pollutant variations in rain gardens are rarely explored. Seven soil sampling events were conducted from April 2017 to February 2019 to investigate the influences of stormwater concentration infiltration on soil heavy metals in two rain gardens. The results show that: (1) Cu, Zn, and Cd contents in rain garden soil are greater than those of the control soil. They vary with seasons and are trapped in the top layer of 0-30 cm; (2) Cu, Zn, and Pb exist as iron-manganese oxide combined form (S3), organic bound (S4) and residual forms (S5). However, Cd exists in exchangeable (S1) and carbonate bound (S2) forms, whereas Cr is in the S2, S3, and S4 forms. (3) According to the Soil Environmental Quality Standard in China, rain gardens, running for 8-9 years, are relatively clean and, within level II. However, compared with the background content of Shaanxi Province and the world, they are moderately or even heavily polluted by Cd and Zn and slightly polluted by Cu. It indicates that rain gardens have the risk of heavy metal pollution from stormwater concentration infiltration.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Jardins , Chuva , Solo
11.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 57(2): 155-162, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475943

RESUMO

AIM: In recent years in Japan, forest therapies have been implemented in various places. While the effects of such therapies have been reported in previous research papers, those of artificial gardens have not been clarified. At the 2018 Yamaguchi Yume Flower Expo, the Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine had the opportunity to provide a "Well-being Garden" in collaboration with the Japan Landscape Contractors Association Yamaguchi Prefecture Branch. We examined the physical and mental responses of older people who strolled in the Well-being Garden. METHODS: Participants were 158 people ≥ 65 years old. Pre-and post-stroll interviews were conducted, and the heart rate, blood pressure, and autonomic nervous activities were measured. RESULTS: After strolling in the garden, the heart rate significantly decreased from 76.1±12.9 to 73.9±11.8/min (p<0.01), and both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased from 142.5±24.4 to 139.4±24.1 mmHg and from 83.7±12.0 to 81.5±11.9 mmHg, respectively (p<0.01). The ralue of low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) after strolling in the garden came closer to the standard one than before, both in the participants with much tension and with less tension. In the post-stroll interview, 74 reported feeling very good, and 84 felt good. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that strolling in the Well-being Garden positively influenced the physical and mental condition of the participants.


Assuntos
Afeto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Jardins , Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Flores , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Japão
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139569, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516675

RESUMO

Trace element contaminants in kitchen garden soils can contribute to human exposure through the consumption of homegrown vegetables. In urban areas, these soils can be contaminated to various degrees by trace element (TE). They are characterized by a great variability in their physicochemical parameters due to the high anthropization level, the wide variety and combination of disturbance sources, as well as the diversity of cultivation practices and the large range of contamination levels. Pollutants can be taken up by vegetables cultivated in these soils and be concentrated in their edible parts. In this review, the behavior of vegetables cultivated in contaminated kitchen gardens is assessed through six examples of the most widely cultivated vegetables (lettuce, tomato, bean, carrot, radish, potato). The role of soil parameters that could influence the uptake of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn by these vegetables is also discussed.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos , Jardins , Humanos , Solo , Verduras
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520978

RESUMO

The current distribution area of the two sympatric oaks Quercus petraea and Q. robur covers most of temperate Western Europe. Depending on their geographic location, populations of these trees are exposed to different climate constraints, to which they are adapted. Comparing the performances of trees from contrasting populations provides the insight into their expected resilience to future climate change required for forest management. In this study, the descendants of 24 Q. petraea and two Q. robur provenances selected from sites throughout Europe were grown for 20 years in three common gardens with contrasting climates. The 2420 sampled trees allowed the assessments of the relationship between radial growth and climate. An analysis of 15-year chronologies of ring widths, with different combinations of climate variables, revealed different response patterns between provenances and between common gardens. As expected, provenances originating from sites with wet summers displayed the strongest responses to summer drought, particularly in the driest common garden. All provenances displayed positive significant relationships between the temperature of the previous winter and radial growth when grown in the common garden experiencing the mildest winter temperatures. Only eastern provenances from continental cold climates also clearly expressed this limitation of growth by cold winter temperatures in the other two common gardens. However, ecological distance, calculated on the basis of differences in climate between the site of origin and the common garden, was not clearly related to the radial growth responses of the provenances. This suggests that the gradient of genetic variability among the selected provenances was not strictly structured according to climate gradients. Based on these results, we provide guidelines for forest managers for the assisted migration of Quercus petraea and Q. robur provenances.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Quercus/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Europa (Continente) , Jardins , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
14.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4151-4157, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515726

RESUMO

A novel bacterial strain, designated MAH-6T, was isolated from a garden soil sample. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped. The colonies were light yellow, smooth, circular and 0.6-1.2 mm in diameter when grown on nutrient agar for 3 days. Strain MAH-6T grew at 15-35 °C, at pH 5.0-7.0 and with 0-0.5 % NaCl. Cell growth occurred on nutrient agar and Reasoner's 2A (R2A) agar. The strain was positive for both catalase and oxidase tests. Cells were able to hydrolyse starch, aesculin, Tween 20 and Tween 80. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, the isolate was identified as a member of the genus Sphingomonas and was most closely related to Sphingomonas polyaromaticivorans B2-7T (98.2 % sequence similarity), Sphingomonas oligoaromativorans SY-6T (96.9 %) and Sphingomonas morindae NBD5T (96.6 %). The novel strain MAH-6T has a draft genome size of 4 370 740 bp (28 contigs), annotated with 4199 protein-coding genes, 46 tRNA and three rRNA genes. The genomic DNA G+C content of the strain was determined to be 66.2 mol% and the predominant isoprenoid quinone is Q-10. The major fatty acids were identified as summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c), C14 : 0 2OH and C16 : 0. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. Based on the results of phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, strain MAH-6T represents a novel species, for which the name Sphingomonas chungangi sp. nov. is proposed, with MAH-6T as the type strain (=KACC 19292T=CGMCC1.13654T).


Assuntos
Jardins , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Sphingomonas/classificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sphingomonas/isolamento & purificação , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/química
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579596

RESUMO

A country's cultural landscapes are an important part of its heritage. The growing need to identify, catalogue and preserve these resources has led to a rapid change in the management and inventorying of heritage in general and of cultural landscapes in particular. The main aim of this work is to develop and apply an updated and integrated methodology for capturing and processing geo-information for the digital documentation of cultural heritage. The proposed case study is the atomic garden in the Finca El Encín (Madrid), a singular space with unique biogeographical features created over 60 years ago. The results of the case study validate the method, consisting of an unmanned aerial platform equipped with sensors to obtain point clouds and aerial images in conjunction with point clouds and images captured with a terrestrial laser scanner.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Jardinagem/métodos , Jardins , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Fotogrametria/métodos , Geografia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Fotogrametria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha
16.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e163783, mai. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122177

RESUMO

Soil contamination by dog and cat feces can become a public health problem due to the transmission of various etiologic agents that cause zoonoses. This study aimed to verify the occurrence of geohelminths in the soil of some public square areas of the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon. Five public squares were selected, and soil samples collection was performed from April 2014 to March 2015. The samples were processed by using the Baermann-Moraes and centrifugal-flotation methods. Geohelminths positivity was of 25% for Tox o c ara spp., 6.6% for the Ancylostomatoidea Superfamily and 1.6 for Trichuris spp.. Measures should be implemented to prevent the free access of animals to these places, as well as deworming of stray dogs and cats and the implementation of population control and policies for such animals.(AU)


A contaminação do solo por fezes de cães e gatos pode se tornar um problema de saúde pública devido à transmissão de vários agentes etiológicos que causam zoonoses. Este estudo objetivou verificar a ocorrência de geohelmintos no solo de praças públicas do município de Rio Branco, estado do Acre, Brasil. Cinco praças públicas foram selecionadas e amostras de solo foram colhidas entre abril de 2014 e março de 2015. As amostras foram processadas pelos métodos de Baermann-Moraes e centrífugo-flutuação. A positividade observada para geohelmintos foi de 25% para Tox o c ara spp., 6,6% para a Superfamília Ancylostomatoidea e 1,6% para Trichuris spp.. Medidas devem ser implementadas para prevenir a livre circulação de animais nestes locais, bem como a desverminação de cães e gatos de rua e a implementação de políticas de adoção e controle populacional de cães e gatos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Cães , Microbiologia do Solo , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Poluição Ambiental , Brasil , Zoonoses , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Ecossistema Amazônico , Jardins
17.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt A): 114560, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311637

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a serious environmental problem in most of the cities in the Yangtze River Delta region. Plants can effectively filter ambient air by adsorbing PM. However, only a few studies have paid attention to the dynamic changes and seasonal differences in particle retention capacities of plants under long-term pollution. In this study, we investigated the dynamic changes in particle retention capabilities of the evergreen, broad-leaved, greening plants-Euonymus japonicus var. aurea-marginatus and Pittosporum tobira-in spring and summer. We employed an open-top chamber to simulate the severity of the tail gas pollution. The results showed that, both the plants reached a saturated state in 18-21 days, under continuous exposure to pollution (daily concentration of PM2.5: 214.64 ± 321.33 µg·cm-3). This was 6-8 days longer than that in the field experiments. In spring, the maximum retention of total particulate matter per unit leaf area of E. japonicus var. aurea-marginatus and P. tobira was 188.47 ± 3.72 µg cm-2 (18 days) and 67.63 ± 2.86 µg cm-2 (21 days), respectively. In summer, E. japonicus var. aurea-marginatus and P. tobira reached the maximum retention of the particle on the 21st day, with a net increase of 94.10 ± 3.77 µg cm-2 and 27.81 ± 3.57 µg cm-2, respectively. Irrespective of season, the particle retention capacity of E. japonicus var. aurea-marginatus was higher than that of P. tobira, and it showed a better effect on reducing the concentration of fine particles in the atmosphere. The particle retention of the two plants was higher in spring than that in summer. E. japonicus var. aurea-marginatus displayed a significant difference in particle retention between the seasons, while P. tobira did not show much difference. These results will provide a foundation for future studies on the dynamic changes and mechanism of particle retention in plants and management practices by employing plants for particle retention in severely polluted areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Jardins , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos
18.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126574, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278903

RESUMO

Making municipal sludge into garden soil is a challenging issue in land using due to the high content of heavy metals, however phytoremediation can reduce the heavy metal pollution in the soil. Three artificial regulators were used in combination to improve phytoremediation of heavy metals by Bryophyllum laetivirens from municipal sludge made garden (MSMG) soil. Results showed that B. laetivirens grew well in MSMG soil and bioaccumulated Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Ni by 2.16-11.0 times higher than those grew in local common garden soil. The application of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and microbial liquid (BL) promoted the bioaccumulation of heavy metals of plants in MSMG soil, with 2.1-6.8 times than the control group. The optimum dose for the phytoremediation of B. laetivirens was the combining treatment of 3 mmol kg-1 EDTA, 10-10 M IAA, and 5 ml kg-1 BL, which has been successfully applied in MSMG soil. EDTA treatment is more direct and effective in facilitating HM uptake of root, while the other two treatments play important roles in promoting the transport of HMs in plants.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Kalanchoe/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/química , Jardinagem , Jardins , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas , Esgotos/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0227726, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330137

RESUMO

Spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive economic pest of soft-skinned and stone fruit across the globe. Our study establishes both a predictive generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), and a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) of the dynamic seasonal phenology of D. suzukii based on four years of adult monitoring trap data in Wisconsin tart cherry orchards collected throughout the growing season. The models incorporate year, field site, relative humidity, and degree days (DD); and relate these factors to trap catch. The GLMM estimated a coefficient of 2.21 for DD/1000, meaning for every increment of 1000 DD, trap catch increases by roughly 9 flies. The GAMM generated a curve based on a cubic regression smoothing function of DD which approximates critical DD points of first adult D. suzukii detection at 1276 DD, above average field populations beginning at 2019 DD, and peak activity at 3180 DD. By incorporating four years of comprehensive seasonal phenology data from the same locations, we introduce robust models capable of using DD to forecast changing adult D. suzukii populations in the field leading to the application of more timely and effective management strategies.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Frutas/parasitologia , Modelos Biológicos , Prunus avium/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Animais , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões/métodos , Jardins/estatística & dados numéricos , Umidade , Controle de Insetos , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Modelos Lineares , Temperatura , Wisconsin
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230996, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243461

RESUMO

The use of compost in urban agriculture offers an opportunity to increase nutrient recycling in urban ecosystems, but recent studies have shown that compost application often results in phosphorus (P) being applied far in excess of crop nutrient demand, creating the potential for P loss through leachate and runoff. Management goals such as maximizing crop yields or maximizing the mass of nutrients recycled from compost may inadvertently result in P loss, creating a potential ecosystem disservice. Here, we report the results from the first two years of an experimental study in which four different crops grown in raised-bed garden plots with high background P and organic matter received one of two types of compost (municipal compost made from urban organics waste, or manure-based compost) at two different levels (applied based on crop N or P demand), while additional treatments received synthetic N and P fertilizer or no soil amendments. Because of the low N:P ratio of compost relative to crop nutrient uptake, compost application based on crop N demand resulted in overapplication of P. Crop yield did not differ among treatments receiving compost inputs, and the mass of P recovered in crops relative to P inputs decreased for treatments with higher compost application rates. Treatments receiving compost targeted to crop N demand had P leachate rates approximately twice as high as other treatments. These results highlight tradeoffs inherent in recycling nutrients through UA, but they also show that targeted compost application rates have the capacity to maintain crop yields while minimizing nutrient loss. UA has the potential to help close the urban nutrient loop, but if UA is to be scaled up in order to maximize potential social, economic, and environmental benefits, it is especially important to carefully manage nutrients to avoid ecosystem disservices from nutrient pollution.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Compostagem , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Jardins , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco/análise , Minnesota , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Fósforo/análise , Reciclagem/métodos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Urbanização
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