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1.
Waste Manag ; 101: 94-105, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606613

RESUMO

The re-use of waste materials by application to land is an increasingly common practice around the world, but where municipal solid waste materials are applied, it is almost inevitable that physical contaminants such as glass and plastic will be added to the soil. In many jurisdictions, there are prescribed limits for the amounts of physical contaminants that may be present in these materials, but there is little information on whether these limits safeguard soil functional condition. Here, physical contamination of soil is described after varying rates of a mixed waste organic output (MWOO) and garden waste compost (GWC) were incorporated into field plots. At application rates of 100 and 200 t/ha, both treatments resulted in a coarsening of the topsoil particle size distribution, but only in the MWOO-treated soils were physical contaminants largely responsible for this. The physical contaminant particles present were found only to the depth of cultivation, and included glass, rigid and film plastics, and synthetic fibres. These contaminants were most commonly observed in the gravel and coarse sand-sized fractions, and in those soils treated with the highest rates of MWOO application. Physical contaminant particles acted as both enveloping and nucleating agents for mineral grains and organic matter, and blocked some pores. Although soil physical condition is usually improved by the incorporation of organic matter, the extent of pore blockage evident here suggests that soil physical functions such as water percolation may be affected as the organic matter is broken down and the soil undergoes natural re-consolidation.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes do Solo , Jardins , Solo , Resíduos Sólidos
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4090-4094, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872681

RESUMO

The dried roots of Panax ginseng are used as medicines. In this paper,multi-time satellite sensing image data are used for image registration by radiometric correction,atmospheric pressure correction,the data of different years were compared. The multiscale segmentation of the sensing image was successively carried out by using object-oriented method. Combining with the characteristics of the sensing image participated in the field survey,the objective was to understand the speckles of the environmental parameters distribution map of Changbai county in 2017 and 2018. The parameter area of Changbai county was calculated by using GIS spatial analysis tools. The union,erase and intersect tools of " analysis to OLS" overlay in " Arc Toolbox" were used to analyze the parametric area of Changbai county from 2017 to 2018. The results showed that the parameter area of Changbai county in 2017 was 27 400 mu( 1 mu≈667 m2),and the parameter area in 2018 was 13 900 mu. The parameter area of the new park in Changbai County in 2018 was 12 500 mu,and the harvested area in 2017 was 27 000 mu. Through the analysis and study of the regional change of the park participating in the training area,it has significance for guiding the park participating in the actual production planning and layout in Changbai county in the next step.


Assuntos
Panax , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Jardins
3.
Zootaxa ; 4576(2): zootaxa.4576.2.5, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715763

RESUMO

The deep-water sponge fauna of the Canadian Arctic remains to be fully described, particularly in areas that are not sampled by fisheries stock-assessment trawl surveys such as the major bays and fjords of the northern Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. Frobisher Bay is a large inlet located on the southeast of Baffin Island. We used a remotely operated vehicle, as well as box cores and Agassiz trawls to study the sponge fauna of this bay. Over three years, from 2015 to 2017, sponge specimens were collected representing 24 distinct sponge taxa. Dense gardens of Iophon koltuni Morozov, Sabirov, Zimina, 2019 were discovered at a site near Hill Island in inner Frobisher Bay. The species has a unique finger-like growth form and provides complex habitat in the inner bay. Other sponge species are new to the Northern Labrador marine ecoregion. In particular, we report geographic range extensions of Tetilla sibirica (Fristedt, 1887) and Craniella polyura (Schmidt, 1870), and provide spicule measurements and descriptions of Iophon piceum (Vosmaer, 1882) and Mycale lingua (Bowerbank, 1866). These species identifications, geographic range extensions, and an expanded description of a species synonym represent the first inventory of the sponge fauna of Frobisher Bay.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Baías , Canadá , Jardins , Terra Nova e Labrador
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527436

RESUMO

Existing community gardening research has tended to be exploratory and descriptive, utilising qualitative or mixed methodologies to explore and understand community garden participation. While research on community gardening attracts growing interest, the empirical rigour of measurement scales and embedded indicators has received comparatively less attention. Despite the extensive body of community gardening literature, a coherent narrative on valid, high quality approaches to the measurement of outcomes and impact across different cultural contexts is lacking and yet to be comprehensively examined. This is essential as cities are becoming hubs for cultural diversity. Systematic literature reviews that explore the multiple benefits of community gardening and other urban agriculture activities have been undertaken, however, a systematic review of the impact measures of community gardening is yet to be completed. This search protocol aims to address the following questions: (1) How are the health, wellbeing, social and environmental outcomes and impacts of community gardening measured? (2) What cultural diversity considerations have existing community garden measures taken into account? Demographic data will be collected along with clear domains/constructs of experiences, impacts and outcomes captured from previous literature to explore if evidence considers culturally heterogeneous and diverse populations. This will offer an understanding as to whether community gardening research is appropriately measuring this cross-cultural activity.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Jardinagem , Jardins , Características Culturais , Humanos
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the presence of common mental disorders among adults, according to different income strata. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 2,584 participants from the Pró-Saúde Study (2006), residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Common Mental Disorders were measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and exposure to green areas was measured using the normalized difference vegetation index, in buffers with radiuses between 100 and 1,500 meters around the residence. We used the mean and maximum normalized difference vegetation index categorized into quartiles. The study population was divided into three subgroups, according to the income: low, intermediate, and high. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated with logistic regression models. The models were adjusted by sex and age, with and without inclusion of physical activity practice. RESULTS: The proportion of common mental disorders was 30% and 39% among men and women, respectively. The results of the adjusted models showed an inverse association between the presence of green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the occurrence of common mental disorders, in the buffer of 200 meters in the intermediate-income group and in the buffers of 400 and 1,500 meters in the low-income group. The odds ratio ranged from 0.52 (buffer of 1,500 meters) to 0.68 (buffer of 200 meters). The association found was independent of physical activity practice. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence found suggests the existence of a beneficial effect of urban green areas on the mental health of lower-income individuals. These findings can help in understanding how the urban environment can affect the mental health of the population.


Assuntos
Jardins/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133738, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400691

RESUMO

Urban gardens are a model system for understanding the intersection between biodiversity conservation and citizen science. They contain high plant diversity that contributes to urban flora. However, this diversity is challenging to document due to site access and complex plant taxonomy with hybrids and cultivars. Community research participation provides a tool to measure plant diversity and distribution by engaging gardeners who are most familiar with their plants to report on their garden's species richness using citizen science. Yet there is little empirical exploration of plant identification consistency between citizen scientists and scientific researchers. This could lead to reporting differences (e.g., missing species, multiple reporting of the same species) due to spatial and temporal effects, different perspectives and knowledge systems, and cultural context. We leverage a scientific survey of garden plants and a questionnaire asking gardeners to report on the species in their gardens to perform an opportunistic comparison of gardener and researcher reported plant diversity in community gardens. The comparison shows that gardeners interpret instructions to report plants quite variably, with some reporting all species (including herbaceous weeds) and crop varieties, while others reporting only their main crop species. Scientist on the other hand seek clarity in terms of species and variety and report all species located in the plot, including the small weed species that are overlooked by some gardeners. Consistency could be improved if researchers are more specific about their reporting expectations when asking community members to participate in data collection. We use this case study to communicate that paired citizen scientist-researcher data collection and dialogue between groups is necessary to improve methods for conducting consistent and collaborative assessments of biological diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Participação da Comunidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Coleta de Dados , Jardinagem , Jardins , Humanos , Plantas , Características de Residência
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1145, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home gardens have been found to improve food security and dietary diversity in a wide range of settings. However, there is a need to place home gardens within the larger food and nutrition system landscapes that shape the construction of household diets. Myanmar offers a unique opportunity to study these research questions, given the decades of political isolation, high levels of food insecurity and poor nutrition levels. METHODS: The aim of our paper is to use household survey data from three distinctive agro-ecological settings in rural Myanmar to empirically analyse the role of home gardens in influencing household food insecurity and dietary diversity. Our analysis is based on unique survey data conducted in rural Myanmar. The sample includes 3230 rural households from three States/Districts (Magway, Ayeyarwady and Chin). Using information on two dimensions of food security, a series of variables capturing a household's self-reported food security status and coping strategies when food is not available; and a measure of household's dietary diversity based on 24-h recall data, we empirically estimate a household's probability of being food insecure and the diversity of their diets. RESULTS: There are statistically significant associations between access to home gardens and measures of food security and improved dietary diversity. In particular, for landless households, the ownership of home gardens/ fruits and vines is statistically significant and is associated with a 6.6 percentage points lower probability of a household having to change their diet, and a 7.9 percentage points lower probability of being in hunger. CONCLUSIONS: From a policy perspective, our results show that promoting home gardens among vulnerable households can improve food security and dietary diversity among vulnerable rural households in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Jardins/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Dieta/métodos , Características da Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Jardinagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Environ Res ; 177: 108632, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from studies to date, regarding the role of chronic pesticide exposure on cognitive function remain contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between self-reported pesticide exposure and cognitive function. METHODS: Data from a population-based cohort study of older adults (HEllenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet) in Greece was used. Pesticide exposure classification was based on 1) living in areas that were being sprayed; 2) application of spray insecticides/pesticides in their gardens; and 3) occupational application of sprays. Associations between z-scores of cognitive performance and self-reported pesticide exposure were examined with linear regression analyses. Adjusted models were applied, for all analyses. RESULTS: Non-demented individuals who reported that they had been living in areas near sprayed fields, had poorer neuropsychological performance, compared to those who had never lived in such areas. Sub-analyses revealed poorer performance in language, executive and visual-spatial functioning, and attention. These associations remained after a sensitivity analysis excluding subjects with mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Self-reported exposure to pesticides was negatively associated with cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Cognição , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Jardins , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
9.
J Microbiol ; 57(10): 842-851, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377982

RESUMO

Fungus-growing ants share a complex symbiosis with microbes, including fungal mutualists, antibiotic-producing bacteria, and fungal pathogens. The bacterial communities associated with this symbiosis are poorly understood but likely play important roles in maintaining the health and function of fungal gardens. We studied bacterial communities in gardens of two Apterostigma species, A. dentigerum, and A. pilosum, using next-generation sequencing to evaluate differences between the two ant species, their veiled and no-veiled fungal garden types, and across three collection locations. We also compared different parts of nests to test for homogeneity within nests. Enterobacteriaceae dominated gardens of both species and common OTUs were shared across both species and nest types. However, differences in community diversity were detected between ant species, and in the communities of A. dentigerum veiled and no-veiled nests within sites. Apterostigma pilosum had a higher proportion of Phyllobacteriaceae and differed from A. dentigerum in the proportions of members of the order Clostridiales. Within A. dentigerum, nests with veiled and no-veiled fungus gardens had similar taxonomic profiles but differed in the relative abundance of some groups, with veiled gardens having more Rhodospirillaceae and Hyphomicrobiaceae, and no-veiled having more Xanthomonadaceae and certain genera in the Enterobacteriaceae C. However, bacterial communities in Apterostigma fungal gardens are highly conserved and resemble those of the nests of other attine ants with dominant taxa likely playing a role in biomass degradation and defense. Further work is required to understand and explain how bacterial community composition of fungus-growing nests is maintained.


Assuntos
Formigas/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Animais , Formigas/classificação , Formigas/fisiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/fisiologia , Jardins , Filogenia , Simbiose
10.
Ann Sci ; 76(2): 157-183, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339454

RESUMO

Abel Evans's poem Vertumnus (1713) celebrates Jacob Bobart the Younger, second keeper of the Oxford Physick Garden (now the Oxford University Botanic Garden), as a model monarch to his botanical subjects. This paper takes Vertumnus as a point of departure from which to explore the early history of the Physick Garden (founded 1621), situating botanical collections and collecting spaces within utopian visions and projects as well as debates about order more widely in the turbulent seventeenth-century. Three perspectives on the Physick Garden as an ordered collection are explored: the architecture of the quadripartite Garden, with particular attention to the iconography of the Danby Gate; the particular challenges involved in managing living collections, whose survival depends on the spatial order regulating the microclimates in which they grow; and the taxonomic ordering associated with the hortus siccus collections. A final section on the ideal 'Botanick throne' focuses on the metaphor of the state as a garden in the period, as human and botanical subjects resist being order and can rebel, but also respond to right rule and wise cultivation. However, the political metaphor is Evans's; there is little to suggest that Bobart himself was driven by utopian, theological and political visions.


Assuntos
Botânica/história , Jardins/história , Poesia como Assunto/história , Inglaterra , História do Século XVIII
11.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109263, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336340

RESUMO

Garden wastes (GW) having high lignin contents could hinder the growth of earthworms and microorganisms in vermicomposting. This study investigated the Eisenia fetida-based vermicomposting of GW mixed with cattle manure (CM) and/or spent mushroom substrate (SMS) at different ratios of GW alone (control), 3:1 GW:SMS, 1:1 GW:SMS, 3:1 GW:CM, 1:1 GW:CM and 2:1:1 GW:SMS:CM to promote earthworm growth and improve the final vermicompost quality. In general, treatments with the addition of SMS and/or CM increased the survival rate, biomass, cocoon and juvenile numbers of E. fetida compared to the control. The addition of SMS and/or CM also significantly increased the activities of dehydrogenase, cellulase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase compared to the control. Furthermore, the addition of SMS and/or CM facilitated the decomposition of organic matter, cellulose and lignin, increased nutrient (N, P and K) concentrations, and accelerated nitrification compared to the control. The addition of SMS and CM led to greater chemical changes of the substrate compared to control. Heavy metal concentrations were increased in the final vermicomposts comparatively to the initial materials, but none of them exceeded the permissible limits. The highest germination index of Chinese cabbage and tomato seeds were both observed in the treatment of 2:1:1 GW:SMS:CM which reached 146.9 and 148.1. Overall, the 2:1:1 GW:SMS:CM treatment had the highest growth and reproduction rates of E. fetida, higher percentage degradation of organic matter, cellulose and lignin, as well as the best quality of the final vermicompost.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Oligoquetos , Animais , Bovinos , Jardins , Esterco , Solo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277219

RESUMO

Community gardens offer numerous benefits, but there are also potential risks from exposure to chemical contaminants in the soil. Through the lens of the Theory of Planned Behavior, this mixed methods study examined community gardeners' beliefs and intentions to conduct heavy metal soil testing. The qualitative component involved five focus groups of community garden leaders in Atlanta, Georgia. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data revealed that heavy metal soil contamination was not frequently identified as a common gardening hazard and several barriers limited soil testing in community gardens. The focus group results informed the development of a questionnaire that was administered to 500 community gardeners across the United States. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the soil testing intention was associated with attitude (aOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.34, 4.53), subjective norms (aOR = 3.39 95% CI: 2.07, 5.57), and perceived behavioral control (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.99). Study findings have implications for interventions involving community garden risk mitigation, particularly gardens that engage children and vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Jardins , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Jardinagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Biometeorol ; 63(9): 1181-1192, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256252

RESUMO

An increasing number of Chinese elders trade family care for institutional elder care, which poses an acute challenge due to the enormous number of elders. The internal garden of care homes is often the only green space supplied for the elderly. To elucidate the microclimate status of these internal gardens, three microclimate parameters (air temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), and solar radiation (SR) were measured in the gardens of eight care homes for the aged in Chengdu City (for 2015 and 2016). The results confirmed that all gardens showed effects of seasonal cooling (from 1.0 ± 0.7 to 2.00 ± 0.8 °C), humidification (from 2.8 ± 1.4 to 4.9 ± 2.0%), and weakening of solar radiation (from 52.3 ± 36.3 to 254.4 ± 124.1 w/m2). Even small internal gardens (130-4000 m2) could yield cooling effects in four seasons. Among garden subareas, the weakest SR, the lowest Ta, and the highest RH were all found in the rest area. Correlation analysis demonstrated that only in summer, the green coverage ratio of the garden significantly affected the microclimate. The observation showed that an average of 29.98% of the elderly used these internal gardens per day. The period of 8:00 am to 10:00 am was the elderly's favorite time to use the gardens. More than 68% of elders preferred to sit in the rest area. Thermal/humidity/radiation sensation votes indicated that the garden microclimate partially deviated from elders' comfortable levels, particularly in winter. The rest area showed the worst comfort level for the elders. A warmer, more humid, and more sun-exposed garden should be supplied to the elderly. Several greening strategies are proposed to improve the garden microclimate for the well-being of the elderly in the care homes.


Assuntos
Jardins , Microclima , Idoso , Cidades , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195595

RESUMO

Green spaces are known to improve health and wellbeing via several mechanisms, such as by reducing stress and facilitating physical activity. However, little is known about the impact of the smaller green spaces typically found in urban environments on wellbeing, especially for older adults. This study investigated experiences in adults (5 males and 10 females) aged 60 years and over of small urban green spaces in a large UK city. Fifteen older adults were interviewed using semi-structured walk-along interviews and photo elicitation methods in Old Moat, Greater Manchester. Twelve of the participants lived in Old Moat at the time of the study, and the remaining three participants previously lived in Old Moat and were frequent visitors. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using Thematic Analysis. Smaller urban green spaces were perceived differently to large green spaces, and participants were more likely to use larger green spaces such as parks. The smaller green spaces were perceived as belonging to other people, which discouraged the older adults from using them. The older adults also emphasized the importance of taking care of small urban green spaces and preventing them from becoming overgrown. Urban planners should consider these factors, since they indicate that the size and type of urban green spaces may influence whether they improve health and wellbeing. Further research should investigate in more detail which types of urban green space are most conducive to facilitating physical activity and improving wellbeing.


Assuntos
Jardins , Parques Recreativos , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22641-22655, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168716

RESUMO

The dynamic observation data on groundwater level and water quality were obtained from rain gardens #2 and #3 from May to October 2016. The water balance method and 2D numerical simulation of variable saturation zone were used to calculate rainfall infiltration recharge coefficient, water supply, and evaporative discharge of rain garden. These parameters were used to simulate and explore the impact of rainfall infiltration in rain gardens on groundwater level and water quality. The groundwater depth of rain gardens was mainly affected by the concentrated infiltration of rainfall. The variation range of groundwater depth was approximately 4.298 ± 0.031 mm for J1, 3.9364 ± 0.097 mm for J2, and 4.0958 ± 0.064 mm for J3, and the specific yield was 0.208. Groundwater quality was naturally attenuated and would not threaten the safety of groundwater at a certain scale. Visual MODFLOW was used to simulate groundwater flow and conduct parameter sensitivity analysis to determine the main influencing factors of garden groundwater level change. Results showed that rainfall recharge was crucial to module sensitivity.


Assuntos
Jardins , Água Subterrânea , Chuva , Abastecimento de Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Movimentos da Água , Qualidade da Água
16.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2097-2105, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154526

RESUMO

In Germany, knowledge of disease agents transmitted by arthropods in zoological gardens is scarce. In the framework of ecological studies, mosquitoes were therefore collected in German zoological gardens and examined for mosquito-borne pathogen DNA and RNA. In total, 3840 mosquitoes were screened for filarial nematodes and three groups of viruses (orthobunyaviruses, flaviviruses, alphaviruses) while 405 mosquitoes were tested for avian malaria parasites. In addition to the filarial nematode species Dirofilaria repens (n = 1) and Setaria tundra (n = 8), Sindbis virus (n = 1) and the haemosporidian genera Haemoproteus (n = 8), Leucocytozoon (n = 10) and Plasmodium (n = 1) were demonstrated. Identified pathogens have the potential to cause disease in zoo and wild animals, but some of them also in humans. Positive mosquitoes were collected most often in July, indicating the highest infection risk during this month. Most of the pathogens were found in mosquito specimens of the Culex pipiens complex, suggesting that its members possibly act as the most important vectors in the surveyed zoos, although the mere demonstration of pathogen DNA/RNA in a homogenised complete mosquito is not finally indicative for a vector role. Outcomes of the study are not only significant for arthropod management in zoological gardens, but also for the general understanding of the occurrence and spread of mosquito-borne disease agents.


Assuntos
Culicidae/parasitologia , Filarioidea/classificação , Haemosporida/classificação , Malária Aviária/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Animais , Culex/parasitologia , Feminino , Filarioidea/genética , Filarioidea/isolamento & purificação , Jardins , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Haemosporida/genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Malária Aviária/epidemiologia , Malária Aviária/transmissão , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação
17.
Chemosphere ; 233: 207-215, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173958

RESUMO

Rain garden is a typical facility with many applications in urban low impact development (LID). It plays an important role in regulating runoff water quantity and quality. Two rain gardens with the discharge ratios of 20:1 and 15:1 were used as studied facilities. Seven soil sampling events were conducted from April 2017 to February 2019 to study the influences of stormwater concentration infiltration in rain gardens on soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and TOC and their relations with enzymes. The results showed that the contents of soil TN and NO2-N + TON in gardens gradually decreased with time, while those of NH3-N and TP increased with time. The content of NO3-N varied greatly with time, and there was no obvious rule. TOC increased first and then decreased. Vertical distributions of N, P and TOC showed that the contents of NH3-N, NO2-N + TON and TN at 0-50 cm were high, so the upper soil was the sensitive area to the influence of stormwater concentration infiltration in rain gardens. The content of NH3-N decreased gradually with the increase of soil depth, but those of NO3-N and TP increased with the soil depth. Therefore, NO3-N and TP migrated down with water infiltration in soil, and preventing NO3-N and P leaching was critical for effective N and P removal though rain gardens. Soil urease (SU), sucrose (SS), protease (SP) and acid phosphatase (SAP) had a good linear relationship with N, P and TOC, and R2were all greater than 0.5.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Enzimas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Enzimas/química , Jardins , Nitrogênio/química , Fósforo/química , Chuva
18.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15 Suppl 3: e12794, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148401

RESUMO

This study evaluates the effects of nutrition education on improving knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of mothers and the improvement of the nutritional status of their children. A cluster randomized controlled design using multistage sampling was employed. The integrated school-based nutrition programme included gardening, nutrition education for parents, and supplementary feeding for children (GarNESup). KAP of mothers was assessed using pretested questionnaires administered by teachers. The randomly selected schools were randomly allocated into two groups: Both schools provided lunch to targeted children with one-dish indigenous vegetable recipe, but School 1 received iron-fortified rice whereas School 2 was provided ordinary rice. Eighty wasted and/or anaemic children in each school were fed for 120 days. Nutrition education for children's parents was done every school card claim day and during parent-teacher meetings using 10 developed modules. Weight, height, and haemoglobin level of children and KAP of mothers were measured at baseline and endpoint using standard techniques. KAP of mothers who had completed more than six modules had significantly increased from baseline to endpoint: Negative consequence of worm infestation (33.3% to 60.6%, P = 0.035), importance of serving breakfast for children (42.4% to 78.8%, P = 0.004), cooking vegetables (63.6% to 93.9%, P = 0.002), and purchasing fortified foods was recorded (51.5% to 93.9%, P = 0.000). Children in School 1 had significantly higher weight gain (1.33 ± 0.72) and haemoglobin level (0.49 ± 0.99) than children in School 2 (0.84 ± 0.59; 0.12 ± 0.70). Nutrition education resulted to significant increase of mother's KAP and the implementation of the integrated school-based nutrition model significantly improved children's nutritional status.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/educação , Estado Nutricional , Anemia/dietoterapia , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Criança , Alimentos Fortificados , Jardins , Humanos , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Oryza/metabolismo , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Magreza/dietoterapia , Magreza/prevenção & controle , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Verduras/metabolismo
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 745, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased global urbanisation has led to public health challenges. Community gardens are identified as a mechanism for addressing socio-ecological determinants of health. This study aims to explore motives for joining community gardens, and the extent to which participation can be facilitated given barriers and enablers to community gardening. Such a study fills a gap in the public health literature, particularly in the Australian context. METHODS: This paper presents findings from semi-structured interviews with 23 participants from 6 community gardens across Melbourne. Applying phenomenological, epistemological and reflexive methodologies and thematic analysis of the data, this study provides a snapshot of drivers of community garden participation. RESULTS: Results were categorised into six enabling themes to participation. These themes revolved around (i) family history, childhood and passion for gardening; (ii) productive gardening, sustainability and growing fresh produce in nature; (iii) building social and community connections; (iv) community and civic action; (v) stress relief; and (vi) building identity, pride and purpose. Time costs incurred, garden governance and vandalism of garden spaces were among the barriers to community garden participation. CONCLUSION: Although an interest in the act of gardening itself may be universally present among community gardeners to varying degrees, the findings of this study suggest that motivations for participation are diverse and span a range of ancestral, social, environmental, and political domains. This study contributes exploratory insights on community garden motivations and sustained involvement across multiple urban sites in Melbourne (Australia). This study recommends extending this work by undertaking future quantitative research that can move from local case studies to a national guidelines on how to engage more people in urban agriculture activities like community gardening.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Jardinagem , Motivação , Austrália , Emoções , Feminino , Jardins , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212788

RESUMO

Point-of-decision prompts are cost-effective strategies to promote physical activity in public spaces. This study explored how adult and child guests of a conservatory with botanical gardens perceived point-of-decision prompts that aimed to promote physical activity. Seven point-of-decision prompts were developed and displayed throughout the conservatory. Adult guests (n = 140) were invited to complete a voluntary and anonymous survey to assess awareness of point-of-decision prompts, adult-child interactions, and physical activity engagement. Descriptive statistics were calculated using SPSS version 23. Sixty-one percent of guests (n = 86) who responded to the survey noticed the point-of-decision prompts. Over 65% (n = 56) of those guests completed at least one of the physical activities, and 53% (n = 46) completed one to three. Of guests attending with (a) child(ren) (n = 17) who completed the survey, over half (n = 9) engaged in at least one physical activity together. In sum, the point-of-decision prompts were noticed by some guests in this public space. More research is needed to determine whether point-of-decision prompts are able to lead to sustainable behavior change.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício/psicologia , Jardins , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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