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1.
Gene ; 766: 145141, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911031

RESUMO

Jatropha curcasseeds are abundant in biodiesel, and low seed yields are linked to poor quality female flowers, which creates a bottleneck for Jatropha seed utilization. Therefore, identifying the genes associated with flowering is crucial for the genetic enrichment of seed yields. Here, we identified an AGAMOUS homologue gene (JcAG) from J. curcas. We found that reproductive organs had higher JcAG expression than vegetative organs, particularly the carpel. Rosette leaves were small and misshapen in 35S:JcAG transgenic lines in comparison with those in wild-type plants. JcAG overexpression caused an extremely early flowering, delayed perianth and stamen filament development, small flowers, and significantly shorter Arabidopsis plants with little fruit. In the JcAG-overexpressing line, the homeotic transformation of sepals into pistillate organs was observed, and floral meristem and organ identity genes were regulated. This study provides insights into the JcAG's function and benefits to our knowledge of the underlying the genetic mechanisms related to floral sex differentiation in Jatropha.


Assuntos
Expressão Ectópica do Gene/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Jatropha/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Meristema/genética , Fenótipo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Sementes/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362265

RESUMO

Random regression models (RRM) are a powerful tool to evaluate genotypic plasticity over time. However, to date, RRM remains unexplored for the analysis of repeated measures in Jatropha curcas breeding. Thus, the present work aimed to apply the random regression technique and study its possibilities for the analysis of repeated measures in Jatropha curcas breeding. To this end, the grain yield (GY) trait of 730 individuals of 73 half-sib families was evaluated over six years. Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, genetic values were predicted by best linear unbiased prediction and RRM were fitted through Legendre polynomials. The best RRM was selected by Bayesian information criterion. According to the likelihood ratio test, there was genetic variability among the Jatropha curcas progenies; also, the plot and permanent environmental effects were statistically significant. The variance components and heritability estimates increased over time. Non-uniform trajectories were estimated for each progeny throughout the measures, and the area under the trajectories distinguished the progenies with higher performance. High accuracies were found for GY in all harvests, which indicates the high reliability of the results. Moderate to strong genetic correlation was observed across pairs of harvests. The genetic trajectories indicated the existence of genotype × measurement interaction, once the trajectories crossed, which implies a different ranking in each year. Our results suggest that RRM can be efficiently applied for genetic selection in Jatropha curcas breeding programs.


Assuntos
Jatropha/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Variação Biológica da População , Variação Genética
3.
Ars pharm ; 61(4): 209-213, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195233

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los extractos acuosos de las hojas de Jatropha gossypifolia L. son utilizados de forma tradicional en el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis. No existen informes concluyentes sobre su efectividad y su citotoxicidad aunque en estudios recientes ha quedado avalada la utilidad de la planta en el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis utilizando otros solventes. MÉTODO: Se determinó la actividad leishmanicida y la citotoxicidad de los extractos acuosos e hidroalcohólicos de las hojas de Jatropha gossypifolia L. utilizando el método de fluorescencia de la resazurina en promastigotes de Leishmania amazonensis y macrófagos peritoneales de ratón Balb/c respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron unas concentraciones inhibitorias 50 de 0.28 Mig/mL ± 0,15 Mig/mL (n = 3) y 0.59 Mig/mL ± 0,26 Mig/mL (n = 3) para el extracto acuoso e hidroalcohólico respectivamente, aunque no se presentó actividad parasiticida a ninguna de las concentraciones evaluadas. De igual manera las concentraciones citotóxicas 50 obtenidas fueron de 0.91 Mig/mL ± 0,11 Mig/mL (n = 3) y 0.57 Mig/mL ± 0,12 Mig/ml (n = 3).CONCLUSIONES: El extracto acuoso resulta ser más eficaz y menos citotóxico frente a los promastigotes de Leishmania amazonensis. Dichos resultados avalan la utilización tópica de los extractos en su formulación tradicional para el tratamiento de la leishmaniosis cutánea


INTRODUCTION: Aqueous extracts of the leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia L. are traditionally used in the treatment of leishmaniasis. These extracts do not have conclusive reports related to their effectiveness and their cytotoxicity although in recent studies the utility of the plant in the treatment of leishmaniasis using other solvents has been supported. METHOD: The antileishmanial activity and the cytotoxicity of the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia L. were determined using the resazurine fluorescence method. Both, promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and peritoneal macrophages of Balb/c mouse were studied. RESULTS: The half-maximal inhibitory concentration for the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract was 0.28 Mig/mL ± 0.15 Mig/mL (n = 3) and 0.59 Mig/mL ± 0.26 Mig/mL (n = 3) respectively, although they did not show parasiticide activity at any of the evaluated concentrations. Similarly, the mean cytotoxic concentrations obtained were 0.91 Mig/mL ± 0.11 Mig/mL (n = 3) and 0.57 Mig/mL ± 0.12 Mig/ml (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS: The aqueous extract was more effective and less cytotoxic against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. The results obtained support the traditional use of the extracts by topical application in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Jatropha/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Leishmania mexicana/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Folhas de Planta/química , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Diagn. tratamento ; 25(3): 100-103, jul.-set. 2020. fig
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129411

RESUMO

O Pantanal é a maior planície inundável do planeta. A população humana da região utiliza vegetais que encontram no dia a dia e, com o tempo, isso os levou a descobrir diferentes finalidades alimentares e até usos terapêuticos dessas plantas. Este estudo tem como objetivo compreender a popularidade do pinhão-roxo (Jatropha gossipifolia L.) e seu uso como planta medicinal em duas comunidades ribeirinhas do município de Corumbá (MS), Brasil, com ênfase nos envenenamentos causados por arraias de água doce, frequentes na área. Mais da metade dos entrevistados utilizou o pinhão-roxo em várias doenças, especialmente no controle de sangramentos e na cicatrização de feridas. O uso de infusões em úlceras crônicas causadas por peixes peçonhentos é amplamente mencionado pelos pescadores entrevistados, particularmente em envenenamentos com necrose cutânea causada por arraias de água doce. Outras indicações citadas são o tratamento de micoses cutâneas e odontalgias, que não são mencionadas nas referências anteriores, indicando a necessidade de estudos clínicos e farmacológicos adicionais para avaliar esses propósitos.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Rajidae , Euphorbiaceae , Jatropha , Grupos Populacionais
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 702-712, 01-05-2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146497

RESUMO

The aluminum in high levels in the soil affects the emergence, growth, and development of various species. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the emergence and physiological behavior of four provenances of Jatropha curcas subjected to different levels of aluminum. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design, with four levels of aluminum in the soil (8.2, 16.5, 24.0 mmolc·dm-3 and control) and four provenances of J. curcas seeds (P1 = Dourados-MS, P2 = Montes Claros-MG, P3 = Alta Floresta-MT, and P4 = Petrolina-PE); the effects of aluminum toxicity were investigated in 25, 50, 75, and 100 days after emergence. The levels of aluminum in the soil were collected from the initial soil correction, which featured an aluminum level of 24.0 mmolc dm-3. The seedling emergence was not affected by treatment with aluminum; however, the height and leaf area of P1, P2, and P3 were reduced with increasing levels of aluminum. The emergence and vigor of J. curcas seeds were not influenced by the differences in the origins of the seeds or by the aluminum levels evaluated. Gas exchanges were affected negatively by aluminum and the responses of the chlorophyll a fluorescence indicate harmful effect in the photosynthetic apparatus. The seeds of origin P4 (Petrolina-PE) has increased tolerance to stress conditions.


O alumínio em níveis elevados no solo afeta a emergência, o crescimento e o desenvolvimento de diversas espécies. Diante disso, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a emergência e o comportamento fisiológico de quatro procedências de Jatropha curcas submetidas a diferentes níveis de alumínio. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro níveis de alumínio no solo (8,2; 16,5 e 24,0 mmolc dm-3 e o controle) e quatro procedências de sementes de J. curcas (P1 = Dourados-MS P2 = Montes Claros-MG, P3 = Alta Floresta-MT e P4 = Petrolina-PE), e os efeitos da toxicidade do alumínio foram investigados aos 25, 50, 75 e 100 dias após a emergência. A emergência das plântulas não foi afetada pelo tratamento com alumínio; no entanto, a altura e a área foliar de P1, P2 e P3 foram reduzidas com níveis crescentes de alumínio. A emergência e o vigor das plântulas das procedências não foram afetados pelos níveis de alumínio avaliados. A taxa fotossintética, taxa de transpiração e condutância estomática também foram reduzidas quando as plantas foram cultivadas em solo contendo altas níveis de alumínio. As plantas P4 foram menos sensíveis aos níveis crescentes de alumínio.


Assuntos
Solo , Jatropha , Alumínio , Fotossíntese , Análise do Solo , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Controle , Toxicidade , Clorofila A
6.
Gene ; 742: 144588, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179173

RESUMO

Jatropha curcas is an important bioenergy oil plant, and often planted on barren land to save the area of arable land. It is significant to improve the adaptability of J. curcas to various abiotic stresses. In the present study, we transferred a J. curcas gene, encoding a CBF2 transcription factor, into Nicotiana benthamiana. Under drought treatment, the JcCBF2 transgenic lines showed improved survival rate, leaf water retention and active oxygen scavenging capacity, but reduced photosynthesis and transpiration rate, suggesting that JcCBF2 played an important role in improving plant drought tolerance. Overexpressing JcCBF2 decreased leaf area and increased leaf thickness. To explore the possible mechanisms for the change of leaf anatomical structure, the leaves of wild-type and overexpression lines under drought stress were RNA sequenced. Genes involved in the plant hormones signal transduction were found to be enriched. Cytokinin and indole-3-acetic acid were the major plant hormones whose abundance increased. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed expression of NbMYB21, NbMYB86 and NbMYB44 and both abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) related genes in the overexpression lines were increased under drought stress. These results indicated that JcCBF2 was able to positively regulate plant drought response by changing the leaf anatomical structure and possibly through JA and ABA signalling pathways. Our work may help us to understand the drought tolerant mechanism.


Assuntos
Jatropha/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tabaco/genética , Transativadores/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Jatropha/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Tabaco/anatomia & histologia , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transativadores/metabolismo
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 318: 108976, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035864

RESUMO

The genus Jatropha belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and has about 175 species. Originally from tropical America, the Jatropha genus can be found all over the tropics and subtropics of Asia and Africa. Jatropha species are recognized to be important sources of secondary metabolites with a broad spectrum of biological functions. Extracts and isolated compounds from species of this genus have been known to have properties of cytotoxicity, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, insecticidal, larvicidal, inhibition AChE, and toxicity activities. Investigations on the chemical aspects of the genus Jatropha have led to the identification of cyclic peptides, lignans, flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, eudesmenoic acids, and mainly terpenes. In this review, we provide a comprehensive picture of the phytochemical and biological characteristics of Jatropha species. The information gathered and approached in this paper might support the planning and discussion of future studies on the topic.


Assuntos
Jatropha/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais
8.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(1): 46-55, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187573

RESUMO

Introducción: las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT) son la principal causa de muerte en todo el mundo. Los metabolitos secundarios provenientes de fuentes vegetales como Cnidoscolus aconitifolius pueden usarse como coadyuvante en la prevención de las enfermedades relacionadas con el estrés oxidativo y la inflamación, tales como las ECNT. Objetivo: se evaluó la actividad antioxidante y antiinflamatoria in vitro de los compuestos biológicamente activos de extractos de C. aconitifolius. Métodos: se determinó el contenido de fenoles, flavonoides, flavanonas e hidroflavonoles. El potencial antioxidante se determinó con los ensayos de 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH), ácido 2,2'-azinobis (3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfónico) (ABTS) y la actividad inhibitoria de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina (ACE). Para la actividad antiinflamatoria se utilizaron la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) cuantitativa en tiempo real y el ensayo por inmunoabsorción ligado a enzimas (ELISA) en macrófagos diferenciados de monocitos THP-1 y estimulados con lipopolisacárido (LPS). Resultados: el extracto acuoso registró el mayor contenido de fenoles (70,61  0,07 g/100 g de extracto) y el extracto etanólico registró el mayor contenido de flavonoides (47,76  4,84 g/100 g de extracto), flavanonas y dihidroflavonoles (70,10  7,29 g/100 g de extracto). El extracto acetónico registró la mayor inhibición del radical DPPH (49,85 ± 5,30 %) mientras que el etanólico presentó la mayor inhibición del radical ABTS (41,01 ± 3,81 %). Los extractos etanólico y acuoso inhibieron la ECA. El extracto etanólico tuvo la mayor actividad antiinflamatoria al reducir la expresión génica de TNF- en un 39,78 % y la de IL-6 en un 97,81 %, y su producción en un 46 % y un 48,38 %, respectivamente. Conclusiones: los extractos mostraron in vitro su potencial antioxidante y antiinflamatorio por su contenido en compuestos bioactivos


Introduction: noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the main cause of death worldwide. Secondary metabolites from plant sources such as Cnidoscolus aconitifolius may be used as adjuvants in the prevention of diseases related to oxidative stress and inflammation such as NCDs. Objective: the in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities associated with biologically active compounds in C. aconitifolius extracts were evaluated. Methods: the contents of phenols, flavonoids, flavonones and hydroflavonoles were determined. The potential antioxidant activity was determined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. For anti-inflammatory activity quantitative PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests were used in macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes and stimulated with LPS. Results: the aqueous extract recorded the highest phenolic content (70.61  0.07 g/100 g of extract), and the ethanolic extract registered the highest content in flavonoids (47.76  4.84 g/100 g of extract), flavonones and dihydroflavonoles (70.10  7.29 g/100 g of extract). The acetone extract obtained the highest DPPH inhibition (49.85 ± 5.30 %), while the ethanolic extract showed the highest ABTS inhibition (41.01 ± 3.81 %). The etanolic and aqueous extracts had the highest ACE inhibition. The ethanolic extract had the highest anti-inflammatory activity, decreasing gene expression for TNF- by 39.78 % and for IL-6 by 97.81 %, and their production by 46 % and 48.38 %, respectively, in macrophages stimulated with LPS. Conclusions: these extracts demonstrated in vitro their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential due to their content of bioactive compounds


Assuntos
Técnicas In Vitro , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Jatropha/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Fenóis , Flavonoides , Flavanonas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963715

RESUMO

Jatropha curcas L. is monoecious with a low female-to-male ratio, which is one of the factors restricting its seed yield. Because the phytohormone cytokinins play an essential role in flower development, particularly pistil development, in this study, we elevated the cytokinin levels in J. curcas flowers through transgenic expression of a cytokinin biosynthetic gene (AtIPT4) from Arabidopsis under the control of a J. curcas orthologue of TOMATO MADS BOX GENE 6 (JcTM6) promoter that is predominantly active in flowers. As expected, the levels of six cytokinin species in the inflorescences were elevated, and flower development was modified without any alterations in vegetative growth. In the transgenic J. curcas plants, the flower number per inflorescence was significantly increased, and most flowers were pistil-predominantly bisexual, i.e., the flowers had a huge pistil surrounded with small stamens. Unfortunately, both the male and the bisexual flowers of transgenic J. curcas were infertile, which might have resulted from the continuously high expression of the transgene during flower development. However, the number and position of floral organs in the transgenic flowers were well defined, which suggested that the determinacy of the floral meristem was not affected. These results suggest that fine-tuning the endogenous cytokinins can increase the flower number and the female-to-male ratio in J. curcas.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Jatropha/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Citocininas/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inflorescência , Jatropha/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Reprodução Assexuada
10.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(18): 2672-2676, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618298

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to perform a screening of extracts obtained from 15 medicinal plants using water (at 25 and 90 °C) or ethanol (at 25 °C), to bactericidal activity against cariogenic S. mutans ATCC 25175, as well as to carry out the preliminary phytochemical characterization of the extracts and HPLC/MS assay for selected extracts. The extractions were carried out for 5 h at 400 rpm. Only five from 45 tested extracts were selected based on their antibacterial activity. The IC50 varied from of 28 ppm for Quercus ilex up to 250 ppm for Jatropha dioica. Different polyphenolic and quinic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanin or tyrosol were identified by HPLC/MS in selected extracts from Rosa gallica L., Jatropha dioica Sessé, Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir, Quercus ilex L., and Solanum nigrum. The obtained results confirm that selected extracts are good candidates to be used for cariogenic bacteria control.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Jatropha/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(15): 17468-17480, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129903

RESUMO

The present study aims to study the effect of low viscous biofuel, namely pine oil (PO) and orange oil (O) blending with Jatropha methyl ester (JOME) along with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on NO-smoke tradeoff in a single-compression ignition (CI) engine. Two blends of pine oil and orange oil (30% by volume) with JOME were prepared and tested at 10%, 15%, and 20% EGR rates for various load conditions and compared with base fuels. JOME operation increased NO emission by 4% and reduced smoke opacity by 10% in comparison to diesel at maximum load condition. Poor physical properties of JOME, namely high viscosity and inferior volatility leads to reduced brake thermal efficiency with higher HC and CO emissions. Blends of JOME with low viscous biofuel reduces smoke emission with a further increase in NO emission in comparison to JOME as a result of combustion enhancement. Addition of EGR with JOME70 + PO30 and JOME70 + O30 aids in the reduction of NO emission with a slight increase in smoke opacity. Considering the NO-smoke tradeoff, JOME70 + O30 + EGR (10%) is optimum, NO emission is reduced by 14% and 11% in comparison to JOME and diesel and smoke opacity is reduced by 5% and 15% in comparison to JOME and diesel at maximum load, respectively.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/análise , Jatropha , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Gasolina/análise , Fumaça/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Viscosidade
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 145: 332-340, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881299

RESUMO

Jatropha elliptica (Pohl) Muell Arg is a sub-shrub herbaceous plant native to the Brazilian Cerrado, and popularly known as "batata-de-teiú". There is lack of scientific knowledge about the structural characterization, physicochemical and technological aspects of the carbohydrate content present in Jatropha elliptica roots. Thus, this work aim contributes with new data about the evaluation of chemical-structural, thermal and technological properties of starch extracted from "batata-de-teiú". The starch presented low levels of ash, protein and total fiber and amylose content of 32.82%. The initial gelatinization temperature of "batata-de-teiú" starch was 70.1 °C, peak temperature was 73.84 °C and final 85.52 °C, and starch had low trend to retrogradation. The results of x-ray and 13C cpmass show a A-type structure with high crystallinity degree. Finally, this results suggested that the "batata-de-teiú" starch is a macromolecular structure with high branching degree, favoring intermolecular Coulomb, Van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions, which directly corroborated with the low solubility observed (maximum of 6.44 g·100 g-1 at 80 °C). The extraction of "batata-de-teiú" starch can be viable, and it has technological characteristics suitable for use in the food industry or pharmaceuticals, since "batata-de-teiú" starch has good thermal stability and low trend to retrogradation.


Assuntos
Amilose/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Jatropha/química , Amido/química , Amilose/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Transição de Fase , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solubilidade , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura
13.
Org Lett ; 22(1): 106-109, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829610

RESUMO

Jatrofolianes A (1) and B (2), which are two highly modified lathyrane diterpenoids, were isolated from Jatropha gossypiifolia. 1 incorporates an unusual transannular 1,3-dioxolane moiety, forming a unique 5/6/5/8/3 ring system, while 2 possesses a new 10,11:13,14-diseco-lathyrane skeleton with a 12-membered macrocyclic lactone ring. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis, quantum chemical calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 2 showed significant multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity to cancer cells HepG2/ADR and HCT-15/5-FU at 10 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Jatropha/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19617, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871315

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the major factors negatively affecting crop productivity. WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are involved in salicylic acid (SA) mediated cellular reactive oxygen species homeostasis in response to different stresses, including salinity. Therefore, the effect of NaCl, NaCl + SA and SA treatments on different photosynthesis-related parameters and wax metabolites were studied in the Jatropha curcas WRKY (JcWRKY) overexpressing tobacco lines. JcWRKY transgenics showed improved photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration/ambient CO2 concentration ratio (Ci/Ca ratio), electron transport rate (ETR), photosynthesis efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching (qP), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and quantum yield of PSII electron transport (ΦPSII) in response to salinity stress, while exogenous SA application had subtle effect on these parameters. Alkane, the major constituent of wax showed maximum accumulation in transgenics exposed to NaCl. Other wax components like fatty alcohol, carboxylic acid and fatty acid were also higher in transgenics with NaCl + SA and SA treatments. Interestingly, the transgenics showed a higher number of open stomata in treated plants as compared to wild type (WT), indicating less perception of stress by the transgenics. Improved salinity tolerance in JcWRKY overexpressing tobacco transgenics is associated with photosynthetic efficiency and wax accumulation, mediated by efficient SA signalling. The transgenics showed differential regulation of genes related to photosynthesis (NtCab40, NtLhcb5 and NtRca1), wax accumulation (NtWIN1) and stomatal regulation (NtMUTE, NtMYB-like, NtNCED3-2 and NtPIF3). The present study indicates that JcWRKY is a potential TF facilitating improved photosynthesis with the wax metabolic co-ordination in transgenics during stress.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estresse Salino , Tabaco , Fatores de Transcrição , Ceras/metabolismo , Jatropha/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
15.
BMC Genomics ; 20(Suppl 9): 958, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jatropha curcas is an oil-bearing plant, and has seeds with high oil content (~ 40%). Several advantages, such as easy genetic transformation and short generation duration, have led to the emergence of J. curcas as a model for woody energy plants. With the development of high-throughput sequencing, the genome of Jatropha curcas has been sequenced by different groups and a mass of transcriptome data was released. How to integrate and analyze these omics data is crucial for functional genomics research on J. curcas. RESULTS: By establishing pipelines for processing novel gene identification, gene function annotation, and gene network construction, we systematically integrated and analyzed a series of J. curcas transcriptome data. Based on these data, we constructed a J. curcas database (JCDB), which not only includes general gene information, gene functional annotation, gene interaction networks, and gene expression matrices but also provides tools for browsing, searching, and downloading data, as well as online BLAST, the JBrowse genome browser, ID conversion, heatmaps, and gene network analysis tools. CONCLUSIONS: JCDB is the most comprehensive and well annotated knowledge base for J. curcas. We believe it will make a valuable contribution to the functional genomics study of J. curcas. The database is accessible at http://jcdb.xtbg.ac.cn.


Assuntos
Jatropha/genética , Bases de Conhecimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Genômica , Jatropha/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Software
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 468, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In higher plants, inflorescence architecture is an important agronomic trait directly determining seed yield. However, little information is available on the regulatory mechanism of inflorescence development in perennial woody plants. Based on two inflorescence branching mutants, we investigated the transcriptome differences in inflorescence buds between two mutants and wild-type (WT) plants by RNA-Seq to identify the genes and regulatory networks controlling inflorescence architecture in Jatropha curcas L., a perennial woody plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae. RESULTS: Two inflorescence branching mutants were identified in germplasm collection of Jatropha. The duo xiao hua (dxh) mutant has a seven-order branch inflorescence, and the gynoecy (g) mutant has a three-order branch inflorescence, while WT Jatropha has predominantly four-order branch inflorescence, occasionally the three- or five-order branch inflorescences in fields. Using weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA), we identified several hub genes involved in the cytokinin metabolic pathway from modules highly associated with inflorescence phenotypes. Among them, Jatropha ADENOSINE KINASE 2 (JcADK2), ADENINE PHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE 1 (JcAPT1), CYTOKININ OXIDASE 3 (JcCKX3), ISOPENTENYLTRANSFERASE 5 (JcIPT5), LONELY GUY 3 (JcLOG3) and JcLOG5 may participate in cytokinin metabolic pathway in Jatropha. Consistently, exogenous application of cytokinin (6-benzyladenine, 6-BA) on inflorescence buds induced high-branch inflorescence phenotype in both low-branch inflorescence mutant (g) and WT plants. These results suggested that cytokinin is an important regulator in controlling inflorescence branching in Jatropha. In addition, comparative transcriptome analysis showed that Arabidopsis homologous genes Jatropha AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 (JcAGL6), JcAGL24, FRUITFUL (JcFUL), LEAFY (JcLFY), SEPALLATAs (JcSEPs), TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (JcTFL1), and WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (JcWOX3), were differentially expressed in inflorescence buds between dxh and g mutants and WT plants, indicating that they may participate in inflorescence development in Jatropha. The expression of JcTFL1 was downregulated, while the expression of JcLFY and JcAP1 were upregulated in inflorescences in low-branch g mutant. CONCLUSIONS: Cytokinin is an important regulator in controlling inflorescence branching in Jatropha. The regulation of inflorescence architecture by the genes involved in floral development, including TFL1, LFY and AP1, may be conservative in Jatropha and Arabidopsis. Our results provide helpful information for elucidating the regulatory mechanism of inflorescence architecture in Jatropha.


Assuntos
Citocininas/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Jatropha/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Inflorescência/genética , Jatropha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15973, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685957

RESUMO

Jatropha curcas, an economically important biofuel feedstock with oil-rich seeds, has attracted considerable attention among researchers in recent years. Nevertheless, valuable information on the yield component of this plant, particularly regarding ovule development, remains scarce. In this study, transcriptome profiles of anther and ovule development were established to investigate the ovule development mechanism of J. curcas. In total, 64,325 unigenes with annotation were obtained, and 1723 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between different stages. The DEG analysis showed the participation of five transcription factor families (bHLH, WRKY, MYB, NAC and ERF), five hormone signaling pathways (auxin, gibberellic acid (GA), cytokinin, brassinosteroids (BR) and jasmonic acid (JA)), five MADS-box genes (AGAMOUS-2, AGAMOUS-1, AGL1, AGL11, and AGL14), SUP and SLK3 in ovule development. The role of GA and JA in ovule development was evident with increases in flower buds during ovule development: GA was increased approximately twofold, and JA was increased approximately sevenfold. In addition, the expression pattern analysis using qRT-PCR revealed that CRABS CLAW and AGAMOUS-2 were also involved in ovule development. The upregulation of BR signaling genes during ovule development might have been regulated by other phytohormone signaling pathways through crosstalk. This study provides a valuable framework for investigating the regulatory networks of ovule development in J. curcas.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Jatropha/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Transcriptoma , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Citocininas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Óvulo Vegetal/ultraestrutura , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo
18.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 132-148, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095876

RESUMO

Los oligoelementos son importantes constituyentes nutricionales de las hierbas comestibles. Se colectaron 11 especies, nueve nativas (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) y dos introducidas (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea) en dos regiones de Guatemala. Se prepararon muestras de la hierba seca, cocida y de caldo de hierba fresca. Se cuantificaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica los macro (N, P, K) y oligoelementos (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn), taninos por espectrofotometría y oxalatos por permanganimetría. El contenido de oligoelementos es diverso, para Zn, la hierba control S. oleracea contienen buena cantidad (90-140 ppm); de las nativas D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) y A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) tienen la mayor cantidad. Respecto a Fe las hierbas control tienen buena composición (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm y M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); de las nativas A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) y L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) tienen buenas concentraciones. Se encontraron niveles elevados de oxalatos en S. oleracea (67.30 (5.51) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g) y S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); en las demás hierbas se encontraron niveles menores. Los niveles de taninos fueron bajos (0.1-0.8 mg/g) para todas las especies. Se demuestra que cuatro especies nativas tienen un buen contenido de oligoelementos y presentan valores menores de antinutricionales que los controles.


Trace elements are important nutritional constituents from edible herbs. Eleven species were collected in two regions of Guatemala, nine native (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) and two introduced (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea). Dry, cooked and broth samples were prepared. By atomic absorption spectrometry, macro (N, P, K) and trace elements (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn) were quantified, tannins by spectrophotometry, and oxalates by permanganometry. Trace elements content is diverse, for Zn, control herb S. oleracea contained high quantity (90-140 ppm); from the natives D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) and A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) contained high amounts. For Fe, control herbs had high composition (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm, M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); from the natives A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) and L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) had the highest amounts. High levels of oxalates were demonstrated in S. oleracea (67.30 (5.48) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g), and S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); from the others levels.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/análise , Verduras/classificação , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Taninos/análise , Amaranthus/química , Jatropha/química
19.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(11): 1278-1291, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584843

RESUMO

The plants being sessile cannot escape from the adverse environmental stresses, hence get negatively affected in terms of their growth and yield. Transcriptional control simultaneously regulate different cellular processes, minimizing the deleterious effects of these stresses. The salicylic acid (SA)-inducible WRKY family of transcription factors auto or crossregulate the stress signaling in response to abiotic and biotic stresses, facilitating enhanced stress tolerance. In this study, we characterized the group III WRKY gene, JcWRKY2 from ecological and economical valued shrub Jatropha curcas. The JcWRKY2 tobacco transgenics showed improved physiological growth parameters, elevated chlorophyll content, improved antioxidative activities, and increased endogenous SA with both salt and SA stress. Interestingly, the pretreatment with SA and hydrogen peroxide facilitated improved germination of transgenic seeds with salinity stress. The transgenics showed differential regulation of antioxidative enzymes, calcium/calmodulin, dehydrins, and phospholipase genes with salt and SA stress. The increased SA content in transgenics on stress treatments, enhanced the antioxidant capacity leading to reduced susceptibility to stresses. Thus, JcWRKY2 transgenics participate in SA-mediated, improved antioxidative status during salinity stress with reduced reactive oxygen species damage.


Assuntos
Jatropha/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Tabaco/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1544-1551, sept./oct. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049050

RESUMO

Today, a great interest in Jatropha-based products exists worldwide, mainly for the production of biofuel.However, the oil obtained from this plant is known to be toxic due to contained curcins andphorbol esters. Bioassays, including plant cytogenetic assays based on cell cycle observation, are useful for determining the toxicity of J. curcas oil. Hence, the aim of this study was to describe the mechanism of action of J. curcas oil by cell cycle analysis using Lactuca sativa as plant testing model. A decrease in root growth was observed, closely related to the reduction in mitotic index, along with an increase in condensed nuclei. J. curcas chemicals act both as aneugenic agents, leading to the formation of lagged, sticky chromosomes and c-metaphase cells, as well as clastogenic agents, inducing the formation of chromosome bridges and fragments. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of phorbol esters and other chemical components of J. curcas oil was determined and discussed.


Um grande interesse mundial existe em produtos à base de pinhão manso, principalmente para a produção de biocombustíveis. No entanto, o óleo obtido a partir desta planta é conhecidamente tóxico por conter curcina e ésteres de forbol. Bioensaios, incluindo ensaios citogenéticos em plantas-modelo com base na observação do ciclo celular, são úteis para determinar a toxicidade do óleo de J. curcas. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o mecanismo de ação do óleo de J. curcas por análise do ciclo celular usando Lactuca sativa como modelo de teste em plantas. Foi observada uma redução no crescimento das raízes, intimamente relacionada com a redução do índice mitótico e com um aumento de núcleos condensados. Os constituintes químicos de J. curcas atuam simultaneamente como agentes aneugênicos, levando à formação de cromossomos perdidos e pegajosos e células em c-metáfase, bem como agentes clastogênicos, induzindo a formação de pontes e fragmentos cromossômicos. A citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade do éster de forbol e outros componentes químicos do óleo de J. curcas foram determinados e discutidos.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular , Aneugênicos , Jatropha , Toxicidade , Índice Mitótico
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