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1.
Ars pharm ; 61(4): 209-213, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195233

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los extractos acuosos de las hojas de Jatropha gossypifolia L. son utilizados de forma tradicional en el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis. No existen informes concluyentes sobre su efectividad y su citotoxicidad aunque en estudios recientes ha quedado avalada la utilidad de la planta en el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis utilizando otros solventes. MÉTODO: Se determinó la actividad leishmanicida y la citotoxicidad de los extractos acuosos e hidroalcohólicos de las hojas de Jatropha gossypifolia L. utilizando el método de fluorescencia de la resazurina en promastigotes de Leishmania amazonensis y macrófagos peritoneales de ratón Balb/c respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron unas concentraciones inhibitorias 50 de 0.28 Mig/mL ± 0,15 Mig/mL (n = 3) y 0.59 Mig/mL ± 0,26 Mig/mL (n = 3) para el extracto acuoso e hidroalcohólico respectivamente, aunque no se presentó actividad parasiticida a ninguna de las concentraciones evaluadas. De igual manera las concentraciones citotóxicas 50 obtenidas fueron de 0.91 Mig/mL ± 0,11 Mig/mL (n = 3) y 0.57 Mig/mL ± 0,12 Mig/ml (n = 3).CONCLUSIONES: El extracto acuoso resulta ser más eficaz y menos citotóxico frente a los promastigotes de Leishmania amazonensis. Dichos resultados avalan la utilización tópica de los extractos en su formulación tradicional para el tratamiento de la leishmaniosis cutánea


INTRODUCTION: Aqueous extracts of the leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia L. are traditionally used in the treatment of leishmaniasis. These extracts do not have conclusive reports related to their effectiveness and their cytotoxicity although in recent studies the utility of the plant in the treatment of leishmaniasis using other solvents has been supported. METHOD: The antileishmanial activity and the cytotoxicity of the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia L. were determined using the resazurine fluorescence method. Both, promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and peritoneal macrophages of Balb/c mouse were studied. RESULTS: The half-maximal inhibitory concentration for the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract was 0.28 Mig/mL ± 0.15 Mig/mL (n = 3) and 0.59 Mig/mL ± 0.26 Mig/mL (n = 3) respectively, although they did not show parasiticide activity at any of the evaluated concentrations. Similarly, the mean cytotoxic concentrations obtained were 0.91 Mig/mL ± 0.11 Mig/mL (n = 3) and 0.57 Mig/mL ± 0.12 Mig/ml (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS: The aqueous extract was more effective and less cytotoxic against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. The results obtained support the traditional use of the extracts by topical application in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Jatropha/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Leishmania mexicana/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Folhas de Planta/química , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 318: 108976, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035864

RESUMO

The genus Jatropha belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and has about 175 species. Originally from tropical America, the Jatropha genus can be found all over the tropics and subtropics of Asia and Africa. Jatropha species are recognized to be important sources of secondary metabolites with a broad spectrum of biological functions. Extracts and isolated compounds from species of this genus have been known to have properties of cytotoxicity, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, insecticidal, larvicidal, inhibition AChE, and toxicity activities. Investigations on the chemical aspects of the genus Jatropha have led to the identification of cyclic peptides, lignans, flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, eudesmenoic acids, and mainly terpenes. In this review, we provide a comprehensive picture of the phytochemical and biological characteristics of Jatropha species. The information gathered and approached in this paper might support the planning and discussion of future studies on the topic.


Assuntos
Jatropha/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais
3.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(18): 2672-2676, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618298

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to perform a screening of extracts obtained from 15 medicinal plants using water (at 25 and 90 °C) or ethanol (at 25 °C), to bactericidal activity against cariogenic S. mutans ATCC 25175, as well as to carry out the preliminary phytochemical characterization of the extracts and HPLC/MS assay for selected extracts. The extractions were carried out for 5 h at 400 rpm. Only five from 45 tested extracts were selected based on their antibacterial activity. The IC50 varied from of 28 ppm for Quercus ilex up to 250 ppm for Jatropha dioica. Different polyphenolic and quinic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanin or tyrosol were identified by HPLC/MS in selected extracts from Rosa gallica L., Jatropha dioica Sessé, Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir, Quercus ilex L., and Solanum nigrum. The obtained results confirm that selected extracts are good candidates to be used for cariogenic bacteria control.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Jatropha/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 145: 332-340, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881299

RESUMO

Jatropha elliptica (Pohl) Muell Arg is a sub-shrub herbaceous plant native to the Brazilian Cerrado, and popularly known as "batata-de-teiú". There is lack of scientific knowledge about the structural characterization, physicochemical and technological aspects of the carbohydrate content present in Jatropha elliptica roots. Thus, this work aim contributes with new data about the evaluation of chemical-structural, thermal and technological properties of starch extracted from "batata-de-teiú". The starch presented low levels of ash, protein and total fiber and amylose content of 32.82%. The initial gelatinization temperature of "batata-de-teiú" starch was 70.1 °C, peak temperature was 73.84 °C and final 85.52 °C, and starch had low trend to retrogradation. The results of x-ray and 13C cpmass show a A-type structure with high crystallinity degree. Finally, this results suggested that the "batata-de-teiú" starch is a macromolecular structure with high branching degree, favoring intermolecular Coulomb, Van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions, which directly corroborated with the low solubility observed (maximum of 6.44 g·100 g-1 at 80 °C). The extraction of "batata-de-teiú" starch can be viable, and it has technological characteristics suitable for use in the food industry or pharmaceuticals, since "batata-de-teiú" starch has good thermal stability and low trend to retrogradation.


Assuntos
Amilose/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Jatropha/química , Amido/química , Amilose/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Transição de Fase , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solubilidade , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura
5.
Org Lett ; 22(1): 106-109, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829610

RESUMO

Jatrofolianes A (1) and B (2), which are two highly modified lathyrane diterpenoids, were isolated from Jatropha gossypiifolia. 1 incorporates an unusual transannular 1,3-dioxolane moiety, forming a unique 5/6/5/8/3 ring system, while 2 possesses a new 10,11:13,14-diseco-lathyrane skeleton with a 12-membered macrocyclic lactone ring. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis, quantum chemical calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 2 showed significant multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity to cancer cells HepG2/ADR and HCT-15/5-FU at 10 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Jatropha/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 132-148, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095876

RESUMO

Los oligoelementos son importantes constituyentes nutricionales de las hierbas comestibles. Se colectaron 11 especies, nueve nativas (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) y dos introducidas (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea) en dos regiones de Guatemala. Se prepararon muestras de la hierba seca, cocida y de caldo de hierba fresca. Se cuantificaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica los macro (N, P, K) y oligoelementos (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn), taninos por espectrofotometría y oxalatos por permanganimetría. El contenido de oligoelementos es diverso, para Zn, la hierba control S. oleracea contienen buena cantidad (90-140 ppm); de las nativas D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) y A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) tienen la mayor cantidad. Respecto a Fe las hierbas control tienen buena composición (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm y M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); de las nativas A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) y L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) tienen buenas concentraciones. Se encontraron niveles elevados de oxalatos en S. oleracea (67.30 (5.51) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g) y S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); en las demás hierbas se encontraron niveles menores. Los niveles de taninos fueron bajos (0.1-0.8 mg/g) para todas las especies. Se demuestra que cuatro especies nativas tienen un buen contenido de oligoelementos y presentan valores menores de antinutricionales que los controles.


Trace elements are important nutritional constituents from edible herbs. Eleven species were collected in two regions of Guatemala, nine native (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, S. nigrescens, S. wendlandii) and two introduced (Moringa oleifera, Spinacea oleracea). Dry, cooked and broth samples were prepared. By atomic absorption spectrometry, macro (N, P, K) and trace elements (Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn) were quantified, tannins by spectrophotometry, and oxalates by permanganometry. Trace elements content is diverse, for Zn, control herb S. oleracea contained high quantity (90-140 ppm); from the natives D. ambrosioides (130-160 ppm) and A. hybridus (70-80 ppm) contained high amounts. For Fe, control herbs had high composition (S. oleracea, 220-280 ppm, M. oleifera, 105-135 ppm); from the natives A. hybridus (90-240 ppm), C. aconitifolius (75-185 ppm) and L. synanthera (75-140 ppm) had the highest amounts. High levels of oxalates were demonstrated in S. oleracea (67.30 (5.48) mg/g), L. synanthera (56.30 (9.67) mg/g), and S. nigrescens (33.6 (5.48) mg/g); from the others levels.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/análise , Verduras/classificação , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Taninos/análise , Amaranthus/química , Jatropha/química
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109621, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520953

RESUMO

ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) possess a wide range of biological functions in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications due to their excellent antimicrobial, optical and UV protective properties. This study first reports the toxicological assessment of ZnO NPs green synthesized from Jatropha curcas shells for multifunctional biomedical applications. The hot water extract of J.curcas shells is utilized as a chelating agent for the reduction of zinc acetate and then, the prepared ZnO NPs are broadly characterized using X-ray spectroscopic and electron microscopic observations. The prepared ZnO NPs acquire high purity (100%) wurtzite crystal with hexagonal structure with the average particle size of 53 nm. In vitro and in vivo toxicity evaluation against human tumor cell lines and zebrafish embryos have ascertained the purpose of ZnO NPs in clinical research. Toxic effects of ZnO NPs were observed by a dose-dependent reduction of bacterial growth at ≥1   µg ml-1, by teratogenicity and genotoxicity in zebrafish embryos (from 3 to 90 µg ml-1) and by a significant nanoparticle uptake (0.5 ng µl-1) by a fish serum. In contrast, ZnO NPs fail to reduce the proliferation of human bladder tumor cells (UC6) and cell viability of A549 cells in vitro up to 500 µg ml-1. All these observations limit the unobstructed application of ZnO NPs at higher concentrations. Thus, abundantly used metal oxide nanoparticles like ZnO NPs examined in our present study in different animal models under in vitro and in vivo conditions will be the significant screening strategy to determine the nanotoxicity.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/toxicidade , Jatropha/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Células A549 , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
8.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(10): 2051-2059, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342263

RESUMO

In this study, a molecularly imprinted polymer-coated probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MIPCPESI-MS) method was developed for detection of phorbol esters (PEs) and deoxyphorbol metabolites in Jatropha curcas leaves. Such an approach was established by sticking on a metallic needle a molecularly imprinted polymer to particularly design a MIP-coated probe for selective sampling and ionization of PEs and deoxyphorbol metabolites. By a subsequent application of a high voltage and methanol, as spray solvent, ESI was generated for direct and rapid analysis under ambient and open-air conditions. MIP-coated probe exhibited a high sampling capacity of the PEs and its metabolites in methanolic extracts of J. curcas leaves compared with the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-coated probe. MIPCPESI-MS allowed the detection of phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) from J. curcas leaves with minimal sample preparation, and with detection limit and quantification reaching 0.28 µg/mL and 0.92 µg/mL, respectively. Also, good linearity was obtained with R2 > 0.99 and precision and accuracy values between 4.06-13.49% and - 1.60 to - 15.26%, respectively. The current method was successfully applied to screening methanolic extracts of six different J. curcas leaf genotypes (three toxic and three non-toxic). PDA and three PE deoxyphorbol metabolites were identified only from toxic genotypes, in which PDA was determined with concentration ranging from 222.19 ± 23.55 to 528.23 ± 19.72 µg/g. All these findings support that the MIPCPESI-MS method developed here has a high potential for the analysis of PEs in plant extracts enabling differentiation of toxic and non-toxic genotypes earlier in the leaves.


Assuntos
Jatropha/química , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Ésteres de Forbol/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Polímeros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1603: 23-32, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230878

RESUMO

The analyses of drugs and metabolites in complex matrices have been widely studied in recent years. However, due to high levels endogenous compounds and matrix complexity, these analyses require a sample pre-treatment step. To this aim, two lab-made extractive phases were integrated to probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PESI-MS) technique for direct analysis of illicit drugs in biological fluids and phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas extract. The polypyrrole (PPy) phase was electropolymerized onto a platinum wire surface by cyclic voltammetry. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized and adhered onto a stainless-steel needle with epoxy resin. The PPy-PESI-MS method showed to be linear in a concentration range from 1 to 500 µg L-1, with accuracy values between -2.1 and 14%, and precision values between 0.8 and 10.8%. The MIP-PESI-MS method showed to be linear in a concentration range from 0.9 to 30 mg L-1, with accuracy values between -1.6 and -15.3%, and precision values between 4.1 and 13.5%.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/isolamento & purificação , Polímeros/química , Pirróis/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Cocaína/análise , Cocaína/isolamento & purificação , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Jatropha/química , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/análise , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/isolamento & purificação , Metanfetamina/análise , Metanfetamina/isolamento & purificação , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/análise , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/isolamento & purificação , Ésteres de Forbol/análise , Ésteres de Forbol/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/metabolismo , Aço Inoxidável/química , Urinálise
10.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(4): 298-302, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076133

RESUMO

Jatrogricaine A (1), a new diterpenoid possessing a 5/6/6/4 carbon ring system, together with eight known diterpenoids (2-9) were isolated from the stems of Jatropha podagrica. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and compound 3 showed significant inhibitory effects against nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells with an IC50 of 13.44 ± 0.28 µmol·L-1, being comparable to the positive control, quercetin (IC50 17.00 ± 2.10 µmol·L-1).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Diterpenos/química , Jatropha/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Caules de Planta/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Carbono/análise , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7
11.
J Nat Med ; 73(4): 805-813, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055728

RESUMO

Jatropha multifida is a medicinal plant that belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. Our investigation revealed that the chloroform extract of J. multifida stems showed anti-melanin deposition activity against α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)- and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-induced melanogenesis in the mouse melanoma cell line (B16-F10). Further fractionation and purification of the major constituents led to the isolation of two coumarins (1 and 2) and seven known lignoids (3-9). All isolated compounds exhibited anti-melanin deposition activities against the mouse melanoma cell line (B16-F10) with IC50 values ranging from 37.5 to 560.1 µM, without any cytotoxicity even at high concentrations, except for 8. Further mechanistic studies suggested that 9 downregulated tyrosinase mRNA expression, while the anti-melanin deposition activities of 4 and 8 appeared to be unrelated to tyrosinase inhibition and the downregulated expression of the key melanogenesis-associated mRNAs. These results suggested that J. multifida could possess potent skin whitening ingredients.


Assuntos
Jatropha/química , Melaninas/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , alfa-MSH/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
12.
J Nat Prod ; 82(5): 1301-1311, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084028

RESUMO

Natural products continue to provide a platform to study biological systems. A bioguided study of cancer cell models led us to a new member of the jatrophane natural products from Jatropha gossypiifolia, which was independently identified and characterized as jatrogossone A (1). Purification and structure elucidation was performed by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR techniques, and the structure was confirmed via X-ray crystallography. The unique molecular scaffold of jatrogossone A prompted an evaluation of its mode of action. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that jatrogossone A displays selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cell models in the low micromolar range with a therapeutic window. Jatrogossone A (1) affects mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This natural product induces radical oxygen species (ROS) selectively in cancer cellular models, with minimal ROS induction in noncancerous cells. Compound 1 induces ROS in the mitochondria, as determined by colocalization studies, and it induces mitophagy. It promotes also in vitro cell death by causing cell arrest at the G2/M stage, caspase (3/7) activation, and PARP-1 cleavage. The combined findings provide a potential mechanism by which 1 relies on upregulation of mitochondrial ROS to potentiate cytotoxic effects through intracellular signaling.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Jatropha/química , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo
13.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(12): 2707-2714, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888469

RESUMO

The Jatropha curcas plant (Jatropha) has been proposed as a source of biodiesel fuel, as it yields crude glycerol as an abundant by-product. Its by-products could serve as a starting material in making glycerol for FDA-regulated products. Jatropha is not regarded as a source of edible vegetable oil since it contains phorbol esters (PEs). PEs, even at very low exposure concentrations, demonstrate various toxicities in humans and animals, but may not be detected by routine impurity analyses. Here, we demonstrate the development of a rapid and simplified method for the detection and quantification of Jatropha-derived PE toxins using ambient ionization mass spectrometry. To do this, we successfully coupled a paper spray ambient ionization source with an ion trap portable mass spectrometer. The paper spray source was assembled using chromatography papers, and analyte ions were generated by applying a high voltage to a wetted paper triangle loaded with PE standards. For method development, we used commercially available PE standards on an ion trap portable mass spectrometer. Standard solutions were prepared using ethanol with PE concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 0.0001 mg mL-1. Spike and recovery experiments were performed using USP grade and commercially available glycerol. To discern chemical differences between samples, we applied multivariate data analysis. Based on the results obtained, paper spray coupled with a portable mass spectrometric method can be successfully adopted for the analysis of toxic contaminants present in glycerol-based consumer products with LOD and LOQ of 0.175 µg mL-1 and 0.3 µg mL-1 respectively. This direct, simple design, and low-cost sampling and ionization method enables fast screening with high sensitivity in non-laboratory settings.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Medicamentos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Glicerol/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Papel , Ésteres de Forbol/análise , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Compostos Férricos/química , Flores/química , Humanos , Jatropha/química , Jatropha/embriologia , Limite de Detecção , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Sementes/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Análise Espectral/métodos
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1597: 63-75, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885401

RESUMO

Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant whose seed oil is an interesting source for biodiesel production. Seed cake, the main byproduct remaining (about 70% w/w) after the oil extraction process, has a high nutritional value but the presence in Jatropha curcas seed of phorbol esters (PEs), a family of toxic compounds with a tigliane skeleton, prevents application of seed cake and other byproducts (e.g. glycerin) in animal feed without an efficient detoxification. Considering the high toxicity of PEs, it is important to have a sensitive analytical method to evaluate the presence of these compounds in Jatropha curcas derivatives. In this paper we present the study of the ESI-MS/MS fragmentation pattern of the [M+Na]+ ion at m/z 733.5 of the six known PEs, namely Jatropha factors (JFs) C1-C6, which allowed to tentatively identify a series of characteristic and specific fragment ions useful to reveal the presence of JFs in Jatropha curcas seed oil, distinguish them from each other, and identify new PEs (J1-J4). Moreover, the substitution of the usual acetonitrile/water as mobile phase with a mixture of methanol/water (85:15, v/v) allowed to increase the signal of the sodium adduct of about 50-fold during the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ésteres de Forbol/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Glicerol/química , Jatropha/química , Sementes/química
15.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(8): 12843-12858, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861186

RESUMO

Hemostasis is a tightly regulated process which maintains a fluid state of blood within the vasculature and provides thrombotic response upon tissue injury. Various scientific studies have implicated the role of plant latex proteases in hemostasis using in vitro experiments. However, in vivo models substantiate their role in hemostasis. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of plant latex thrombin-like proteases (PTLPs) on hemostasis was investigated systematically using mice tail bleeding as a preclinical model. In this direction, latex protease fractions (LPFs), which showed potent thrombin-like activity, were selected as they act directly on fibrinogen to form clot and quickly stop bleeding. Thrombin-like activity was exhibited mainly by cysteine proteases. Calotropis gigantea, Carica papaya, Jatropha curcas, Oxystelma esculentum, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Vallaris solanacea LPFs and papain from C. papaya latex significantly reduced bleeding on a topical application in normal and aspirin administered mice. In addition, PTLPs accelerated the clotting of factor VIII deficient plasma, while, papain brought back the clotting time to normal levels acting like a bypassing agent. Further, papain failed to show activity in the presence of specific cysteine protease inhibitor iodoacetic acid; confirming protease role in all the activities exhibited. At the tested dose, PTLPs except C. gigantea did not show toxicity. Further, structural and sequence comparison between PTLPs and human thrombin revealed structural and sequence dissimilarity indicating their unique nature. The findings of the present study may open up a new avenue for considering PTLPs including papain in the treatment of bleeding wounds.


Assuntos
Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Cisteína Endopeptidases/administração & dosagem , Fator VIII/metabolismo , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Látex/química , Animais , Asclepias/química , Calotropis/química , Carica , Cisteína Endopeptidases/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Jatropha/química , Camundongos , Papaína/administração & dosagem , Papaína/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Tabernaemontana/química
16.
Molecules ; 24(5)2019 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832436

RESUMO

This paper reports the successive isolation and purification of bioactive compounds from the stem bark of Jatropha podagrica, a widely known medicinal plant. The ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays (IC50 = 46.7, 66.0, and 492.6, respectively). By column chromatography (CC) with elution of hexane and ethyl acetate at 8:2, 7:3, and 6:4 ratios, the isolation of this active extract yielded five fractions (C1⁻C5). Chemical structures of the constituents included in C1⁻C5 were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and resolved as methyl gallate (C1, C2, C3, C4), gallic acid (C1, C2), fraxetin (C2, C3, C4, C5), and tomentin (C3). Mixture C2 (IC50 DPPH and ABTS = 2.5 µg/mL) and C3 (IC50 FRAP = 381 µg/mL) showed the highest antioxidant properties. Among the isolated fractions, C4 was the most potential agent in growth inhibition of six bacterial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, and Proteus mirabilis (MIC = 5, 20, 30, 20, 25, and 20 mg/mL, respectively). All identified constituents exerted an inhibitory activity on the growth of Lactuca sativa, of which the mixture C3 performed the maximal inhibition on shoot (IC50 = 49.4 µg/mL) and root (IC50 = 47.1 µg/mL) growth. Findings of this study suggest that gallic acid, methyl gallate, fraxetin, and tomentin isolated from J. podagrica possessed antioxidant, antibacterial, and growth inhibitory potentials.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Jatropha/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Picratos/química , Casca de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(6): 1383-1391, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706333

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine intake and growth performance of broiler chicks fed with Jatropha curcas kernel meal physico-chemically and biologically processed. The feed experiment lasted for 7 days with 20-day-old Ross 308 strain unsexed broiler chicks. Two dietary treatments were given each to ten animals, according to a complete randomized design. Kernels, manually obtained from J. curcas seed, were defatted, heated, and fermented with a strain of Aspergillus niger and oven-dried, in order to obtain the treated jatropha kernel meal. This latter was used to replace one third of a groundnut meal premix which was then incorporated in a commercial diet to warrant iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric characteristics of the diets. Data collected were analyzed according to ANOVA procedure. The results revealed that the animals that received the diet incorporating jatropha kernel meal had numerically higher live weight (156.1 vs. 152.7 g/animal) (P > 0.05) and average daily weight gain (12.3 vs. 11.7 g/day/animal) (P > 0.05) than the control ones, at the end of experiment. The average daily feed intake was the same for the two groups of animals (23.2 g/day/animal) (P > 0.05) with a similar feed conversion ratio (2.0 vs. 2.1 respectively for the jatropha group and the control group). The survival rate, at the end of the experiment, was 100% for the two groups of animals. Physico-chemically and biologically processed Jatropha curcas kernel could be an interesting by-product for poultry feeding.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Aspergillus niger/fisiologia , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Jatropha/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Fermentação , Temperatura Alta , Distribuição Aleatória , Sementes/química , Ganho de Peso
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(9): 8633-8639, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710331

RESUMO

Nonrenewable fossil fuels show increased demand and with fossil fuels at a rapid depleting stage, there seems to be an increase in requirement for alternative fuels too. Biofuels and blended fossil fuels are one of a kind. Nonedible jatropha (Jatropha curcas) oil-based methyl ester was produced and mixed with ethanol and blended with conventional diesel in various compositions. Jatropha biodiesel is used because of its great blending capacity with diesel. Sodium hydroxide is used as a catalyst which allows miscibility between ethanol and diesel. In present epoch, the paucity of fossil fuels and its adverse impact have driven researchers to focus on alternative fuels. Biodiesel is one of the most favorable and promising alternatives in the application of automobiles, boilers, gas turbines, etc. This study targets at finding the engine performance and emission characteristics under various load conditions on Kirloskar single-cylinder VCR research engine by blending both jatropha biodiesel and ethanol with base diesel at various compositions. Both jatropha biodiesel and ethanol have high calorific value which is a most important factor for engine power production. The performance analysis showed that the biodiesel blend of 98% diesel with 1.5% jatropha biodiesel and 0.5% (D98J1.5E0.5) of ethanol had a significant improvement in the engine performance than the conventional diesel.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Etanol/química , Combustíveis Fósseis , Jatropha/química , Ésteres , Emissões de Veículos/análise
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 234: 197-203, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695706

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) is popularly known as bellyache bush or black physic nut and is widely used in local / traditional medicine due to the various biological activities attributed to its different parts, including its leaves, roots, and latex. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this review, we aim to update and discuss the chemistry, specific pharmacology, and toxicological activities of Jatropha gossypiifolia and its bioactive metabolites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Science Direct databases were searched with the name "Jatropha gossypiifolia" and the term "bioactive metabolites". All studies on the chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of the plant up to December 2018 were included in this review. RESULTS: Jatropha gossypiifolia leaves are considered to have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. The root and stem have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The seeds and fruits can be used against influenza and as a sedative, analgesic or anti-diarrheal agents. The latex is bactericidal and molluscicidal. Topical application of latex is used to treat wounds and bites of venomous animals. The diluted form is usually used for the treatment of diarrhoea by indigenous peoples. CONCLUSIONS: The main pharmacological activities of Jatropha gossypiifolia include anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase, and antihypertensive activities. Species of Jatropha are notably known for their toxic potential, and their toxicity is primarily related to the latex and seed contents. However, the potential mechanisms of these pharmacological activities have not been fully explored. We hope this review will help to further inform the potential utilization of Jatropha gossypiifolia in complementary and alternative medicine.


Assuntos
Jatropha/química , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Jatropha/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta
20.
Chemosphere ; 214: 47-54, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30253255

RESUMO

Improving soil fertility is a critical component of abandoned rare-earth mine land (ARL) revegetation. To study the effects of sewage sludge (SS), earthworms, and Jatropha curcas in ARL revegetation, SS (40% in mass ratio) and earthworms (0, 40, 60, and 80 individual adult Eisenia fetida kg-1) were applied to abandoned rare-earth mine land soil (ARLS) and then J. curcas was grown in a potting experiment. The organic carbon, nutrients (N, P, K) and heavy metals (HMs; Cd, Cu, Zn) contents in ARLS and the biomass and nutrients uptake in J. curcas were significantly increased by SS amendment. Application of 80 individual E. fetida kg-1 significantly increased availability of P and K in SS-amended ARLS relative to other treatments. Earthworms increased the height, ground diameter and biomass of J. curcas, but the promotion of biomass became weaker as earthworm density increased. After J. curcas harvest, the contents of Cd, Cu and Zn in SS-amended ARLS were reduced by 15%, 23%, and 19%, respectively. With the joint application of J. curcas and earthworms, a much larger decrease in contents of Cd (34-40%), Cu (31-44%) and Zn (24-29%) in SS-amended ARLS were observed, and the HMs ecological risks were reduced from "moderate potential" to "low potential". Moreover, J. curcas and earthworms together exerted more reduction in the exchangeable fraction HMs in SS-amended ARLS than J. curcas alone. Our results suggest that the integrated application of SS, earthworms and J. curcas is an effective approach for ARL revegetation.


Assuntos
Jatropha/química , Metais Terras Raras/química , Oligoquetos/química , Esgotos/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Animais , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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