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1.
Nutrients ; 14(12)2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35745266

RESUMO

Dietary behavior can have a consequential and wide-ranging influence on human health. Intermittent fasting, which involves intermittent restriction in energy intake, has been shown to have beneficial cellular, physiological, and system-wide effects in animal and human studies. Despite the potential utility in preventing, slowing, and reversing disease processes, the clinical application of intermittent fasting remains limited. The health benefits associated with the simple implementation of a 12 to 16 h fast suggest a promising role in the treatment of chronic pain. A literature review was completed to characterize the physiologic benefits of intermittent fasting and to relate the evidence to the mechanisms underlying chronic pain. Research on different fasting regimens is outlined and an overview of research demonstrating the benefits of intermittent fasting across diverse health conditions is provided. Data on the physiologic effects of intermittent fasting are summarized. The physiology of different pain states is reviewed and the possible implications for intermittent fasting in the treatment of chronic pain through non-invasive management, prehabilitation, and rehabilitation following injury and invasive procedures are presented. Evidence indicates the potential utility of intermittent fasting in the comprehensive management of chronic pain and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Jejum , Animais , Restrição Calórica , Dor Crônica/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Jejum/fisiologia
2.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684038

RESUMO

Recently, fasting has been spotlighted from a healthcare perspective. However, the de-tailed biological mechanisms and significance by which the effects of fasting confer health benefits are not yet clear. Due to certain advantages of the zebrafish as a vertebrate model, it is widely utilized in biological studies. However, the biological responses to nutrient metabolism within zebrafish skeletal muscles have not yet been amply reported. Therefore, we aimed to reveal a gene expression profile in zebrafish skeletal muscles in response to fasting-refeeding. Accordingly, mRNA-sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were performed to examine comprehensive gene expression changes in skeletal muscle tissues during fasting-refeeding. Our results produced a novel set of nutrition-related genes under a fasting-refeeding protocol. Moreover, we found that five genes were dramatically upregulated in each fasting (for 24 h) and refeeding (after 3 h), exhibiting a rapid response to the provided conditional changes. The assessment of the gene length revealed that the gene set whose expression was elevated only after 3 h of refeeding had a shorter length, suggesting that nutrition-related gene function is associated with gene length. Taken together, our results from the bioinformatics analyses provide new insights into biological mechanisms induced by fasting-refeeding conditions within zebrafish skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
Jejum , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Jejum/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Peixe-Zebra/genética
3.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565812

RESUMO

Time-restricted eating (TRE), a popular form of intermittent fasting, has been demonstrated to provide multiple health benefits, including an extension of healthy lifespan in preclinical models. While the specific mechanisms remain elusive, emerging research indicates that one plausible mechanism through which TRE may confer health benefits is by influencing the expression of the epigenetic modulator circulatory miRNAs, which serve as intercellular communicators and are dysregulated in metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, the goal of this pilot study is to examine the effects of a 4-week TRE regimen on global circulatory miRNA from older (≥65 years) overweight participants. Pre- and post-TRE regimen serum samples from nine individuals who participated in the Time to Eat clinical trial (NCT03590847) and had a significant weight loss (2.6 kg, p < 0.01) were analyzed. The expressions of 2083 human miRNAs were quantified using HTG molecular whole transcriptome miRNA assay. In silico analyses were performed to determine the target genes and biological pathways associated with differentially expressed miRNAs to predict the metabolic effects of the TRE regimen. Fourteen miRNAs were differentially expressed pre- and post-TRE regimen. Specifically, downregulated miRNA targets suggested increased expression of transcripts, including PTEN, TSC1, and ULK1, and were related to cell growth and survival. Furthermore, the targets of downregulated miRNAs were associated with Ras signaling (cell growth and proliferation), mTOR signaling (cell growth and protein synthesis), insulin signaling (glucose uptake), and autophagy (cellular homeostasis and survival). In conclusion, the TRE regimen downregulated miRNA, which, in turn, could inhibit the pathways of cell growth and activate the pathways of cell survival and might promote healthy aging. Future mechanistic studies are required to understand the functional role of the miRNAs reported in this study.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Idoso , Jejum/fisiologia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Sobrepeso/genética , Projetos Piloto , Perda de Peso
4.
Cell Metab ; 34(6): 902-918.e6, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584694

RESUMO

Short-term fasting is beneficial for the regeneration of multiple tissue types. However, the effects of fasting on muscle regeneration are largely unknown. Here, we report that fasting slows muscle repair both immediately after the conclusion of fasting as well as after multiple days of refeeding. We show that ketosis, either endogenously produced during fasting or a ketogenic diet or exogenously administered, promotes a deep quiescent state in muscle stem cells (MuSCs). Although deep quiescent MuSCs are less poised to activate, slowing muscle regeneration, they have markedly improved survival when facing sources of cellular stress. Furthermore, we show that ketone bodies, specifically ß-hydroxybutyrate, directly promote MuSC deep quiescence via a nonmetabolic mechanism. We show that ß-hydroxybutyrate functions as an HDAC inhibitor within MuSCs, leading to acetylation and activation of an HDAC1 target protein p53. Finally, we demonstrate that p53 activation contributes to the deep quiescence and enhanced resilience observed during fasting.


Assuntos
Jejum , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Jejum/fisiologia , Músculos , Mioblastos
5.
Clin Nutr ; 41(6): 1316-1319, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35552051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Experimental studies in cancer cell lines and tumour-bearing animals support the concept that a short-period fasting could potentiate the effect of antineoplastic chemotherapy due to a particular metabolic adaptation normal cells whereas cancer cells would remain particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of the therapy. The potential of such approach is actually emphasized by the media but data in humans are very scant and many oncologists fear that peri-chemotherapy fasting might worsen the patient nutritional status. The aim of this review is to focus on the benefits versus the adverse effects of the peri-chemotherapy fasting and to clarify if discrepancy of opinions regarding this approach relies on data from clinical trials or simply on misunderstandings or prejudices. METHODS: We reviewed all the available literature regarding the peri-chemotherapy fasting in cancer patients with a special focus on compliance, adverse event prevalence and tumour response. RESULTS: Seven papers were available for the analysis. All studies included seemingly well-nourished patients and most of them had a breast or a gynaecologic cancer. Almost all concluded for the feasibility of the peri-chemotherapy fasting, with a good patient compliance. Weight loss was always reported but it was generally mild even if sometimes required a nutritional intervention between the cycles of chemotherapy. One RCT reported a better radiological response of the breast cancer at the neoadjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Peri-chemotherapy fasting appears a safe procedure in well-nourished patients receiving a short-term chemotherapy. However claims of oncologic benefit are premature and rumors about its efficacy are presently unjustified.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Perda de Peso
6.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406044

RESUMO

It has widely been accepted that food restriction (FR) without malnutrition has multiple health benefits. Various calorie restriction (CR) and intermittent fasting (IF) regimens have recently been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in traumatic brain injury (TBI) through variable mechanisms. However, the evidence connecting CR or IF to neuroprotection in TBI as well as current issues remaining in this research field have yet to be reviewed in literature. The objective of our review was therefore to weigh the evidence that suggests the connection between CR/IF with recovery promotion following TBI. Medline, Google Scholar and Web of Science were searched from inception to 25 February 2022. An overwhelming number of results generated suggest that several types of CR/IF play a promising role in promoting post-TBI recovery. This recovery is believed to be achieved by alleviating mitochondrial dysfunction, promoting hippocampal neurogenesis, inhibiting glial cell responses, shaping neural cell plasticity, as well as targeting apoptosis and autophagy. Further, we represent our views on the current issues and provide thoughts on the future direction of this research field.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Restrição Calórica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Jejum/fisiologia , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
7.
Biomolecules ; 12(4)2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454105

RESUMO

Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone known for regulating appetite and metabolism. To characterize the role of leptin signaling in rainbow trout, we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to disrupt the leptin receptor (LepR) genes, lepra1 and lepra2. We compared wildtype (WT) and mutant fish that were either fed to satiation or feed deprived for six weeks. The LepR mutants exhibited a hyperphagic phenotype, which led to heavier body weight, faster specific growth rate, increased viscero- and hepatosomatic indices, and greater condition factor. Muscle glycogen, plasma leptin, and leptin transcripts (lepa1) were also elevated in fed LepR mutant fish. Expression levels of several hypothalamic genes involved in feed regulation were analyzed (agrp, npy, orexin, cart-1, cart-2, pomc-a1, pomc-b). No differences were detected between fed WT and mutants except for pomc-b (proopiomelanocortin-b), where levels were 7.5-fold higher in LepR fed mutants, suggesting that pomc-b expression is regulated by leptin signaling. Fatty acid (FA) content did not statistically differ in muscle of fed mutant fish compared to WT. However, fasted mutants exhibited significantly lower muscle FA concentrations, suggesting that LepR mutants exhibit increased FA mobilization during fasting. These data demonstrate a key role for leptin signaling in lipid and energy mobilization in a teleost fish.


Assuntos
Leptina , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Jejum/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hiperfagia/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo
8.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334932

RESUMO

We are facing an obesity epidemic, and obesity itself and its close companion, type 2 diabetes, are independent risk factors for neurodegeneration. While most medical treatments fail to induce a clinically meaningful improvement in neurodegenerative disorders, lifestyle interventions have emerged in the spotlight. A recently rediscovered approach is intermittent fasting (IF), which, compared to the classic caloric restriction regimens, limits only the time of eating, rather than the number of calories allowed per day. There is already a large amount of evidence from preclinical and clinical studies showing the beneficial effects of IF. In this review, we specifically focus on the effects of IF on brain metabolism. Key molecular players modified during IF and involved in its beneficial central effects (ketone bodies, BDNF, GABA, GH/IGF-1, FGF2, sirtuin-3, mTOR, and gut microbiota) are identified and discussed. Studies suggest that IF induces several molecular and cellular adaptations in neurons, which, overall, enhance cellular stress resistance, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. Still, the absence of guidelines regarding the application of IF to patients hampers its broad utilization in clinical practice, and further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on the different IF protocols and long-term effects of IF on brain metabolism before it can be widely prescribed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Jejum , Adaptação Fisiológica , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Jejum/fisiologia , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia
9.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276792

RESUMO

Fasting has been practiced for millennia, for religious, ethical, or health reasons. It is also commonplace among different species, from humans, to animals, to lower eukaryotes. Research on fasting is gaining traction based on recent studies that show its role in many adaptive cellular responses such as the reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation, increase of energy metabolism, and in boosting cellular protection. In this expert review, we recount the historical evolution of fasting and we critically analyze its current medical applications, including benefits and caveats. Based on the available data, we conclude that the manipulation of dietary intake, in the form of calorie restriction, intermittent fasting, dietary restriction with the exclusion of some nutrients, prolonged fasting, and so forth, is anthropologically engraved in human culture possibly because of its positive health effects. Indeed, many studies show that fasting ameliorates many biochemical parameters related to cardiovascular and cancer risk, and neurodegeneration. Mechanistic studies are plentiful, but largely limited to cell cultures or laboratory animals. Understandably, there are no controlled trials of any form of fasting that gauge the effects on [any cause] mortality. Physicians should be aware that misinformation is pervasive and that their patients often adopt dietary regimens that are far from being clinically validated. Moreover, doctors are often unaware of their patients' religious or traditional fasting and of its potential health effects. Based on current evidence, no long-term fasting should be undertaken without medical supervision until future research will hopefully help shed further light on fasting and its effects on human health.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Jejum , Animais , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
10.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276823

RESUMO

The period of Ramadan induces changes in the usual eating patterns of individuals. During this period, Muslims must abstain from drinking and eating from dawn to dusk. Therefore, some research conducted on professional soccer players has observed that during and/or after Ramadan, performance, running speed, agility, dribbling speed, and endurance and/or skill performance in athletic events may be negatively affected by Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF). The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of a dietary plan during RIF on performance and body composition in a professional soccer player. A 20-year-old elite player (86.0 kg, 188.5 cm) followed a dietary-nutritional plan with an isocaloric diet and was supplemented with glycerol. The athlete's strength and power in the lower limbs was assessed by performing a countermovement jump (CMJ) and Abalakov vertical jump (ABK) before and after Ramadan. After nutritional planning, the patient's body composition improved in terms of fat loss (6.61 to 5.70%) and muscle mass gain (50.26 to 51.50%). In addition, this translated into improvements in performance tests, both in the CMJ (36.72 to 40.00 cm) and ABK (39.16 to 49.34 cm). In conclusion, during a period of fasting, personalised nutritional planning and an appropriate supplementation and rest protocol can improve the body composition and performance of soccer players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Humanos , Islamismo , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276989

RESUMO

Given the ongoing strain that the obesity epidemic has placed on public health outcomes, new and effective approaches to weight control are needed. One approach to improving weight and metabolic outcomes is intermittent fasting, which consists of multiple different timing schedules for temporary food avoidance, including alternate-day fasting, other similar full-day fasting patterns, and time-restricted feeding (where the day's food is consumed over a 6-h period, allowing for 18 h of fasting). These feeding schedules have favorable metabolic effects by intermittently inducing the metabolism of fatty acids to ketones. The regimens overall lead to a decrease in weight and have been linked to improvements in dyslipidemia and blood pressure. While more research is needed on longer-term outcomes and this approach should be avoided in particular health conditions, intermittent fasting should be considered as an option for individuals who have a pattern of unhealthy weight gain using standard eating patterns.


Assuntos
Jejum , Comportamento Alimentar , Pressão Sanguínea , Restrição Calórica , Jejum/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo
12.
Nutr Rev ; 80(3): 439-452, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142356

RESUMO

Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary strategy that involves alternating periods of abstention from calorie consumption with periods of ad libitum food intake. There is significant interest in the body of literature describing longitudinal adaptations to IF. Less attention has been given to the acute physiological responses that occur during the fasting durations that are commonly employed by IF practitioners. Thus, the purpose of this review was to examine the physiological responses - including alterations in substrate metabolism, systemic hormones, and autophagy - that occur throughout an acute fast. Literature searches were performed to locate relevant research describing physiological responses to acute fasting and short-term starvation. A single fast demonstrated the ability to alter glucose and lipid metabolism within the initial 24 hours, but variations in protein metabolism appeared to be minimal within this time frame. The ability of an acute fast to elicit significant increases in autophagy is still unknown. The information summarized in this review can be used to help contextualize existing research and better inform development of future IF interventions.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Jejum , Glicemia , Dieta , Jejum/fisiologia , Glucose , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
13.
Nutrition ; 96: 111583, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the effects of 8 wk of time-restricted eating (TRE) on glucose metabolism and the adipose tissue transcriptome during a metabolic ward stay in men with obesity. METHODS: In a single-arm, pre-post trial, 15 men (ages 63 ± 4 y, body mass index = 30.5 ± 2.4 kg/m2, waist circumference = 113 ± 4 cm) with obesity but no history of diabetes were enrolled and underwent 2 wk of baseline monitoring before they were instructed to eat their regular diets within a contiguous 10-h time frame each day for 8 wk. Metabolic testing was performed at baseline and week 8 during a 35-h metabolic ward stay, during which all food intake was strictly timed and controlled. Identical meal-tolerance tests were performed at breakfast and dinner. Blood glucose, glucoregulatory hormones, and subjective appetite score were measured. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were performed and the transcriptome was assessed. RESULTS: The primary outcome, plasma glucose area under the curve, was altered by TRE, being unchanged at breakfast but increased at dinner. However, TRE reduced fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, body weight, and body fat, and increased glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide area under the curve at dinner. In subcutaneous adipose tissue, 117 genes were up-regulated and 202 genes down-regulated by TRE. Pathway analysis revealed down-regulation of genes involved in proteasome function and mitochondrial regulation. CONCLUSIONS: TRE had a net effect of reducing glycemia and dampening energy-consuming pathways in adipose tissue.


Assuntos
Jejum , Controle Glicêmico , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Jejum/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo
14.
J Exp Biol ; 225(4)2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35188212

RESUMO

Unlike many animals that reduce activity during fasting, northern elephant seals (NES) undergo prolonged fasting during energy-intensive life-history stages such as reproduction and molting, fueling fasting energy needs by mobilizing fat stores accrued during foraging. NES display several unique metabolic features such as high fasting metabolic rates, elevated blood lipid and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, efficient protein sparing and resistance to oxidative stress during fasting. However, the cellular mechanisms that regulate these adaptations are still not fully understood. To examine how metabolic coordination is achieved during prolonged fasting, we profiled changes in blubber, skeletal muscle and plasma proteomes of adult female NES over a 5 week fast associated with molting. We found that while blubber and muscle proteomes were remarkably stable over fasting, over 50 proteins changed in abundance in plasma, including those associated with lipid storage, mobilization, oxidation and transport. Apolipoproteins dominated the blubber, plasma and muscle proteome responses to fasting. APOA4, APOE and APOC3, which are associated with lipogenesis and triglyceride accumulation, decreased, while APOA1, APOA2 and APOM, which are associated with lipid mobilization and HDL function, increased over fasting. Our findings suggest that changes in apolipoprotein composition may underlie the maintenance of high HDL levels and, together with adipokines and hepatokines that facilitate lipid catabolism, may mediate the metabolic transitions between feeding and fasting in NES. Many of these proteins have not been previously studied in this species and provide intriguing hypotheses about metabolic regulation during prolonged fasting in mammals.


Assuntos
Focas Verdadeiras , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Muda , Proteoma/metabolismo , Focas Verdadeiras/fisiologia
15.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 438: 115888, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065993

RESUMO

Nutritional imbalance (low protein / high fat) is a public health problem affecting many people in developing and developed nations. Such an imbalance will influence pathophysiological homeostasis in individuals and thereby considerably impact drug pharmacokinetics. It was reported that short-term fasting increases acetaminophen exposure in healthy subjects, whereas no effect was observed after a high-fat diet. These findings suggest the necessity of considering nutritional status when assessing the risk of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Additionally, the role of nutrition status on the pharmacokinetic profile of acetaminophen (APAP) at toxic doses is either scanty or not available. With this background, we aimed to compare the effects of nutrition status on the pharmacokinetic profile of APAP at a toxic dose in three different dietary regimens like - Normal diet (ND), Low protein diet (LPD), and High-fat diet (HFD). Balb/C female mice were divided into three groups after weaning, and for the next 15 weeks, they were fed with their respective diets (ND, LPD, and HFD). After that, mice were dosed with APAP (300 mg/kg p.o), and blood sampling was done at different time intervals and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min to collect plasma samples. Plasma samples were analyzed using the HPLC method. Data analysis was done by Non-compartment analysis using Phoenix WinNonlin 8.3 software. LPD group shows higher values of Cmax, tmax, t1/2, and AUC0-4, AUC0-x values than ND and HFD groups. Both Cmax and AUC follow the pattern of drug exposure where LPD > ND > HFD. In conclusion, nutrition in the diet alters APAP pharmacokinetic profile at a toxic dose in three different diet regimes. Further study on CYP450 concentration and activity is essential to understand the pharmacokinetics difference between these dietary regimens.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/farmacocinética , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
16.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(4): 2183-2199, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084574

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training combined with either 5:2 intermittent fasting or continuous energy restriction on body composition, muscle size and quality, and upper and lower body strength. METHODS: Untrained individuals undertook 12 weeks of resistance training plus either continuous energy restriction [20% daily energy restriction (CERT)] or 5:2 intermittent fasting [~ 70% energy restriction 2 days/week, euenergetic consumption 5 days/week (IFT)], with both groups prescribed a mean of ≥ 1.4 g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day. Participants completed 2 supervised resistance and 1 unsupervised aerobic/resistance training combination session per week. Changes in lean body mass (LBM), thigh muscle size and quality, strength and dietary intake were assessed. RESULTS: Thirty-four participants completed the study (CERT = 17, IFT = 17). LBM was significantly increased (+ 3.7%, p < 0.001) and body weight (- 4.6%, p < 0.001) and fat (- 24.1%, p < 0.001) were significantly reduced with no significant difference between groups, though results differed by sex. Both groups showed improvements in thigh muscle size and quality, and reduced intramuscular and subcutaneous fat assessed by ultrasonography and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), respectively. The CERT group demonstrated a significant increase in muscle surface area assessed by pQCT compared to the IFT group. Similar gains in upper and lower body strength and muscular endurance were observed between groups. CONCLUSION: When combined with resistance training and moderate protein intake, continuous energy restriction and 5:2 intermittent fasting resulted in similar improvements in body composition, muscle quality, and strength. ACTRN: ACTRN12620000920998, September 2020, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Jejum/fisiologia , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia
17.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057432

RESUMO

Intermittent fasting (IF) plays an essential role in improving lipid metabolism disorders caused by metabolic cardiomyopathy. Growing evidence revealed that N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation is related to obesity and lipid metabolic. Our study aimed to assess the beneficial effects of IF on lipid deposition, apoptosis, and m6A methylation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity cardiomyopathy. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD ad libitum for 13 weeks, after which time a subgroup of HFD mice were subjected to IF for 24 h and fed HFD in the other day for 8 weeks. We found that IF intervention significantly improved cardiac functional and structural impairment and serum lipid metabolic disorder induced by HFD. Furthermore, IF intervention decreased the mRNA levels of the fatty acid uptake genes of FABP1, FATP1, and CD36 and the fatty acid synthesis genes of SREBF1, FAS, and ACCα and increased the mRNA levels of the fatty acid catabolism genes of ATGL, HSL, LAL, and LPL in cardiac tissueof HFD-induced obese mice. TUNEL-positive cells, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and Cleaved Caspase-3 protein expression in HFD-induced obese mice hearts was down-regulated by IF intervention. In addition, IF intervention decreased the m6A methylation levels and METTL3 expression and increased FTO expression in HFD-induced obesity cardiomyopathy. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that IF attenuated cardiac lipid deposition and apoptosis, as well as improved cardiac functional and structural impairment in HFD-induced obesity cardiomyopathy, by a mechanism associated with decreased m6A RNA methylation levels.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Apoptose , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Jejum/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Ecocardiografia , Jejum/sangue , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262748, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia (HIL) of blood samples have been a concern in hospitals because they reflect pre-analytical processes' quality control. However, very few studies investigate the influence of patients' gender, age, and department, as well as sample-related turnaround time, on the incidence rate of HIL in fasting serum biochemistry specimens. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted to investigate the incidence rate of HIL based on the HIL index in 501,612 fasting serum biochemistry specimens from January 2017 to May 2018 in a tertiary university hospital with 4,200 beds in Sichuan, southwest China. A subgroup analysis was conducted to evaluate the differences in the HIL incidence rate by gender, age and department of patients, and turnaround time of specimens. RESULTS: The incidence rate of hemolysis, lipemia and icterus was 384, 53, and 612 per 10,000 specimens. The male patients had a significantly elevated incidence of hemolysis (4.13% vs. 3.54%), lipemia (0.67% vs. 0.38%), and icterus (6.95% vs. 5.43%) than female patients. Hemolysis, lipemia, and icterus incidence rate were significantly associated with the male sex with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.174 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.140-1.208], 1.757 (95%CI: 1.623-1.903), and 1.303 (95%CI: 1.273-1.333), respectively, (P<0.05). The hospitalized patients had a higher incidence of hemolysis (4.03% vs. 3.54%), lipemia (0.63% vs. 0.36%), and icterus (7.10% vs. 4.75%) than outpatients (P<0.001). Specimens with relatively longer transfer time and/or detection time had a higher HIL incidence (P<0.001). The Pediatrics had the highest incidence of hemolysis (16.2%) with an adjusted OR (AOR) of 4.93 (95%CI, 4.59-5.29, P<0.001). The Neonatology department had the highest icterus incidence (30.1%) with an AOR of 4.93 (95%CI: 4.59-5.29, P<0.001). The Neonatology department (2.32%) and Gastrointestinal Surgery (2.05%) had the highest lipemia incidence, with an AOR of 1.17 (95%CI: 0.91-1.51) and 4.76 (95%CI: 4.70-5.53), both P-value <0.001. There was an increasing tendency of hemolysis and icterus incidence for children under one year or adults aged more than 40. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of HIL incidence rate and HIL-related influence factors in fasting serum biochemistry specimens are impartment to interpret the results more accurately and provide better clinical services to patients.


Assuntos
Jejum/metabolismo , Hemólise/fisiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Icterícia/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Sanguíneos , China , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Icterícia/sangue , Icterícia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
19.
J Exp Biol ; 225(4)2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35098314

RESUMO

The febrile response to resist a pathogen is energetically expensive, while regulated hypothermia seems to preserve energy for vital functions. We hypothesized here that immune-challenged birds facing metabolic trade-offs (reduced energy supply/increased energy demand) favor a regulated hypothermic response at the expense of fever. To test this hypothesis, we compared 5 day old broiler chicks exposed to fasting, cold (25°C), and fasting combined with cold with a control group fed under thermoneutral conditions (30°C). The chicks were injected with saline or with a high dose of endotoxin known to induce a biphasic thermal response composed of a drop in body temperature (Tb) followed by fever. Then Tb, oxygen consumption (metabolic rate), peripheral vasomotion (cutaneous heat exchange), breathing frequency (respiratory heat exchange) and huddling behavior (heat conservation indicator) were analyzed. Irrespective of metabolic trade-offs, chicks presented a transient regulated hypothermia in the first hour, which relied on a suppressed metabolic rate for all groups, increased breathing frequency for chicks fed/fasted at 30°C, and peripheral vasodilation in chicks fed/fasted at 25°C. Fever was observed only in chicks kept at thermoneutrality and was supported by peripheral vasoconstriction and huddling behavior. Fed and fasted chicks at 25°C completely eliminated fever despite the ability to increase metabolic rate for thermogenesis in the phase correspondent to fever when it was pharmacologically induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Our data suggest that increased competing demands affect chicks' response to an immune challenge, favoring regulated hypothermia to preserve energy while the high costs of fever to resist a pathogen are avoided.


Assuntos
Hipotermia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Galinhas , Jejum/fisiologia , Febre/veterinária
20.
FASEB J ; 36(2): e22133, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032416

RESUMO

Shift-workers show an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A possible mechanism is the disruption of the circadian timing of glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function is modulated by the molecular clock. We used time-restricted feeding (TRF) during the inactive phase to investigate how mistimed feeding affects muscle mitochondrial metabolism. Rats on an ad libitum (AL) diet were compared to those that could eat only during the light (inactive) or dark (active) phase. Mitochondrial respiration, metabolic gene expressions, and metabolite concentrations were determined in the soleus muscle. Rats on AL feeding or dark-fed TRF showed a clear daily rhythm in muscle mitochondrial respiration. This rhythm in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity was abolished in light-fed TRF animals and overall 24h respiration was lower. The expression of several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and the fission/fusion machinery was altered in light-fed animals. Metabolomics analysis indicated that light-fed animals had lost rhythmic levels of α-ketoglutarate and citric acid. Contrastingly, lipidomics showed that light-fed animals abundantly gained rhythmicity in levels of triglycerides. Furthermore, while the RER shifted entirely with the food intake in the light-fed animals, many measured metabolic parameters (e.g., activity and mitochondrial respiration) did not strictly align with the shifted timing of food intake, resulting in a mismatch between expected metabolic supply/demand (as dictated by the circadian timing system and light/dark-cycle) and the actual metabolic supply/demand (as dictated by the timing of food intake). These data suggest that shift-work impairs mitochondrial metabolism and causes metabolic inflexibility, which can predispose to T2DM.


Assuntos
Respiração Celular/fisiologia , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Masculino , Biogênese de Organelas , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Fotoperíodo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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