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1.
BMJ ; 366: l4697, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of increasing omega-3, omega-6, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on diabetes diagnosis and glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Clinicaltrials.gov, and trials in relevant systematic reviews. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of at least 24 weeks' duration assessing effects of increasing α-linolenic acid, long chain omega-3, omega-6, or total PUFA, which collected data on diabetes diagnoses, fasting glucose or insulin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and/or homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). DATA SYNTHESIS: Statistical analysis included random effects meta-analyses using relative risk and mean difference, and sensitivity analyses. Funnel plots were examined and subgrouping assessed effects of intervention type, replacement, baseline risk of diabetes and use of antidiabetes drugs, trial duration, and dose. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane tool and quality of evidence with GRADE. RESULTS: 83 randomised controlled trials (mainly assessing effects of supplementary long chain omega-3) were included; 10 were at low summary risk of bias. Long chain omega-3 had little or no effect on likelihood of diagnosis of diabetes (relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.17; 58 643 participants, 3.7% developed diabetes) or measures of glucose metabolism (HbA1c mean difference -0.02%, 95% confidence interval -0.07% to 0.04%; plasma glucose 0.04, 0.02 to 0.07, mmol/L; fasting insulin 1.02, -4.34 to 6.37, pmol/L; HOMA-IR 0.06, -0.21 to 0.33). A suggestion of negative outcomes was observed when dose of supplemental long chain omega-3 was above 4.4 g/d. Effects of α-linolenic acid, omega-6, and total PUFA on diagnosis of diabetes were unclear (as the evidence was of very low quality), but little or no effect on measures of glucose metabolism was seen, except that increasing α-linolenic acid may increase fasting insulin (by about 7%). No evidence was found that the omega-3/omega-6 ratio is important for diabetes or glucose metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This is the most extensive systematic review of trials to date to assess effects of polyunsaturated fats on newly diagnosed diabetes and glucose metabolism, including previously unpublished data following contact with authors. Evidence suggests that increasing omega-3, omega-6, or total PUFA has little or no effect on prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017064110.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Jejum/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16317, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335679

RESUMO

Increased glycemic variability (GV) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes. We evaluated the risk of future development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death according to GV in a general population without diabetes.We used the National Health Insurance Service, providing a population-based, nationwide database of Koreans. We included individuals without diabetes who underwent glucose measurement at least 3 times during 2002 to 2006. GV was calculated as standard deviation (SD) of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels. We observed development of CVD or all-cause death from 2007 to 2015, and also evaluated the mortality within 1 year after CVD.Among 3,211,319 people, we found 23,374 incident cases of myocardial infarction (MI), 27,705 cases of stroke, and 63,275 deaths during 8.3 years of follow-up. After multivariate adjustment, GV was found to be a significant predictor of MI, stroke and all-cause death for their highest quartile, with corresponding hazard ratios (HR) of 1.08 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.04-1.11), 1.09 (95% CI 1.06-1.13), and 1.12 (95% CI 1.10-1.15), respectively. The risk of death increased more in those who had both impaired fasting glucose and the highest quartile of GV (HR 1.24 [95% CI 1.21-1.28]). Moreover, early death rate after 1 year of CVD was higher in the highest quartile of GV compared to the lowest quartile (HR 1.21 [95% CI 1.03-1.41]).Long-term FPG variation was independently associated with CVD and mortality in a general population without diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Jejum/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16369, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348238

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between liver cancer and diabetes mellitus. However, elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) itself may be a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rather than diabetes, and during the follow-up period, death is an event that may occur before the occurrence of HCC, which should be dealt with competing risk models. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between FBG and new-onset HCC by using competing risk regression models.We prospectively studied the relationship between FBG concentrations and risk of HCC in a cohort of 93,447 participants who were free of prior HCC, and whose demographic characteristics and biochemical parameters were recorded. Cox proportional hazards regression models and competing risk regression models were used to evaluate the association between FBG concentrations and risk of incident HCC.A total of 302 participants were diagnosed with HCC among 93,447 subjects during 810,499 person-years of follow-up. The multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] for the association of FBG and log(FBG) with HCC were 1.07 (1.01∼1.12), 1.84 (1.23∼2.74) in an analysis adjusted for other potential variables. In the multivariable adjusted analysis, participants who were in 4.82 mmol/L≤FBG≤5.49 mmol/L group and FBG >5.49 mmol/L group would have increased the risk of HCC by 47% and 69%, respectively. In a cause-specific hazard model (CS model), the multivariable HRs (95% CI) for the association of FBG with HCC were 1.46 (1.09∼1.98), 1.69 (1.27∼2.27) in the multivariable adjusted analysis. Similar results were also observed in sub-distribution hazard function model (SD model) with corresponding multivariate HRs (95% CI) of 1.46 (1.09∼2.00), 1.69 (1.25∼2.27) in 4.82 mmol/L≤FBG≤5.49 mmol/L group and FBG >5.49 mmol/L group, respectively.Higher FBG concentrations itself were positively associated with new-onset HCC in the Cox proportional hazards regression models and competing risk models. FBG concentrations can be used as a scientific and important way to identify individuals with a higher risk of HCC and control of FBG concentrations might serve as a possible way to decrease the risk of HCC among Chinese population.Trial registration: ChiCTR-TNRC-11001489. Registered August 24, 2011 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Life Sci ; 231: 116577, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211997

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Galectin-3 is associated with the process of inflammation and fibrosis. The aim of this study was both to evaluate of galectin-3, methylated arginines and hs-CRP in subjects with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes and to investigate a relation between serum galectin-3, methylated arginines and hs-CRP levels. METHODS: In this study, all subjects were defined as the control group, type 2 diabetes (n = 84) by fasting plasma glucose and prediabetes (n = 34) by 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Also, participants with type 2 diabetes were divided into as group I (HbA1c ≤7%, n = 40) and group II (HbA1c ≥7%, n = 44). The analysis of serum methylated arginines levels was analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Galectin-3 levels were determined via chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). RESULTS: Serum galectin-3, ADMA, L-NMMA and SDMA levels were significantly lower in the control group (13.3 ±â€¯3.42; 0.630 (0.13-1.36); 0.176 (0.02-0.53); 0.115 (0.04-0.26), respectively) compared to diabetic subjects (15.71 ±â€¯4.22; 0.825 (0.23-2.80); 0.366 (0.08-1.41); 0.1645 (0.06-0.47), p = 0.002, p = 0.01, p = 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively). Galectin-3 was positively correlated with hs-CRP (r = 0.295 p = 0.001), L-NMMA (r = 0.181 p = 0.022), HbA1c (r = 0.247 p = 0.002), neopterin (r = 0.160 p = 0.045) and FPG (r = 0.207 p = 0.001) respectively. Also, there was positively correlated ADMA with FPG (r = 0.192 p = 0.016) and eAG (r = 0.235 p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Thus, galectin-3 might be a useful prognostic marker in the population with prediabetes and diabetes. Moreover, it can be a marker showing the condition of developing complications in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Arginina/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Galectina 3/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Galectina 3/análise , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 152: 166-170, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fasting in summer months for Muslim people with diabetes during Ramadan is challenging, particularly in temperate climates, where duration of fasting is prolonged. Risk of fasting may be greater in people with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to prospectively monitor the outcomes of patients with diabetes and CKD stage 3 during Ramadan 2018 in East London. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and CKD stage 3 attending community diabetes clinics were approached prior to Ramadan 2018 to discuss fasting. Patients were risk categorised according to Diabetes and Ramadan Alliance guidelines. If they chose to fast, Ramadan education was given, and biomedical assessments were undertaken within one week prior to and one week after fasting. Outcomes between patients fasting and non-fasting groups were compared. RESULTS: Fasting (n = 68) and non-fasting groups (n = 71) were similar apart from slightly higher insulin use in the non-fasting group. Median days fasted was 21 (range 12-29). There were no significant changes in weight, blood pressure, creatinine, glycated haemoglobin, cholesterol and urinary PCR pre- and post-Ramadan, and no significant differences between the fasting and non-fasting groups. There was no difference in adverse events (acute kidney injury, hypoglycaemia or cardiovascular events) between the fasting and non-fasting groups. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were seen in clinical or biochemical parameters, or adverse events between fasting and non-fasting patients. Patients with T2D and stable CKD stage 3 may be able to fast safely during Ramadan.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Jejum/fisiologia , Islamismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(7): 779-790, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049751

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Associations between psychosocial factors and biomarkers are increasingly investigated in studies of cancer incidence and mortality. Documenting optimal data/biospecimen collection protocols and scale properties are fundamental for elucidating the impact of psychosocial factors on biologic systems and ultimately cancer development/progression. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2014, 233 Nurses' Health Study II women (mean age: 60.6) participated in the Mind-Body Study. Participants completed a detailed online psychosocial assessment and provided hair, toenail, timed saliva over 1 day, urine and fasting blood twice, 1 year apart. Additionally, two separate microbiome collections for stool and saliva were conducted between the psychosocial assessments. We assessed correlations between various psychosocial measures and evaluated their 1-year reproducibility using intraclass correlations (ICC). RESULTS: Compliance with the protocols was high among participants. Psychosocial measures showed moderate-to-high reproducibility over 1 year (ICCs = 0.51-0.81). There was clear clustering of psychosocial factors according to whether they were querying positive (e.g., optimism, mastery, mindfulness) or negative (e.g., anxiety, depression, discrimination) emotion-related or social constructs. CONCLUSION: Results suggest feasibility for self-administered collection of various biospecimens and moderate-to-high reproducibility of psychosocial factors. The Mind-Body Study provides a unique resource for assessing inter-relationships between psychosocial factors and biological processes linked with long-term health outcomes, including carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/microbiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/microbiologia , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/urina , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia
8.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(9): 1023-1030, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115752

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate, in a sample of nondiabetic adults from a Spanish community, the differences between prediabetes as defined by HbA1c ("H-prediabetes") and by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ("F-prediabetes") in regard to prevalence and the influence of potential risk factors, adjusting the latter for confounders. METHODS: A total of 1328 nondiabetic participants aged ≥ 18 years were classified as normoglycemic, H-prediabetic [HbA1c 5.7-6.4% (39-47 mmol/mol)] or F-prediabetic (FPG 5.6-6.9 mmol/L). Multivariable analyses were used to compare the impacts of risk factors on the prevalence of H-prediabetes, F-prediabetes and their conjunctive and disjunctive combinations ("HaF-prediabetes" and "HoF-prediabetes," respectively). RESULTS: Some 29.9% of participants were HoF-prediabetic, 21.7% H-prediabetic, 16.3% F-prediabetic and only 8.1% HaF-prediabetic. Whatever the definition of prediabetes, increasing age, fasting insulin and LDL cholesterol were each a risk factor after adjustment for all other variables. Increasing BMI and decreasing mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were additional risk factors for H-prediabetes; male sex and increasing uric acid for F-prediabetes and increasing BMI for HaF-prediabetes. The participants satisfying the compound condition "hypertension or hyperlipidemia or obesity or hyperuricemia" (59.9% of the whole study group) included 83.1% of all subjects with HoF-prediabetes. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, the most sensitive risk factor for detection of prediabetes was age, followed by fasting insulin, LDL cholesterol, BMI, MCH, male sex and uric acid, with differences depending on the definition of prediabetes. MCH, an indirect measure of erythrocyte survival, significantly influences the prevalence of HbA1c-defined prediabetes. This study suggests that screening of individuals with selected risk factors may identify a high proportion of prediabetic persons.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Jejum/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Prevalência , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Horm Metab Res ; 51(5): 288-295, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071733

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of calcium-vitamin D co­supplementation on insulin, insulin sensitivity, and glycemia. A systematic search was carried out in Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane library without any language and time restriction up to 12 August 2018, to retrieve the RCTs, which examined the effect of calcium and vitamin D co-supplementation on fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI. Meta-analyses were carried out using a random effects model, and I2 indexes were used to evaluate the heterogeneity. Search yielded 2225 publications. Twelve RCTs with 4395 patients were eligible. Results demonstrated that calcium and vitamin D co­supplementation had significantly reducing effects on FBG, HOMA-IR and circulating levels of insulin. As the subgroup analysis demonstrated, short-term (≤12 weeks) calcium and vitamin D co­supplementation had a significant reducing effect on FBG. However, beneficial effects of calcium and vitamin D co­supplementation on circulating level of insulin and HOMA-IR were seen in both short-term and long-term (>12 weeks) supplementations. Furthermore, we found that high doses of vitamin D and calcium co-supplementation (vitamin D≥2000 mg/day and calcium≥1000 mg/day) had significantly reducing effects on FBG, HOMA-IR and insulin. Present meta-analysis indicated the beneficial effects of high-dose and short-term combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin, insulin resistance and glycemia; however, further large-scale RCTs with adequate and multiple dosing schedules are needed.


Assuntos
Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Humanos , Viés de Publicação
10.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(8): 883-888, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is usually diagnosed between 24th and 28th gestational week using the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). It is difficult to predict GDM before 24th gestational week because fast plasma glucose (FPG) decreases as the gestational age increases. It is controversial that if FPG ≥5.1 mmol/L before 24th gestational week should be intervened or not. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of FPG to screen GDM before 24th gestational week in women with different pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). METHODS: This was a multi-region retrospective cohort study in China. Women who had a singleton live birth between June 20, 2013 and November 30, 2014, resided in Beijing, Guangzhou and Chengdu, and received prenatal care in 21 selected hospitals, were included in this study. Pre-pregnancy BMI, FPG before the 24th gestational week, and one-step GDM screening with 75 g-OGTT at the 24th to 28th gestational weeks were extracted from medical charts and analyzed. The pregnant women were classified into four groups based on pre-pregnancy BMI: Group A (underweight, BMI < 18.5 kg/m), Group B (normal, BMI 18.5-23.9 kg/m), Group C (overweight, BMI 24.0-27.9 kg/m) and Group D (obesity, BMI ≥28.0 kg/m). The trend of FPG before 24th week of gestation was described, and the sensitivity and specificity of using FPG before the 24th gestational week to diagnose GDM among different pre-pregnancy BMI groups were reported. Differences in the means between groups were evaluated using independent sample t-test and analysis of variance. Pearson Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of GDM was 20.0% (6806/34,087) in the study population. FPG decreased gradually as the gestational age increased in all pre-pregnancy BMI groups until the 19th gestational week. FPG was higher in women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. FPG before the 24th gestational week and pre-pregnancy BMI could be used to predict GDM. The incidence of GDM in women with FPG ≥5.10 mmol/L in the 19th to 24th gestational weeks and pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity was significantly higher than that in women with FPG ≥5.10 mmol/L and pre-pregnancy BMI <24.0 kg/m (78.5% [62/79] vs. 52.9% [64/121], χ = 13.425, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: FPG decreased gradually as the gestational age increased in all pre-pregnancy BMI groups until the 19th gestational week. Pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity was associated with an increased FPG value before the 24th gestational week. FPG ≥5.10 mmol/L between 19 and 24 gestational weeks should be treated as GDM in women with pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Jejum/sangue , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Incidência , Gravidez , Prevalência , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(8): 914-921, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is currently unclear if fibrinogen is a risk factor for adverse events in patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or merely serves as a marker of pre-existing comorbidities and other causal factors. We therefore investigated the association between fibrinogen levels and 2-year all-cause mortality, and compared the additional predictive value of adding fibrinogen to a basic model including traditional risk factors in patients receiving contemporary PCI. METHODS: A total of 6293 patients undergoing PCI with measured baseline fibrinogen levels were enrolled from January to December 2013 in Fuwai Hospital. Patients were divided into three groups according to tertiles of baseline fibrinogen levels: low fibrinogen, <2.98 g/L; medium fibrinogen, 2.98 to 3.58 g/L; and high fibrinogen, ≥3.58 g/L. Independent predictors of 2-year clinical outcomes were determined by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. The increased discriminative value of fibrinogen for predicting all-cause mortality was assessed using the C-statistic and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). RESULTS: The 2-year all-cause mortality rate was 1.2%. It was significantly higher in the high fibrinogen compared with the low and medium fibrinogen groups according to Kaplan-Meier analyses (1.7% vs. 0.9% and 1.7% vs. 1.0%, respectively; log-rank, P = 0.022). Fibrinogen was significantly associated with all-cause mortality according to multivariate Cox regression (hazard ratio 1.339, 95% confidence interval: 1.109-1.763, P = 0.005), together with traditional risk factors including age, sex, diabetes mellitus, left ventricular ejection fraction, creatinine clearance, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The area under the curve for all-cause mortality in the basic model including traditional risk factors was 0.776, and this value increased to 0.787 when fibrinogen was added to the model (IDI = 0.003, Z = 0.140, P = 0.889). CONCLUSIONS: Fibrinogen is associated with 2-year all-cause mortality in patients receiving PCI, but provides no additional information over a model including traditional risk factors.


Assuntos
Fibrinogênio/análise , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
12.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 1491083, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983877

RESUMO

Aim: The development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with disturbances of immune status that may be reflected by alterations of the profile of circulating immune cells. In order to study whether there exists genetic predisposition to these alterations, we investigated the relative content of circulating monocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations at fasting condition and upon stimulation by short-term hyperinsulinemia in nondiabetic first-degree relatives (FDR) of T2DM patients and in control subjects. Materials and Methods: 19 nondiabetic (FDR) and 19 control subjects without a family history of diabetes (all men) matched for age and BMI underwent 2-hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Blood samples taken before and at the end of the clamp were used for the flow cytometry analysis of lymphocyte and monocyte populations and for the assessment of cytokine levels. Results: At fasting conditions, FDR showed a higher CD4/CD8 ratio of peripheral lymphocytes, a higher percentage of Th17 lymphocytes, and a lower content of intermediate monocytes when compared to controls. The CD4/CD8 ratio correlated with fat mass, insulin, and HOMA-IR in the entire group of subjects. Hyperinsulinemia decreased a relative content of peripheral CD4+ and increased a relative content of CD8+ T lymphocytes, thus decreasing the CD4/CD8 ratio by 18-22% in both groups of subjects. In FDR but not in controls, the decrease of CD4+ T lymphocyte content was partially based on the decrease of TH2 and TH17 lymphocyte subpopulations. In control subjects but not in FDR, the number of intermediate monocytes has declined in response to hyperinsulinemia. Conclusion: The alterations of the CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio, relative content of TH17 cells, and intermediate monocytes in FDR are features of genetic predisposition to T2DM and may play a role in pathogenesis of T2DM. Short-term hyperinsulinemia affected mostly the immune cell populations deregulated in FDR subjects, which suggests important interplay between immune system homeostasis and insulin levels.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relação CD4-CD8 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/patologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th2/metabolismo
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 2361-2367, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The disordered metabolism of liver function in liver cancer patients can affect postoperative survival after liver transplantation. We assessed whether the levels of various chemicals in liver metabolism prior to receiving a liver transplant were prognostic factors and metabolism markers in predicting survival rate. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy-seven patients received a donor liver transplant between June 2012 and April 2016. The basic level of fasting serum GLU, Crea, TBil, TC, TG, HDL, LDL, ApoA1, ApoB100, INR, and MELD scores of 77 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Each patient's survival was monitored to evaluate prognosis and long-term survival. RESULTS The overall survival rates of all patients post-transplant at 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month follow-up were 90.9%, 79.2%, 68.8%, and 64.9% respectively. Fasting serum levels of GLU (P=0.004), HDL (P=0.010), LDL (P=0.008), ApoA1 (P=0.028), and MELD scores (P=0.013) prior to liver transplantation were closely associated with the cumulative survival post-transplant in univariate analyses. Controlled fasting GLU of ≤5.12 mmol/L (P=0.019), LDL of ≤2.62 mmol/L (P=0.031), and MELD scores of ≤9 (P=0.013) before LT were significantly and independently associated with increased cumulative survival in the multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS Decreased fasting serum GLU, LDL, and MELD scores as independent risk factors prior to liver transplantation markedly increase cumulative survival.


Assuntos
Lipoproteínas LDL/análise , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Phytother Res ; 33(6): 1648-1657, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942510

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that manifested as hyperglycemia due to the defect in secretion or function of insulin. Studies have shown that saffron and its derivatives cause a significant reduction in plasma glucose levels in experimental models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the saffron extract on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c), lipid profile, liver enzymes, and renal function tests in type 2 diabetic patients. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 64 type 2 diabetic patients who were on oral anti-diabetic drugs were examined. Participants received either 15 mg of saffron or placebo capsules (two pills per day) for 3 months. Anthropometric indices, dietary intake, FPG, HbA1c, lipid profiles, liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP), and renal function (BUN, Cr.) tests were measured pre and post intervention after 3 months. Independent t test and paired t test were used for data analysis. After 3-months intervention, mean difference of FPG, Cholesterol, LDL-c, and LDL/HDL ratio between two groups showed significant reduction(p < 0.0001), but HbA1c, HDL-C, API, TG showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In saffron group, FPG, HbA1c, cholesterol, LDL-c, and LDL/HDL ratio decreased significantly after 3-months intervention compare with baseline (p < 0.0001).


Assuntos
Crocus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Etanol/química , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/sangue , Rim/fisiologia , Testes de Função Renal , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/fisiologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Água/química
15.
Phytother Res ; 33(6): 1616-1626, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The impetus for the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of propolis supplementation on markers of glycemic status in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to August 2018, identifying randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of propolis supplementation on glycemic markers in adults with T2DM. Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to evaluate the risk of bias assessment. A random-effects model was applied in the meta-analysis to compensate for potential heterogeneity among the included studies. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials comprising 373 participants were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis revealed significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose (-13.51 mg/dl; 95% CI [-24.98, -2.04]) and hemoglobin A1C (-0.52%; 95% CI [-0.94, -0.10]) concentrations following propolis supplementation. However, no significant lowering effect was observed in fasting insulin levels (-0.53 pmol/L; 95% CI [-1.69, 0.63]) or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.543; 95% CI [-1.72, 0.64]). CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that propolis supplementation may be effective in controlling glycemic levels for T2DM patients. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Própole/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino
16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 152: 171-176, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The 'PROspective Study of dose adjustment of multiple anti-diabetic therapy for Type-2 diabetic patients FASTing the Month of Ramadan aimed to assess the biophysical and metabolic effects of fasting during Ramadan, including HbA1c, weight, blood pressure and lipid profile. STUDY DESIGN METHODS: We performed a prospective study of people with Type-2 diabetes who were on ≥3 drugs for lowering glucose before and after Ramadan of H1438 (May-June 2017) in Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar. We enrolled 228 participants, of whom 181 completed the study and were included in the analysis. RESULTS: There were 115 (63.5%) men and 66 (36.5%) women, mean age 53.6 ±â€¯9.7 years and mean diabetes duration of 10 ±â€¯6 years. Both HBA1c [7.8% (62 mmol/mol) vs. 7.6% (60 mmol/mol); p = 0.004]; and diastolic BP (75.7 ±â€¯8.55 vs. 68.8 ±â€¯23.1 mmHg, P = 0.001) improved significantly after Ramadan while there was an increase in total cholesterol (3.94 ±â€¯0.89 mmol/l vs 4.11 ±â€¯1.02 mmol/l; p = 0.008) and triglycerides (1.55 ±â€¯0.72 mmol/l vs 1.71 ±â€¯0.9 mmol/l; p = 0.012). Subgroup analysis showed that patients on sulphonylurea, South Asians and males had a significant reduction in both HBA1c and weight. CONCLUSION: Patients with Type 2 diabetes who fast during Ramadan show an improvement in glycaemic control and diastolic blood pressure, but a worsening of total cholesterol and triglycerides, particularly those of South Asian origin and men.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Islamismo , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Catar/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934836

RESUMO

Bipolar patients have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which are associated with cardiovascular diseases as the leading cause of death in this group. Additionally, there is growing evidence that impaired glucose metabolism in bipolar patients is associated with rapid cycling, poor response to mood stabilizers and chronic course of illness. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and other types of impaired glucose metabolism in bipolar patients along with an evaluation of the Fasting Triglycerides and Glucose Index (TyG) as a method of the insulin sensitivity assessment. The analysis of fasting glycemia, insulinemia and lipid profile in euthymic bipolar patients was performed, and the Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and TyG were computed. Type 2 diabetes was observed in 9% and insulin resistance with HOMA-IR in 48% of patients. The TyG and HOMA-IR indices were correlated (p < 0.0001), the TyG index value of 4.7 had the highest sensitivity and specificity for insulin resistance detection. The usefulness of TyG in the recognition of insulin resistance in bipolar patients was suggested. The significant role of psychiatrists in the detection and management of impaired glucose metabolism in bipolar patients was presented.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Glucose/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Psiquiatria , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel Profissional , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 16(2): 171-177, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite optimal treatment, type II diabetes mellitus remains associated with an increased risk for future cardiovascular events. We sought to determine the association between baseline fasting plasma insulin levels and major adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and high-risk vascular disease enrolled in the ACCELERATE (Assessment of Clinical Effects of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Inhibition with Evacetrapib in Patients at a High Risk for Vascular Outcomes) trial. METHODS: We included all patients with type II diabetes mellitus who had a central laboratory measured fasting plasma insulin level drawn at baseline as part of the study protocol. Hazard ratios were generated for the risk of major adverse cardiovascular outcomes (composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina and coronary revascularization) with increasing quartile of baseline fasting plasma insulin level. We then performed a multivariable regression adjusting for significant baseline characteristics. RESULTS: Among 12,092 patients in ACCELERATE, 2042 patients with type II diabetes mellitus had a baseline fasting plasma insulin level drawn. Median follow-up was 28 months. The study population had a mean age of 66.6 years, 79.2% male and 96.2% had established coronary artery disease. During follow-up, major adverse cardiovascular outcomes occurred in 238 patients (11.6%); of these events, 177 were coronary revascularization (8.7%). We observed a statistically significant relationship between rates of revascularization and rising quartile of baseline fasting plasma insulin level which was not noted for the other individual components of major adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus who underwent revascularization were noted to have significantly higher baseline fasting plasma insulin levels (27.7 vs 21.4 mU/L, p-value = 0.009) although baseline haemoglobin A1c (6.63% vs 6.55%), body mass index (31.5 vs 31.1 kg/m2) and medical therapy were otherwise similar to the group not undergoing revascularization. Following multivariable regression adjusting for significant characteristics including exposure to evacetrapib, the log of baseline fasting plasma insulin level was found to be an independent predictor for major adverse cardiovascular outcomes (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.69, p-value = 0.007); this was driven by need for future revascularization (hazard ratio = 1.56, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-2.00, p-value = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In a contemporary population of patients with type II diabetes mellitus and high-risk vascular disease on optimum medical therapy, baseline hyperinsulinaemia was an independent predictor for major adverse cardiovascular outcomes and need of future coronary revascularization. These results suggest a pathophysiological link between hyperinsulinaemia and progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease among diabetics.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Hiperinsulinismo/mortalidade , Hiperinsulinismo/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 16(2): 178-185, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014099

RESUMO

Diabetes is associated with substantially increased mortality. Classic risk factors explain a portion of the excess of mortality in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine whether visit-to-visit variation in fasting glucose and haemoglobin A1c values in the Veteran Affairs Diabetes Trial were associated with all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes in addition to other comorbidity conditions, hypoglycaemic events and adverse lifestyle behaviours. The Veteran Affairs Diabetes Trial was a randomized trial that enrolled 1791 military veterans who had a suboptimal response to therapy for type 2 diabetes to receive either intensive or standard glucose control. During the Veteran Affairs Diabetes Trial, fasting glucose and haemoglobin A1c were measured quarterly for up to 84 months. Variability measures included coefficient of variation and average real variability. We found that variability measures (coefficient of variation and average real variability) of fasting glucose were predictors of all-cause mortality, even after adjusting for comorbidity index, mean fasting glucose and adverse lifestyle behaviour during the study. Accounting for severe hypoglycaemia did not weaken this association. Our analysis indicates that in the Veteran Affairs Diabetes Trial, longitudinal variation in fasting glucose was associated with all-cause mortality, even when accounting for standard measures of glucose control as well as comorbidity and lifestyle factors.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Saúde dos Veteranos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
20.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 50, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of visit-to-visit fasting plasma glucose (FPG) variability on the left cardiac structure and function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 455 T2DM patients were included and follow-up for a median of 4.7 years. FPG measured on every hospital visit was collected. FPG variability was calculated by its coefficient of variation (CV-FPG). Left cardiac structure and function were assessed using echocardiography at baseline and after follow-up. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to estimate the effect of FPG variability on the annualized changes in left cardiac structure and function. Subgroup analysis stratified by mean HbA1c levels (< 7% and ≥ 7%) were also performed. RESULT: In multivariable regression analyses, CV-FPG was independently associated with the annualized changes in left ventricle (ß = 0.137; P = 0.031), interventricular septum (ß = 0.215; P = 0.001), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (ß = 0.129; P = 0.048), left ventricular mass index (ß = 0.227; P < 0.001), and left ventricular ejection fraction (ß = - 0.132; P = 0.030). After additionally stratified by mean HbA1c levels, CV-FPG was still independently associated with the annualized changes in the above parameters in patients with HbA1c ≥ 7%, while not in patients with HbA1c < 7%. CONCLUSIONS: Visit-to-visit variability in FPG could be a novel risk factor for the long-term adverse changes in left cardiac structure and systolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02587741), October 27, 2015, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
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