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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21574, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871873

RESUMO

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is increasing in China, but there are disparities between urban and rural populations, and across different regions.To examine the prevalence and risk factors of MS in the rural area of Qianjiang (Southwest China).From March 2016 to June 2018, 6 townships in the Qianjiang District of Chongqing Municipality were selected for a cross-sectional study of the residents in rural areas. Demographics and medical history were collected using a questionnaire. Anthropometry and blood pressure were obtained by physical examination. Blood lipids, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-h postprandial glucose were measured.A total of 2949 (1067 males and 1882 females) were included. The mean age was 63.8 ±â€Š10.7 years. The prevalence of MS in the study population was 16.8% (496/2949). The prevalence of MS was 7.4% in men, 22.2% in women, 15.7% in Han, 18.1% in Tujia, and 14.8% in Miao. According to age, the prevalence of MS was 10.6%, 17.0%, and 18.3% in the 30-50, 50-69, and ≥ 70 years groups. The multivariable analysis showed that female sex (OR = 33.36, 95%CI: 17.0-65.53), dyslipidemia (OR = 4.71, 95%CI: 1.73-12.82), kidney diseases (OR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.37-3.94), waistline (OR = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.33-1.46), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.06-0.23), triglycerides (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.31-1.76), alanine aminotransferase (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.97-1.00), γ-glutamyltransferase (OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01), and glycated hemoglobin (OR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.08-1.59) were independently associated with MS.The prevalence of MS was 16.8% in Qianjiang. Female sex, kidney diseases, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyltransferase were independent risk factors for MS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , População Rural/tendências , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antropometria , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4592, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929089

RESUMO

Prediabetes is a state of glycaemic dysregulation below the diagnostic threshold of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Globally, ~352 million people have prediabetes, of which 35-50% develop full-blown diabetes within five years. T2D and its complications are costly to treat, causing considerable morbidity and early mortality. Whether prediabetes is causally related to diabetes complications is unclear. Here we report a causal inference analysis investigating the effects of prediabetes in coronary artery disease, stroke and chronic kidney disease, complemented by a systematic review of relevant observational studies. Although the observational studies suggest that prediabetes is broadly associated with diabetes complications, the causal inference analysis revealed that prediabetes is only causally related with coronary artery disease, with no evidence of causal effects on other diabetes complications. In conclusion, prediabetes likely causes coronary artery disease and its prevention is likely to be most effective if initiated prior to the onset of diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Intervalos de Confiança , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum/sangue , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Razão de Chances , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
3.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 35(3): 595-601, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, which prompts a consensus for the necessity to seek risk factors for this critical disease. Risk factors affecting mortality of the disease remain elusive. Diabetes and hyperglycemia are known to negatively affect a host's antiviral immunity. We evaluated the relationship between a history of diabetes, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and mortality among severely ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study that assessed 106 adult inpatients (aged ≥18 years) from two tertiary hospitals in Daegu, South Korea. The participants were transferred to tertiary hospitals because their medical condition required immediate intensive care. The demographic and laboratory data were compared between COVID-19 patients who survived and those who did not. RESULTS: Compared with the survivor group, age, and the proportions of diabetes, chronic lung disease and FPG were significantly higher in the deceased group. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model for survival analysis, FPG level and age were identified as significant predictors of mortality (P<0.05). The threshold values for predicting high mortality were age >68 years and FPG of 168 mg/dL, respectively. Among those without diabetes, high FPG remained a significant predictor of mortality (P<0.04). CONCLUSION: High FPG levels significantly predicted mortality in COVID-19, regardless of a known history of diabetes. These results suggest intensive monitoring should be provided to COVID-19 patients who have a high FPG level.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Glicemia/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Jejum/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237922, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levels of cortisol, melatonin, ghrelin, and leptin are highly correlated with circadian rhythmicity. The levels of these hormones are affected by sleep, feeding, and general behaviors, and fluctuate with light and dark cycles. During the fasting month of Ramadan, a shift to nighttime eating is expected to affect circadian rhythm hormones and, subsequently, the levels of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin. The present study aimed to examine the effect of diurnal intermittent fasting (DIF) during Ramadan on daytime levels of ghrelin, leptin, melatonin, and cortisol hormones in a group of overweight and obese subjects, and to determine how anthropometric, dietary, and lifestyle changes during the month of Ramadan correlate with these hormonal changes. METHODS: Fifty-seven overweight and obese male (40) and female (17) subjects were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, sleep duration, and hormonal levels of serum ghrelin, leptin, melatonin, and salivary cortisol were assessed one week before the start of Ramadan fasting and after 28 days of fasting at fixed times of the day (11:00 am-1:00 pm). RESULTS: At the end of Ramadan, serum levels of ghrelin, melatonin, and leptin significantly (P<0.001) decreased, while salivary cortisol did not change compared to the levels assessed in the pre-fasting state. CONCLUSIONS: DIF during Ramadan significantly altered serum levels of ghrelin, melatonin, and serum leptin. Further, male sex and anthropometric variables were the most impacting factors on the tested four hormones. Further studies are needed to assess DIF's impact on the circadian rhythmicity of overweight and obese fasting people.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Jejum/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Melatonina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono/fisiologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21894, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, metformin is mainly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). When the therapeutic effect is achieved, there are side effects and secondary failure will occur if taken for a long time. It is of great significance to actively explore the clinical scheme of reducing drug use while ensuring the therapeutic effect of T2DM. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of Chinese massage (CM) in the treatment of T2DM. METHODS: Literature retrieval is divided into 2 aspects: Electronic Retrieval and Personal Check. We will search PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, Cochrane Central, which were registered in international clinical trials registry platform systems, select all eligible studies published before November 2, 2019, and use Personal Check method to retrieve papers, conference papers, ongoing experiments, internal reports, and so on. With fasting blood glucose, 2-hour fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin index as the main observation indexes, we also pay attention to traditional Chinese medicine syndrome score scale, insulin resisting index, body mass index , serum total cholesterol, Curative effect and the occurrence of all adverse reactions in drug treatment.Of the research group 2 researchers respective selected literature, extracted data, and evaluated the risk of bias. After that we used Revman 5.7 and Stata 12.1 statistical software for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 769 subjects were included in 10 studies for meta-analysis. Compared with metformin hydrochloride tablets, CM plus baseline treatment can reduce fasting plasma glucose (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.54, -0.13], Z = 3.15, P = .002), 2 hours postprandial blood glucose (WMD = -0.52, 95% CI [-0.70, -0.34), Z = 5.66, P < .00001], hemoglobin A1c (WMD = 0.12, 95% CI [0.04, 0.20], Z = 2.94, P = .003), fasting insulin (WMD = -3.59, 95% CI [-5.56, -1.42], Z = 10.29,P < .00001), traditional Chinese medicine syndrome score scale (WMD = -4.55, 95% CI [-7.58, -1.51], Z = 2.94, P = .003),homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (WMD = -1.76, 95% CI [-2.25, -1.27), Z = 7.08, P < .00001),body mass index (WMD = -1.28, 95% CI [-1.65, -0.92], Z = 6.91, P < .00001), serum total cholesterol (WMD = -1.01, 95% CI [-1.14, -0.83], Z = 15.51, P < .00001), meanwhile, the effective rate was increased (risk ratio [RR] = 1.31, 95% CI [1.21, 1.42], Z = 6.57, P < .00001). CONCLUSION: CM combined with metformin hydrochloride tablet has a synergistic effect. It can not only be used as an auxiliary treatment of T2DM, but also as an important reference way of reducing drug treatment of T2DM, improving Clinical Efficacy and reducing adverse reactions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020158839.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Massagem/métodos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Jejum/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Massagem/tendências , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235557, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756564

RESUMO

AIM: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently been implicated in thirst in rodent models. The mechanisms for this are currently uncertain, and it is unclear whether hydration status can alter FGF21 concentrations, potentially providing an additional mechanism by which hypohydration induces thirst. The aim of this study is therefore to understand whether hydration status can alter circulating FGF21 in humans. METHODS: Using a heat tent and fluid restriction, we induced hypohydration (1.9% body mass loss) in 16 healthy participants (n = 8 men), and compared their glycaemic regulation to a rehydration protocol (heat tent and fluid replacement) in a randomised crossover design. RESULTS: After the hypohydration procedure, urine specific gravity, urine and serum osmolality, and plasma copeptin (as a marker for arginine vasopressin) increased as expected, with no change after the rehydration protocol. In the fasted state, the median paired difference in plasma FGF21 concentrations from the rehydrated to hypohydrated trial arm was -37 (interquartile range -125, 10) pg∙mL-1(P = 0.278), with average concentrations being 458 ± 462 pg∙mL-1 after hypohydration and 467 ± 438 pg∙mL-1 after rehydration; mean difference -9 ± 173 pg∙mL-1. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, these are the first causal data in humans investigating hydration and FGF21, demonstrating that an acute bout of hypohydration does not impact fasted plasma FGF21 concentrations. These data may suggest that whilst previous research has found FGF21 administration can induce thirst and drinking behaviours, a physiological state implicated in increased thirst (hypohydration) does not appear to impact plasma FGF21 concentrations in humans.


Assuntos
Desidratação/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Desidratação/terapia , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hidratação , Humanos , Masculino , Sede , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD009966, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation is the preferred management for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, it is often complicated by worsening or new-onset diabetes. The safety and efficacy of glucose-lowering agents after kidney transplantation is largely unknown. This is an update of a review first published in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering agents for treating pre-existing and new onset diabetes in people who have undergone kidney transplantation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 16 January 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies examining head-to-head comparisons of active regimens of glucose-lowering therapy or active regimen compared with placebo/standard care in patients who have received a kidney transplant and have diabetes were eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four authors independently assessed study eligibility and quality and performed data extraction. Continuous outcomes were expressed as post-treatment mean differences (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD). Adverse events were expressed as post-treatment absolute risk differences (RD). Dichotomous clinical outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS: Ten studies (21 records, 603 randomised participants) were included - three additional studies (five records) since our last review. Four studies compared more intensive versus less intensive insulin therapy; two studies compared dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors to placebo; one study compared DPP-4 inhibitors to insulin glargine; one study compared sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to placebo; and two studies compared glitazones and insulin to insulin therapy alone. The majority of studies had an unclear to a high risk of bias. There were no studies examining the effects of biguanides, glinides, GLP-1 agonists, or sulphonylureas. Compared to less intensive insulin therapy, it is unclear if more intensive insulin therapy has an effect on transplant or graft survival (4 studies, 301 participants: RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.32 to 3.94; I2 = 49%; very low certainty evidence), delayed graft function (2 studies, 153 participants: RR 0.63, 0.42 to 0.93; I2 = 0%; very low certainty evidence), HbA1c (1 study, 16 participants; very low certainty evidence), fasting blood glucose (1 study, 24 participants; very low certainty evidence), kidney function markers (1 study, 26 participants; very low certainty evidence), death (any cause) (3 studies, 208 participants" RR 0.68, 0.29 to 1.58; I2 = 0%; very low certainty evidence), hypoglycaemia (4 studies, 301 participants; very low certainty evidence) and medication discontinuation due to adverse effects (1 study, 60 participants; very low certainty evidence). Compared to placebo, it is unclear whether DPP-4 inhibitors have an effect on hypoglycaemia and medication discontinuation (2 studies, 51 participants; very low certainty evidence). However, DPP-4 inhibitors may reduce HbA1c and fasting blood glucose but not kidney function markers (1 study, 32 participants; low certainty evidence). Compared to insulin glargine, it is unclear if DPP-4 inhibitors have an effect on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, hypoglycaemia or discontinuation due to adverse events (1 study, 45 participants; very low certainty evidence). Compared to placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors probably do not affect kidney graft survival (1 study, 44 participants; moderate certainty evidence), but may reduce HbA1c without affecting fasting blood glucose and eGFR long-term (1 study, 44 participants, low certainty evidence). SGLT2 inhibitors probably do not increase hypoglycaemia, and probably have little or no effect on medication discontinuation due to adverse events. However, all participants discontinuing SGLT2 inhibitors had urinary tract infections (1 study, 44 participants, moderate certainty evidence). Compared to insulin therapy alone, it is unclear if glitazones added to insulin have an effect on HbA1c or kidney function markers (1 study, 62 participants; very low certainty evidence). However, glitazones may make little or no difference to fasting blood glucose (2 studies, 120 participants; low certainty evidence), and medication discontinuation due to adverse events (1 study, 62 participants; low certainty evidence). No studies of DPP-4 inhibitors, or glitazones reported effects on transplant or graft survival, delayed graft function or death (any cause). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering agents in the treatment of pre-existing and new-onset diabetes in kidney transplant recipients is questionable. Evidence from existing studies examining the effect of intensive insulin therapy, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT inhibitors and glitazones is mostly of low to very low certainty. Appropriately blinded, larger, and higher quality RCTs are needed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of contemporary glucose-lowering agents in the kidney transplant population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Adamantano/efeitos adversos , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Adamantano/uso terapêutico , Viés , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Jejum/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/efeitos adversos , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Nitrilos/efeitos adversos , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Pioglitazona , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/efeitos adversos , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Tiazolidinedionas/efeitos adversos , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico , Transplantados , Vildagliptina
8.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal approach to screening and diagnosis of prediabetes and diabetes in youth is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 14 119 youth aged 10 to 19 years in the 1999-2016 NHANES. First, we examined the performance of American Diabetes Association risk-based screening criteria. Second, we evaluated the performance of current clinical definitions of prediabetes and diabetes based on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), either HbA1c or FPG, or both HbA1c and FPG (confirmatory definition) to identify youth at high cardiometabolic risk. RESULTS: Overall, 25.5% of US youth (10.6 million in 2016) were eligible for screening. Sensitivity and specificity of the screening criteria for detecting any hyperglycemia were low for both HbA1c ≥5.7% (sensitivity = 55.5%, specificity = 76.3%) and FPG ≥100 mg/dL (sensitivity = 35.8%, specificity = 77.1%). Confirmed undiagnosed diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5% and FPG ≥126 mg/dL) was rare, <0.5% of youth. Most (>85%) cases of diabetes were diagnosed. Associations with cardiometabolic risk were consistently stronger and more specific for HbA1c-defined hyperglycemia (specificity = 98.6%; sensitivity = 4.0%) than FPG-defined hyperglycemia (specificity = 90.1%; sensitivity = 19.4%). CONCLUSIONS: One-quarter of US youth are eligible for screening for diabetes and prediabetes; however, few will test positive, especially for diabetes. Most cases of diabetes in US youth are diagnosed. Regardless of screening eligibility, we found that HbA1c is a specific and useful nonfasting test to identify high-risk youth who could benefit from lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular risk in adulthood.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Jejum/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/etnologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817647

RESUMO

AIM: The addition of maternal age to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at 24-28 gestational weeks improves the performance of GDM screening as maternal age increases. However, this method delays the diagnosis of GDM. Since FPG at the first prenatal visit (FPV) is a screening option for pre-existing diabetes, we evaluated the performance of age plus FPG at the FPV to reduce the need for the OGTT. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited consecutively in 2013-2018 (the training cohort) and 2019 (the validation cohort). We excluded women with twin pregnancies, unavailable FPG at the FPV or OGTT data, pre-pregnancy diabetes, or a history of GDM. All participants underwent FPG and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at the FPV and received 75-g OGTT at 24-28 gestational weeks if FPG at the FPV was <92 mg/dL. GDM was diagnosed by the IADPSG criteria. Two algorithms were developed with the cutoffs determined when the percentage requiring OGTT (OGTT%) was the lowest and the sensitivity was ≥90%. RESULTS: The incidence of GDM increased with age. The "FPG at the FPV" algorithm reduced OGTT% to 68.8% with the FPG cutoff at 79 mg/dl. The "age plus FPG at the FPV" algorithm, with the cutoff of 114, further reduced OGTT% to 58.3%, with the sensitivity of 90.7% (9.3% GDM missed) and the specificity of 100%. These findings were replicated in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Screening GDM by maternal age plus FPG at the FPV can reduce OGTT%, especially in populations with a significant proportion of pregnant women with advanced ages.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4191-4203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606672

RESUMO

Purpose: To characterize the nanoparticle of antroquinonol from A. cinnamomea and its ameliorative effects on the reproductive dysfunction in the diabetic male rat. Material and Methods: The chitosan-silicate nanoparticle was used as the carrier for the delivery of antroquinonol from solid-state-cultured A. cinnamomea extract (AC). The rats were fed with a high-fat diet and intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The rats were daily oral gavage by water [Diabetes (DM) and Control groups], three different doses of chitosan-silicate nanoparticle of antroquinonol from solid-state-cultured A. cinnamomea (nano-SAC, NAC): (DM+NAC1x, 4 mg/kg of body weight; DM+NAC2x, 8 mg/kg; and DM+NAC5x, 20 mg/kg), solid-state-cultured AC (DM+AC5x, 20 mg/kg), or metformin (DM+Met, 200 mg/kg) for 7 weeks. Results: The nano-SAC size was 37.68±5.91 nm, the zeta potential was 4.13±0.49 mV, encapsulation efficiency was 79.29±0.77%, and loading capacity was 32.45±0.02%. The nano-SAC can improve diabetes-induced reproductive dysfunction by regulating glucose, insulin, and oxidative enzyme and by increasing the level of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sperm count as well as sperm mobility. In testicular histopathology, the seminiferous tubules of A. cinnamomea-supplemented diabetic rats showed similar morphology with the control group. Conclusion: The nanoparticle of antroquinonol from Antrodia cinnamomea can be used as an effective strategy to improve diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Reprodução , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Jejum/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Insulina/sangue , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Estreptozocina , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Ubiquinona/farmacologia , Ubiquinona/uso terapêutico
12.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(3): 1479164120930599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the association between hypoglycaemia and poor outcomes in diabetes is well established, it is unclear whether such an association is generalizable to those without diabetes. METHODS: A total of 8497 participants free of cardiovascular disease and diabetes from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included. We examined the relationship between baseline low (<80 mg/dL) and high (⩾126 mg/dL) fasting plasma glucose compared to normal levels (80-99 mg/dL). RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 14 years, 2101 deaths occurred, of which 570 were due to cardiovascular disease. In a model adjusted for sociodemographic and cardiovascular disease risk factors, individuals with low fasting plasma glucose were at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality [hazard ratio = 1.79 (95% confidence interval = 1.04-3.08) and hazard ratio = 1.35 (95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.78), respectively], compared to those with normal fasting plasma glucose. These associations were stronger among men than women for both cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Low fasting plasma glucose in individuals without diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, especially in men.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Jejum/sangue , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Diabetologia ; 63(10): 2102-2111, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647915

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Hyperglycaemia is associated with an elevated risk of mortality in community-acquired pneumonia, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, trauma and surgery, among other conditions. In this study, we examined the relationship between fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 28-day mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients not previously diagnosed as having diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study involving all consecutive COVID-19 patients with a definitive 28-day outcome and FBG measurement at admission from 24 January 2020 to 10 February 2020 in two hospitals based in Wuhan, China. Demographic and clinical data, 28-day outcomes, in-hospital complications and CRB-65 scores of COVID-19 patients in the two hospitals were analysed. CRB-65 is an effective measure for assessing the severity of pneumonia and is based on four indicators, i.e. confusion, respiratory rate (>30/min), systolic blood pressure (≤90 mmHg) or diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg), and age (≥65 years). RESULTS: Six hundred and five COVID-19 patients were enrolled, including 114 who died in hospital. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that age (HR 1.02 [95% CI 1.00, 1.04]), male sex (HR 1.75 [95% CI 1.17, 2.60]), CRB-65 score 1-2 (HR 2.68 [95% CI 1.56, 4.59]), CRB-65 score 3-4 (HR 5.25 [95% CI 2.05, 13.43]) and FBG ≥7.0 mmol/l (HR 2.30 [95% CI 1.49, 3.55]) were independent predictors for 28-day mortality. The OR for 28-day in-hospital complications in those with FBG ≥7.0 mmol/l and 6.1-6.9 mmol/l vs <6.1 mmol/l was 3.99 (95% CI 2.71, 5.88) or 2.61 (95% CI 1.64, 4.41), respectively. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: FBG ≥7.0 mmol/l at admission is an independent predictor for 28-day mortality in patients with COVID-19 without previous diagnosis of diabetes. Glycaemic testing and control are important to all COVID-19 patients even where they have no pre-existing diabetes, as most COVID-19 patients are prone to glucose metabolic disorders. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Jejum/sangue , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Admissão do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(2): H481-H487, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678706

RESUMO

Modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species from circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), resulting in increased cardiovascular disease risk and compromised immune health. These changes may be driven by metabolic reprogramming of PBMCs, resulting in reduced mitochondrial respiration; however, this has not been fully tested. We aimed to determine the independent associations between cardiometabolic risk factors including BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and plasma lipids with mitochondrial respiration in PBMCs isolated from generally healthy individuals (n = 21) across the adult lifespan (12 men/9 women; age, 56 ± 21 yr; age range, 22-78 yr; body mass index, 27.9 ± 5.7 kg/m2; blood pressure, 123 ± 16/72 ± 10 mmHg; glucose, 90 ± 14 mg/dL; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 111 ± 22 mg/dL; and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 62 ± 16 mg/dL). PBMCs were isolated from whole blood by density-dependent centrifugation and used to assess mitochondrial function by respirometry. Primary outcomes included basal and maximal oxygen consumption rate (OCR), which were subsequently used to determine spare respiratory capacity and OCR metabolic potential. After we corrected for systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and blood glucose, LDL-C was negatively associated with maximal respiration (r = -0.56, P = 0.016), spare respiratory capacity (r = -0.58, P = 0.012), and OCR metabolic potential (r = -0.71, P = 0.0011). In addition, SBP was negatively associated with OCR metabolic potential (r = -0.62, P = 0.0056) after we corrected for DBP, blood glucose, and LDL-C. These data suggest a link between blood cholesterol, SBP, and mitochondrial health that may provide insight into how cardiometabolic risk factors contribute to impaired immune cell function.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Independent of other cardiometabolic risk factors, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure were found to be negatively associated with several parameters of mitochondrial respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy adults. These data suggest that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure may induce metabolic reprogramming of immune cells, contributing to increased cardiovascular disease risk and impaired immune health.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Respiração Celular , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/imunologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233769, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497119

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the relative contribution of phenotypic and lifestyle factors to HbA1c, independent of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2h post-load glucose (2hPG), in the general population. METHODS: The study populations included 2309 participants without known diabetes from the first wave of the Hoorn Study (1989) and 2619 from the second wave (2006). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the relationship between potential determinants and HbA1c in addition to FPG and 2hPG. The multivariate model was derived in the first wave of the Hoorn Study, and replicated in the second wave. RESULTS: In both cohorts, independent of FPG and 2hPG, higher age, female sex, larger waist circumference, and smoking were associated with a higher HbA1c level. Larger hip circumference, higher BMI, higher alcohol consumption and vitamin C intake were associated with a lower HbA1c level. FPG and 2hPG together explained 41.0% (first wave) and 53.0% (second wave) of the total variance in HbA1c. The combination of phenotypic and lifestyle determinants additionally explained 5.7% (first wave) and 3.9% (second wave). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, independent of glucose, phenotypic and lifestyle factors are associated with HbA1c, but the contribution is relatively small. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the low correlation between glucose levels and HbA1c in the general population.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Estilo de Vida , Fenótipo , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar , Circunferência da Cintura
16.
Orv Hetil ; 161(26): 1088-1093, 2020 06.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541087

RESUMO

Confirming or ruling out the presence of insulin resistance (IR) is one of the most common reasons for referral to non-diabetics in Hungary for diabetes outpatient units. The article overviews the concept of IR, its importance in pathophysiology, the diagnostic capabilities, and its treatment implications. It emphasizes that the decline in insulin activity is a co-morbidity of many diseases and does not, in itself, require detailed examination without other symptoms. If this occurs, it is sufficient to calculate the HOMA-IR value and determine fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels for information purposes. If it is confirmed as part of a comorbid condition, complex treatment is required. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(26): 1088-1093.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Hungria
17.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(3): 323-328, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540819

RESUMO

Ketosis is a metabolic situation involving an increase in blood and urine concentrations of ketones that, when prolonged, leads to acidosis. Moderate ketosis usually appears after a fast of a few hours, but its prolongation exposes to hyperketosis. Observation: A 25-year-old woman presented to the emergency department for cohercitive vomiting. She was fasting for a long time in a spiritual setting and had a restricted diet limited to water and vitamin supplements. Clinical and biological assessment was in favour of fasting ketoacidosis. Evolution was favorable with intravenous hydration, poly-ionic and micronutrient supplementation and a gradual resumption of oral feeding. Conclusion: We report the case of a patient with fasting ketoacidosis. Besides consequences of this ketoacidosis, the challenge was also in resuming oral feeding in order to avoid a potentially fatal inappropriate renutrition syndrome.


Assuntos
Jejum/efeitos adversos , Cetose/etiologia , Inanição/complicações , Acidose/sangue , Acidose/diagnóstico , Acidose/etiologia , Acidose/terapia , Adulto , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hidratação , Humanos , Cetose/sangue , Cetose/diagnóstico , Cetose/terapia , Nutrição Parenteral , Inanição/sangue , Inanição/terapia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 165: 108226, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446800

RESUMO

AIM: Studies on the effect of Ramadan diurnal intermittent fasting (RDIF) on glucometabolic markers have yielded conflicting results. We conducted ameta-analysis to estimate the effect size for changes in glucometabolic markers in healthy, non-athletic Muslims during Ramadan, and to assess the effect of variable covariates using meta-regression. METHODS: CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCOhost, EMBASE, Google Scholar, ProQuest Medical, PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched from date of inceptionto January 2020. The glucometabolic markers analyzed were: fasting glucose (FG), insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, and adiponectin. RESULTS: We identified seventy-two studies (3134 participants in total) that were conducted in 22 countries between 1982 and 2020. RDIF-induced effect sizes for the glucometabolic markers were: FG (no. of studies K = 61, number of subjects N = 2743, Hedges'g = -0.102, 95% CI: -0.194, -0.01); serum insulin (K = 16, N = 648, Hedges'g = 0.030 95% CI: -0.165, 0.226); HOMA-IR (K = 10, N = 349, Hedges'g = -0.012, 95% CI: -0.274, 0.250); leptin (K = 13, N = 442, Hedges'g = -0.010, 95% CI: -0.243, 0.223); and adiponectin (K = 11, N = 511, Hedges'g = 0.034, 95% CI: -0.227, 0.296). CONCLUSION: RDIF imposes no adverse metabolic impacts, and might help in improving some glucometabolic markers in healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Ritmo Circadiano , Jejum/sangue , Islamismo , Adiponectina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Férias e Feriados , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 165: 108234, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450103

RESUMO

AIM: To observe the effect of keeping flexible glycemic targets during fasting and tighter targets during non-fasting hours in insulin-treated people with type 2 diabetes during Ramadan. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology in 2014. People with T2DM on split mixed insulin therapy were recruited. The pre-Ramadan education given and insulin doses were adjusted before Ramadan. 24-hour telephonic helpline service was provided to achieve pre-determined glycemic targets and minimize complications. RESULTS: A total of 54 people with T2DM with a mean age of 54.65 ± 9.32 years were recruited. Mean glucose levels achieved were 183.50 ± 30.91 mg/dl and 179.20 ± 36.27 mg/dl during the day and night respectively. Mean HbA1c (p-value < 0.0001) and serum creatinine (p-value 0.0010) significantly improved at the end of Ramadan. 0.6% episodes of hypoglycemia including one major hypoglycemia while 30% of episodes of hyperglycemia were recorded. No hospitalization needed. CONCLUSION: By keeping flexible glycemic targets during the day and tighter targets during the night, safe fasting was feasible with significant improvement in overall glycemic control without significant major complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Islamismo , Adulto , Insulinas Bifásicas/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/análise , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Creatinina/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Férias e Feriados , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
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