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1.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(2): 95-100, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The nursing professional development department purchased technology to create an innovative structure to engage nurses in educational offerings. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of incorporating gamification on knowledge acquisition. BACKGROUND: Nursing administrators should support the use of gamification to improve the nurses' acquisition of knowledge. The clinical educators traditionally utilize lecture-based educational offerings preventing students from active participation. Gamification promotes learner engagement, critical thinking, and enjoyment. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study design with a 230-person convenience sample compared the knowledge acquisition of nurses before and after new hire orientation and basic electrocardiogram course. Technology purchased included iPad, GoPro, mobile apps, and websites. RESULTS: Incorporating gamification technology resulted in an increase in knowledge acquisition and engagement of learners. CONCLUSION: Findings demonstrate gamification as an effective way to increase knowledge acquisition when compared with traditional methods.


Assuntos
Jogos Experimentais , Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Competência Clínica , Eletrocardiografia/enfermagem , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Pensamento
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242363, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370255

RESUMO

Cooperation is thought to be a necessary condition to solve collective action dilemmas such as climate change or the sustainable use of common pool resources. Yet, it is poorly understood how situations pervaded by thresholds shape the behaviour of people facing collective dilemmas. Here we provide empirical evidence that resource users facing thresholds maintain on average cooperative behaviours in the sense of maximising their individual earnings while ensuring future group opportunities. A framed field experiment in the form of a dynamic game with 256 Colombian fishers helped us investigate individual behavioural responses to the existence of thresholds, risk and uncertainty. Thresholds made fishers extract less fish compared to situation without thresholds, but risk had a stronger effect on reducing individual fishing effort. Contrary to previous expectations, cooperation did not break down. If cooperation can be maintained in the face of thresholds, then communicating uncertainty is more policy-relevant than estimating precisely where tipping points lay in social-ecological systems.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Incerteza , Colômbia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Tomada de Decisões , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190022, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1145140

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the impact of educational software on the behavior of adolescents about obesity prevention in two public schools of Divinópolis-MG. Method: uncontrolled clinical trial involving 238 adolescents, in the city of Divinópolis, MG, Brazil. Between June and October 2018, weight and height were measured, 24-hour dietary recall was performed, physical activity level was verified, socioeconomic classification and the stage of readiness for behavioral change was evaluated. The McNemar test was used to compare the qualitative variables. For the effect of the intervention on the quantitative variables, the Generalized Estimating Equations model was used. In the intervention, the educational game Healthy Running was used, developed for this study. Data were collected before and two months after the intervention. Results: among the participants, 62.6% are female, with a median age of 16.7 years, ranging from 15 to 19 years. Regarding the nutritional situation before the intervention, 18.5% had excess weight. As to the level of physical activity is concerned, 50.4% were classified as active. After the intervention, the z-score of body mass index for males showed a significant improvement (p<0.000), as well as the level of physical activity (p<0.001). Conclusion: the use of the educational game was valid and presented relevant results in improving the adolescents' behavior regarding food and physical activity. The use of the educational game can be considered appropriate to support education in the health area.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el impacto de un software educativo en el comportamiento de los adolescentes acerca de la prevención de la obesidad en dos escuelas públicas de Divinópolis-MG. Método: ensayo clínico no controlado con 238 adolescentes, en el municipio de Divinópolis, MG, Brasil. Entre los meses de junio y octubre de 2018, se evaluaron peso y altura, se realizó recordatorio alimentario 24 horas, se verificaron nivel de actividad física, clasificación socioeconómica y se evaluó la etapa de preparación para cambio de comportamiento. Para comparación de las variables cualitativas, se utilizó la prueba de McNemar. Para el efecto de la intervención sobre las variables cuantitativas se utilizó el modelo de Ecuaciones de Estimativas Generalizadas. En la intervención, se utilizó el juego educativo Healthy Running, desarrollado para este estudio. Los datos fueron recolectados antes de la intervención y dos meses después. Resultados: entre los participantes, 62,6% es del sexo femenino, con una mediana de 16,7 años de edad, que varió de 15 a 19 años. Sobre la situación nutricional antes de la intervención, 18,5% presentó exceso de peso. Respecto al nivel de actividad física, 50,4% fue clasificado como activo. Después de la intervención, el score-z de Índice de Masa Corporal para el sexo masculino presentó una mejora significativa (p<0,000), así como el nivel de actividad física (p<0,001). Conclusión: el uso del juego educacional fue válido y presentó resultados relevantes en la mejora del comportamiento de los adolescentes respecto a la alimentación y actividad física. El uso del juego educativo puede considerarse adecuado para apoyar la educación en el área de la salud.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o impacto de um software educativo no comportamento dos adolescentes acerca da prevenção da obesidade em duas escolas públicas de Divinópolis-MG. Método: ensaio clínico não controlado com 238 adolescentes, no Município de Divinópolis, MG, Brasil. Entre os meses de junho e outubro de 2018, foram aferidos peso e altura, realizado recordatório alimentar 24 horas, verificados nível de atividade física, classificação socioeconômica e avaliado o estágio de prontidão para mudança de comportamento. Para comparação das variáveis qualitativas, utilizou-se o teste de McNemar. Para o efeito da intervenção sobre as variáveis quantitativas utilizou-se o modelo de Equações de Estimativas Generalizadas. Na intervenção, foi utilizado o jogo educacional Healthy Running, desenvolvido para este estudo. Os dados foram coletados antes da intervenção e dois meses após. Resultados: entre os participantes, 62,6% são do sexo feminino, com uma mediana de 16,7 anos de idade que variou de 15 a 19 anos. Sobre a situação nutricional antes da intervenção, 18,5% apresentou excesso de peso. Quanto ao nível de atividade física, 50,4% foram classificados como ativos. Após a intervenção o escore-z de Índice de Massa Corporal para o sexo masculino apresentou uma melhora significativa (p<0,000), assim como o nível de atividade física (p<0,001). Conclusão: o uso do jogo educacional foi válido e apresentou resultados relevantes na melhora do comportamento dos adolescentes a respeito da alimentação e atividade física. O uso do jogo educacional pode ser considerado adequado no apoio à educação na área da saúde.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Software , Adolescente , Terapia Nutricional , Jogos Experimentais , Obesidade
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362281

RESUMO

In this paper we show experimentally that conditional cooperation, a phenomenon described in the private provision of public goods, is also present in group contests, where participants' contributions to their group performance partially determines if they overcome a rival group. This environment allows us to identify new determinants of conditional cooperation. We observe conditional cooperation in successful groups and in groups where members contribute more than rivals (even if they lose), but it vanishes in those groups that lose the contest due to low group performance. A random-effect linear panel regression analysis with an extensive set of controls confirms the findings.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Processos Grupais , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362272

RESUMO

The effort to understand the genetic basis of human sociality has been encouraged by the diversity and heritability of social traits like cooperation. This task has remained elusive largely because most studies of sociality and genetics use sample sizes that are often unable to detect the small effects that single genes may have on complex social behaviors. The lack of robust findings could also be a consequence of a poor characterization of social phenotypes. Here, we explore the latter possibility by testing whether refining measures of cooperative phenotypes can increase the replication of previously reported associations between genetic variants and cooperation in small samples. Unlike most previous studies of sociality and genetics, we characterize cooperative phenotypes based on strategies rather than actions. Measuring strategies help differentiate between similar actions with different underlaying social motivations while controlling for expectations and learning. In an admixed Latino sample (n = 188), we tested whether cooperative strategies were associated with three genetic variants thought to influence sociality in humans-MAOA-uVNTR, OXTR rs53576, and AVPR1 RS3. We found no association between cooperative strategies and any of the candidate genetic variants. Since we were unable to replicate previous observations our results suggest that refining measurements of cooperative phenotypes as strategies is not enough to overcome the inherent statistical power problem of candidate gene studies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Genótipo , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Receptores de Vasopressinas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052906

RESUMO

Participants often vary in their response to behavioral interventions, but methods to identify groups of participants that are more likely to respond are lacking. In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, we used baseline characteristics to group participants into distinct behavioral phenotypes and evaluated differential responses to a physical activity intervention. Latent class analysis was used to segment participants based on baseline participant data including demographics, validated measures of psychosocial variables, and physical activity behavior. The trial included 602 adults from 40 U.S. states with body mass index ≥25 who were randomized to control or one of three gamification interventions (supportive, collaborative, or competitive) to increase physical activity. Daily step counts were monitored using a wearable device for a 24-week intervention with 12 weeks of follow-up. The model segmented participants into three classes named for key defining traits: Class 1, extroverted and motivated; Class 2, less active and less social; Class 3, less motivated and at-risk. Adjusted regression models were used to test for differences in intervention response relative to control within each behavioral phenotype. In Class 1, only participants in the competitive arm increased their mean daily steps during the intervention (adjusted difference, 945; 95% CI, 352-1537; P = .002), but it was not sustained during follow-up. In Class 2, participants in all three gamification arms significantly increased their mean daily steps compared to control during the intervention (supportive arm adjusted difference 1172; 95% CI, 363-1980; P = .005; collaborative arm adjusted difference 1119; 95% CI, 319-1919; P = .006; competitive arm adjusted difference 1179; 95% CI, 400-1957; P = .003) and all three had sustained impact during follow-up. In Class 3, none of the interventions had a significant effect on physical activity. Three behavioral phenotypes were identified, each with a different response to the interventions. This approach could be used to better target behavioral interventions to participants that are more likely to respond to them.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Exercício Físico , Jogos Experimentais , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Fenótipo , Autoeficácia , Sono/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(9): 917-927, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747803

RESUMO

Standardized classroom experiments provide evidence about how well scientific results reproduce when nearly identical methods are used. We use a sample of around 20,000 observations to test reproducibility of behaviour in trading and ultimatum bargaining. Double-auction results are highly reproducible and are close to equilibrium predictions about prices and quantities from economic theory. Our sample also shows robust correlations between individual surplus and trading order, and autocorrelation of successive price changes, which test different theories of price dynamics. In ultimatum bargaining, the large dataset provides sufficient power to identify that equal-split offers are accepted more often and more quickly than slightly unequal offers. Our results imply a general consistency of results across a variety of different countries and cultures in two of the most commonly used designs in experimental economics.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Negociação , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234336, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603364

RESUMO

To investigate how neediness and identifiability of a recipient influence the willingness of a donor to invest resources in charity-like lotteries we propose a new game, called 'need game'. Similar to the dictator game, the need game includes two players, one active player (the donor or dictator) and one passive player (the recipient). Both players require a minimum need (ND and NR), expressed in terms of points. The donor is endowed with KD points and must retain at least ND points, i.e., the need, with ND < KD, at the end of the game with n rounds. The recipient starts with KR points and must end the game with at least NR points, i.e., the need, with KR < NR < KD. The donor is asked to choose one of three different amounts from KD to place a bet on a lottery. If won, the gain is added to the endowment. If lost, the recipient receives the points. The recipient is paid only when his/her need threshold is obtained; likewise the donor gets paid only when his/her need threshold is maintained. The main focus here is on need of both players (ND = NR = 2, 200, and ND = NR = 0 serving as baseline control) and the identifiability of the recipient (no information, described by text and picture, and physical presence). We probe whether the amount invested by the donor depends on need and identifiability of the recipient. In addition, we include the framing of the game as gain or loss, different probabilities to win/lose, and different time limits as covariates. We found that each of these factors can play a role when investing in charity-like lotteries.


Assuntos
Instituições de Caridade/tendências , Doadores de Tecidos/psicologia , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Feminino , Jogo de Azar , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Probabilidade
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235443, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603373

RESUMO

The core problem in the distribution dilemma is the trade-off between equity and efficiency. With the development of socio-economic conditions, the optimal decision changes between equitable and efficient options. The methods for nudging decision-makers to make optimal decisions without changing the event are extremely important. This study used two laboratory behavior experiments to explore the impact of maxim information on the trade-off between equity and efficiency. The study explores whether stake levels and division schemes affect the nudging effect of the maxim in a Trade-Off Game (TOG). We found that participants were affected by maxim information in decision-making scenarios, and participants showed different equity preferences as the maxim information changed, without relevance of the stake level. Additionally, the nudging effect of the maxim only exists under the condition that the distributor's interests is not affected.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Tomada de Decisões , Jogos Experimentais , Adolescente , Eficiência , Feminino , Declarações Financeiras , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233761, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702026

RESUMO

In decision-making situations individuals rarely have complete information available to select the best option and often show decisional randomness, i.e. given the same amount of knowledge individuals choose different options at different times. Dysfunctional processes resulting in altered decisional randomness can be considered a target process for psychiatric disorders, yet these processes remain poorly understood. Advances in computational modeling of decision-making offer a potential explanation for decisional randomness by positing that decisions are implemented in the brain through accumulation of noisy evidence, causing a generally less preferred option to be chosen at times by chance. One such model, the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA), assumes that individuals accumulate information for each option independently over time and that the first option to reach a threshold will be selected. To investigate the mechanisms of decisional randomness, we applied the LBA to a decision-making task in which risk and expected value (EV) were explicitly signaled prior to making a choice, and estimated separate drift rates for each of the four task stimuli (representing high and low EV and high and low risk). We then used the fitted LBA parameters to predict subject response rates on held-out trials for each of the 6 possible stimulus pairs. We found that choices predicted by LBA were correlated with actual choices across subjects for all stimulus pairs. Taken together, these findings suggest that sequential sampling models can account for decisional randomness on an explicit probabilistic task, which may have implications for understanding decision-making in healthy individuals and in psychiatric populations.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Probabilidade , Assunção de Riscos , Processos Estocásticos , Adolescente , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Comportamento de Escolha , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Jogo de Azar , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Econômicos , Satisfação Pessoal , Valores Sociais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(6): 646-655, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514040

RESUMO

In an influential paper, Kosfeld et al. (2005) showed that intranasal administration of oxytocin (OT) increases the transfers made by investors in the trust game-suggesting that OT increases trust in strangers. Subsequent studies investigating the role of OT in the trust game found inconclusive effects on the trusting behaviour of investors but these studies deviated from the Kosfeld et al. study in an important way-they did not implement minimal social contact (MSC) between the investors and the trustees in the trust game. Here, we performed a large double-blind and placebo-controlled replication study of the effects of OT on trusting behaviour that yields a power of more than 95% and implements an MSC condition as well as a no-social-contact (NoC) condition. We find no effect of OT on trusting behaviour in the MSC condition. Exploratory post hoc analyses suggest that OT may increase trust in individuals with a low disposition to trust in the NoC condition, but this finding requires confirmation in future research. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The stage 1 protocol for this Registered Report was accepted in principle on 19 October 2018. The protocol, as accepted by the journal, can be found at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.11980368.


Assuntos
Ocitocina/farmacologia , Confiança , Administração Intranasal , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479503

RESUMO

This paper reports the results of an experiment involving text-messaging and emojis in laboratory trust games executed on mobile devices. Decomposing chat logs, I find that trust increases dramatically with the introduction of emojis to one-shot games, while reciprocation increases only modestly. Skin tones embedded in emojis impact sharing and resulting gains-to the benefit of some and detriment to others. Both light and dark skin players trust less on receipt of a dark skin tone emoji-suggestive of statistical discrimination. In this way, computer-mediated communication leads to reduced gains for dark-skinned persons. These results highlight the complex social judgment that motivates trust in an anonymous counterpart.


Assuntos
Racismo/psicologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/ética , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Telefone Celular , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Julgamento/ética , Julgamento/fisiologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Pigmentação da Pele , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379788

RESUMO

Trust is a key ingredient of almost all market interactions. Much of the literature on the relationship between trust and market activity, however, has focused on how trust facilitates market activity rather than on how market activity affects trust. In this study, however, we investigate whether market interactions can affect the subsequent trusting and reciprocating behavior of former trading partners. Additionally, we explore the effect of personal and impersonal exchange on the trusting and reciprocating behavior of former trading partners. We find experimental evidence that suggests that positive and negative market interactions can affect such behavior. Further, we find that past market dealings only affect the trusting and reciprocating behavior of subjects who participated in an experimental market where exchanges were more personal, but did not affect trust and reciprocity between trading partners who participated in an experimental market where exchanges were more impersonal. In the market where exchanges are more personal, people exhibit higher levels of trust and reciprocity to trading partners with whom they have mostly positive market interactions than with whom they have mostly negative market interactions. However, in the market where exchanges are more impersonal, people exhibit the same levels of trust and reciprocity to trading partners regardless of the nature of their previous market interactions.


Assuntos
Comércio , Confiança , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(8): 819-831, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451481

RESUMO

Prosocial behaviours are encountered in the donation game, the prisoner's dilemma, relaxed social dilemmas and public goods games. Many studies assume that the population structure is homogeneous, meaning that all individuals have the same number of interaction partners or that the social good is of one particular type. Here, we explore general evolutionary dynamics for arbitrary spatial structures and social goods. We find that heterogeneous networks, in which some individuals have many more interaction partners than others, can enhance the evolution of prosocial behaviours. However, they often accumulate most of the benefits in the hands of a few highly connected individuals, while many others receive low or negative payoff. Surprisingly, selection can favour producers of social goods even if the total costs exceed the total benefits. In summary, heterogeneous structures have the ability to strongly promote the emergence of prosocial behaviours, but they also create the possibility of generating large inequality.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Psicológicos , Dilema do Prisioneiro
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232652, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407329

RESUMO

Would the affected communities voluntarily obtain herd immunity if a cure for COVID-19 was available? This paper experimentally investigates people's vaccination choices in the context of a nonlinear public good game. A "vaccination game" is defined in which costly commitments (vaccination) are required of a fraction of the population to reach the critical level needed for herd immunity, without which defectors are punished by the natural contagion of epidemics. Our experimental implementation of a vaccination game in a controlled laboratory setting reveals that endogenous epidemic punishment is a credible threat, resulting in voluntary vaccination to obtain herd immunity, for which the orthodox principle of positive externalities fails to account. The concave nature of the infection probability plays a key role in facilitating the elimination of an epidemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Jogos Experimentais , Imunidade Coletiva , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Punição
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232674, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369510

RESUMO

Trust is essential for social interactions, cooperation and social order. Research has shown that social status and common group memberships are important determinants of receiving and reciprocating trust. However, social status and group membership can coincide or diverge-with potentially different effects. Our study contributes to the existing literature on the role of status and group membership by testing two separate trust-generating mechanisms against each other. We examine if individuals tend to place trust in high-status groups (irrespective of their own group membership) or, rather, if they tend to trust others with whom they share a common group membership. We assume that status group membership is signalled by cultural (musical) taste. This operationalization follows the theoretical reasoning of Bourdieu who argues that it is, above all, musical taste that classifies persons of different status. By demonstrating their "legitimate" cultural taste, upper-class members distinguish themselves from the middle and lower classes and signal their social status, thereby creating awe, respect and an air of trustworthiness. We report evidence from online experiments with incentivized trust games, which enable us to separate the two trust-generating mechanisms. We find no evidence that persons with "legitimate" tastes are generally trusted more. Instead, our results clearly demonstrate ingroup favouritism towards persons with a similar taste. Participants place more trust in members of their own group and expect them to be more trustworthy. In other words: members of taste-based groups trust each other more than members of different-taste-based groups. Interestingly, this group-based trust is not always justified inasmuch as received trust is not necessarily reciprocated more strongly by own group members. This suggests that ingroup favouritism is, at least in part, driven by false beliefs.


Assuntos
Confiança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Cultura , Jogos Experimentais , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Classe Social
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232037, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339179

RESUMO

The popularity of social media has increased users' social visibility. However, users' limited ability to control information spread could compromise privacy. People care about how others perceive them. We examined people's concerns for others' evaluations on their behaviors under different degrees of privacy conditions. Using a variant of the dictator game, we induced dictators to self-select into pro-self or pro-social types and asked recipients to give written evaluations of the dictators. We varied the degree of personal information privacy by making the written content known to the corresponding dictators only, all dictators, or either of them with equal chance. Also, the dictators could avoid receiving the message at a price. We showed that pro-self dictators' willingness to pay to conceal messages decreased when information privacy diminished. Thus, results indicated that image concerns wane in an environment where information privacy is weak. Our results contribute to understanding of the privacy paradox.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Confidencialidade/psicologia , Informações Pessoalmente Identificáveis , Privacidade/psicologia , Autorrevelação , Comportamento Social , Mídias Sociais , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287302

RESUMO

We use a 'multi-player dictator game' (MDG), with 'social information' about the monetary transfer made by a previous dictator to a recipient, to examine whether average contributions as well as the behavioural strategy adopted are affected by the first amount presented (the 'anchor') using a sequential strategy elicitation method. We find that average contributions are positively affected by the anchor. The anchor is also found to influence the behavioural strategy that individuals adopt, such that low anchors significantly increase the likelihood that players will adopt unconditional self-interested strategies, whereas high anchors increase the likelihood of adopting giving strategies. The distribution of strategies-and hence, the distribution of behavioural 'types'-is therefore affected by the initial conditions of play, lending support to the notion that behavioural strategies are context dependent.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Teoria do Jogo , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Probabilidade
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