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1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 226: 103579, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413612

RESUMO

We examined whether representing a resource non-symbolically (i.e., as stickers) or symbolically (i.e., as tokens that could be exchanged for stickers) affected kindergartner's decisions in an Ultimatum/Inequity Game (N = 93). The game involved distribution offers, made by a fictitious child, that were either fair (i.e., same quantity for each child, i.e., 3:3) or disadvantageously unfair (i.e., less for the target child than for the fictitious child, i.e., 2:4 or 1:5). Children had to decide whether to accept or reject the offers. In the latter case, none of the children would get anything of the resource. Children rejected unfair offers more frequently than fair offers, and they rejected the offers involving the symbolic resource more frequently than offers involving the non-symbolic resource, which applied to a similar degree to fair and unfair offers. However, exploratory follow-up analyses of children's reactions to unfair offers revealed that children rejected the more unfair offer (i.e., 1:5) more frequently than the less unfair offer (i.e., 2:4) when the resource was represented non-symbolically instead of symbolically. The results suggest that the symbolic representation of a resource evokes economically less rational behavior in children and diminished their potential gain. Moreover, symbolic representations might level out children's differentiation of differently unfair offers. These findings are discussed in light of the subjective value approach and the Construal Level Theory.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Jogos Experimentais , Afeto , Criança , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Comportamento Social
2.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 359, 2022 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422086

RESUMO

Negotiating with others about how finite resources should be distributed is an important aspect of human social life. However, little is known about mechanisms underlying human social-interactive decision-making in gradually evolving environments. Here, we report results from an iterative Ultimatum Game (UG), in which the proposer's facial emotions and offer amounts were sampled probabilistically based on the participant's decisions. Our model-free results confirm the prediction that both the proposer's facial emotions and the offer amount should influence acceptance rates. Model-based analyses extend these findings, indicating that participants' decisions in the UG are guided by aversion to inequality. We highlight that the proposer's facial affective reactions to participant decisions dynamically modulate how human decision-makers perceive self-other inequality, relaxing its otherwise negative influence on decision values. This cognitive model underlies how offers initially rejected can gradually become more acceptable under increasing affective load (predictive accuracy ~86%). Furthermore, modelling human choice behaviour isolated the role of the central arousal systems, assessed by measuring pupil size. We demonstrate that pupil-linked central arousal systems selectively encode a key component of subjective decision values: the magnitude of self-other inequality. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, under affective influence, aversion to inequality is a malleable cognitive process.


Assuntos
Jogos Experimentais , Negociação , Afeto , Tomada de Decisões , Emoções , Humanos
3.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(1): 19-25, 17-feb-2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359779

RESUMO

Introducción: los juegos son una técnica de aprendizaje de alto valor educativo que contribuye al desarrollo del sistema cognitivo, emocional y psicológico. El Semáforo es un instrumento que evalúa la percepción del aprendizaje y el nivel de diversión del alumno. Objetivo: proponer una técnica de enseñanza-aprendizaje basada en juegos en personal médico becario. Material y métodos: estudio cuasi experimental, muestra no probabilística consecutiva, en 42 médicos becarios (residentes de Medicina Familiar, pasantes de servicio social y en internado de pregrado). Se hizo un tablero de identificación de imágenes de patologías dermatológicas. Se otorgó consentimiento informado y se formaron equipos de dos integrantes. A cada uno se le dio un tablero y se hicieron preguntas entre ellos, referentes a la patología dermatológica que tenía esos signos y por medio de discriminación llegaron al diagnóstico. El tablero se basó en el juego ¿Adivina Quién? Se aplicó el instrumento Semáforo. Para la estadística, se usaron medidas de tendencia central, desviaciones estándar, rangos y chi cuadrada. Resultados: fueron 47 médicos becarios (61.7% mujeres); la mayoría (40.4%) tuvo de 31 a 40 años. Fueron residentes 74.5%, pasantes 14.9% e internos 10.6%. En el instrumento Semáforo en ambas preguntas (¿Cuánto crees que has aprendido en clase?, ¿Cuánto te has divertido en clase?) la respuesta fue mucho en 76.6%. Hubo chi cuadrada significativa para la edad y el sexo. Conclusiones: el juego es una opción muy viable para ser aplicada al proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje


Background: Games are a learning technique of high educational value that contributes to the development of cognitive, emotional and psychological systems. The Traffic Light is an instrument that evaluates the perception of learning and the student's level of fun. Objective: To propose a game-based learning teaching technique in fellow medical personnel. Material and methods: Quasi experimental, consecutive non-probabilistic sample, in 42 medical interns (residents from Family Medicine, social work interns, and undergraduate fellow students). A board was made to identify images of dermatological pathologies. Informed consent was given, teams of 2 people were formed. Each one was given a board, they began to ask each other about the dermopathology described by these signs and through discrimination they reached the diagnosis. This board is based on the board game Guess Who. The Traffic Light instrument was applied. For the statistical analysis it was used measures of central tendency, standard deviations, ranges, and chi-squared. Results: 47 male medical interns (female 61.7%). 40.4% were 31 to 40 years. 74.5% were medical residents, 14.9% social work interns, and 10.6% undergraduate fellow students. In the Traffic Light instrument in both questions (How much do you think you have learned in class? and How much fun did you have in class?), the answer was a lot in 76.6%. There was significant chi-squared for age and sex. Conclusions: The game is a very viable option to be applied to the teaching-learning process


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Jogos Experimentais , Ensino , México
4.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 142(2): 115-121, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110446

RESUMO

Anti-doping (AD) education for athletes is mainly one-way and through passively attended lectures. As such, learning about prohibited substances and highly technical doping rules is often difficult for athletes. Therefore, having athletes passively attending lectures is not enough to prevent unintentional doping violations caused by medicines and supplements. Therefore, it is important for athletes to acquire knowledge about individual prohibited substances as well as active learning and practical knowledge about AD measures. "Doping Guardian" is an educational card game that has been developed to help prevent unintentional doping violations. Participants (pharmacists) of this game can learn how to use medicines and supplements from an AD perspective while simulating the life of an athlete. This presentation will provide an overview of this card game and how it has been used to date.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Jogos Experimentais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Esportes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Conhecimento , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264183, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192669

RESUMO

The pull-to-center effect is a systematically observed suboptimal behavior in newsvendor experiments. Various explanations have been forward for this phenomenon, some of which are based on structural properties of the task while others are based upon the inventory context of the problem. To help distinguish between these two types of explanations, we compare behavior in a newsvendor game to behavior in a new, mathematically isomorphic, price gouging game. Our laboratory experiments replicate the standard results for newsvendors and yield the equivalent pattern in the price gouging game. This suggests previously observed newsvendor behavior is driven by structural aspects of the task consistent with models like prospect theory and impulse balance rather than context specific explanations pertaining to inventory management.


Assuntos
Economia Comportamental , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Comportamento de Escolha , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1966): 20211773, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016543

RESUMO

Third-party punishment is thought to act as an honest signal of cooperative intent and such signals might escalate when competing to be chosen as a partner. Here, we investigate whether partner choice competition prompts escalating investment in third-party punishment. We also consider the case of signalling via helpful acts to provide a direct test of the relative strength of the two types of signals. Individuals invested more in third-party helping than third-party punishment and invested more in both signals when observed compared to when investments would be unseen. We found no clear effect of partner choice (over and above mere observation) on investments in either punishment or helping. Third-parties who invested more than a partner were preferentially chosen for a subsequent Trust Game although the preference to interact with the higher investor was more pronounced in the help than in the punishment condition. Third-parties who invested more were entrusted with more money and investments in third-party punishment or helping reliably signalled trustworthiness. Individuals who did not invest in third-party helping were more likely to be untrustworthy than those who did not invest in third-party punishment. This supports the conception of punishment as a more ambiguous signal of cooperative intent compared to help.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Punição , Confiança
7.
Child Dev ; 93(1): e71-e86, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705266

RESUMO

Can children exploit knowledge asymmetries to get away with selfishness? This question was addressed by testing 6- to 9-year-old children (N = 164; 81 girls) from the Northeastern United States in a modified Ultimatum Game. Children were assigned to the roles of proposers (who offered some proportion of an endowment) and responders (who could accept or reject offers). Both players in the Informed condition knew the endowment quantity in each trial. However, in the Uninformed condition, only proposers knew this information. In this condition, many proposers made "strategically selfish" offers that seemed fair based on the responders' incomplete knowledge but were actually highly selfish. These results indicate that even young children possess the ability to deceive others about their selfishness.


Assuntos
Jogos Experimentais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , New England
8.
Neuroimage ; 246: 118777, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864151

RESUMO

Trust can be a dynamic social process, during which the social identity of the interacting agents (e.g., an investor and a trustee) can bias trust outcomes. Here, we investigated how social status modulates trust and the neural mechanisms underlying this process. An investor and a trustee performed a 10-round repeated trust game while their brain activity was being simultaneously recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The social status (either high or low) of both investors and trustees was manipulated via a math competition task. The behavioral results showed that in the initial round, individuals invested more in low-status partners. However, the investment ratio increased faster as the number of rounds increased during trust interaction when individuals were paired with a high-status partner. This increasing trend was particularly prominent in the low (investor)-high (trustee) status group. Moreover, the low-high group showed increased investor-trustee brain synchronization in the right temporoparietal junction as the number of rounds increased, while brain activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the investor decreased as the number of rounds increased. Both interpersonal brain synchronization and brain activation predicted investment performance at the early stage; furthermore, two-brain data provided earlier predictions than did single-brain data. These effects were detectable in the investment phase in the low-high group only; no comparable effects were observed in the repayment phase or other groups. Overall, this study demonstrated a multi-brain mechanism for the integration of social status and trust.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Interação Social , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Confiança , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Dent Educ ; 86(4): 437-442, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726272

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The ultimatum bargaining game has been devised by economists to measure fairness and generosity during negotiations. This study sought to adapt the game to classroom application with the intent of (a) determining whether the known outcomes would be replicated given modifications needed to make the game suitable as an educational tool and (b) sharing the resulting self-appraisal with students themselves. METHODS: A total of 452 first-year dental students participated in this adaptation as part of a classroom exercise. Students, identified as donors, were allocated an imaginary stake of $100 and asked to share some amount of it with a recipient classmate by making a nonnegotiable, one-time offer. If the offer is accepted, the donor student retains any residual amount. If the offer is rejected, neither the donor nor recipient receives anything. The question being tested is whether student fairness and/or generosity change when the preferred donor status is assigned at random versus on the basis of an earned property entitlement represented here by a higher-class rank. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: When status as Group A donors was established at random, the majority of students offered their fictitious Group B counterpart the fairest possible amount of $50 (70.4% in 2020 and 61% in 2018). However, when students were told that their status as Group A donors would be established based on their ranking in the upper half of the class, the percentage offering the fairest amount declined to 49.5% in 2020 and to 51.8% in 2018. This outcome was available for immediate disclosure to students during the classroom session; it was consistent with results previously reported for the ultimatum bargaining game; and it showed that when a property entitlement is perceived as having been earned (manifested by a higher-class rank), fairness and generosity decline.


Assuntos
Jogos Experimentais , Negociação , Humanos , Ensino
10.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(1): 88-96, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326487

RESUMO

The seemingly rampant economic selfishness suggested by many recent corporate scandals is at odds with empirical results from behavioural economics, which demonstrate high levels of prosocial behaviour in bilateral interactions and low levels of dishonest behaviour. We design an experimental setting, the 'Big Robber' game, where a 'robber' can obtain a large personal gain by appropriating the earnings of a large group of 'victims'. In a large laboratory experiment (N = 640), more than half of all robbers took as much as possible and almost nobody declined to rob. However, the same participants simultaneously displayed standard, predominantly prosocial behaviour in Dictator, Ultimatum and Trust games. Thus, we provide direct empirical evidence showing that individual selfishness in high-impact decisions affecting a large group is compatible with prosociality in bilateral low-stakes interactions. That is, human beings can simultaneously be generous with others and selfish with large groups.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Tomada de Decisões , Economia Comportamental , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Confiança
11.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(1): 146-154, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400815

RESUMO

A goal of computational psychiatry is to ground symptoms in basic mechanisms. Theory suggests that avoidance in anxiety disorders may reflect dysregulated mental simulation, a process for evaluating candidate actions. If so, these covert processes should have observable consequences: choices reflecting increased and biased deliberation. In two online general population samples, we examined how self-report symptoms of social anxiety disorder predict choices in a socially framed reinforcement learning task, the patent race, in which the pattern of choices reflects the content of deliberation. Using a computational model to assess learning strategy, we found that self-report social anxiety was indeed associated with increased deliberative evaluation. This effect was stronger for a particular subset of feedback ('upward counterfactual') in one of the experiments, broadly matching the biased content of rumination in social anxiety disorder, and robust to controlling for other psychiatric symptoms. These results suggest a grounding of symptoms of social anxiety disorder in more basic neuro-computational mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychophysiology ; 59(1): e13953, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637149

RESUMO

The reward positivity (RewP) is a putative biomarker of depression. Careful control of stimulus properties and manipulation of both stimulus valence and salience could facilitate interpretation of the RewP. RewP interpretation could further be improved by investigating functional outcomes of a blunted RewP in depression, such as reduced memory for rewarding outcomes. This study sought to advance RewP interpretation first by advancing task design through use of neutral (i.e., draw) control trials and counterbalanced feedback stimuli. Second, we examined the RewP's association with memory and the impact of depression. Undergraduates completed self-report measures of depression and anhedonia prior to a modified doors task in which words were displayed in colored fonts that indicated win, loss, or draw feedback. Memory of the feedback associated with each word (i.e., source memory) was tested. Results showed that RewP response to wins was more positive than to losses, which was more positive than to draws. The RewP was not associated with depression or anhedonia. The low depression group showed a source memory advantage for win words, but the high depression group did not. Source memory showed small relations to the RewP, but these did not survive Bonferroni correction. Results suggest the RewP is sensitive to salience and highlight challenges in detecting an association between the RewP and depression in modified doors tasks. Findings indicate that depression is related to dysfunctional source memory for reward but not loss and that future research should probe the possible associations between the RewP and memory in depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Jogos Experimentais , Recompensa , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
14.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 1698406, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880929

RESUMO

PURPOSES: This research explores the game-based intelligent test (GBIT), predicts the possibilities of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and the risk of cognitive impairment, and then verifies GBIT as one of the reliable and valid cognitive assessment tools. METHODS: This study recruited 117 elderly subjects in Taiwan (average age is 79.92 ± 8.68, average height is 156.91 ± 8.01, average weight is 59.14 ± 9.67, and average MMSE score is 23.33 ± 6.16). A multiple regression model was used to analyze the GBIT parameters of the elderly's reaction, attention, coordination, and memory to predict their MMSE performance. The binary logistic regression was then utilized to predict their risk of cognitive impairment. The statistical significance level was set as α = 0.05. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis showed that gender, the correct number of reactions, and the correct number of memory have a significantly positive predictive power on MMSE of the elderly (F = 37.60, R 2 = 0.69, and p < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis noted that the correct average number of reactions falls by one question, and the ratio of cognitive dysfunction risk increases 1.09 times (p < 0.05); the correct average number of memory drops by one question, the ratio of cognitive dysfunction risk increases 3.76 times (p < 0.05), and the overall model predictive power is 88.20% (sensitivity: 84.00%; specificity: 92.30%). CONCLUSIONS: This study verifies that GBIT is reliable and can effectively predict the cognitive function and risk of cognitive impairment in the elderly. Therefore, GBIT can be used as one of the feasible tools for evaluating older people's cognitive function.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Jogos Experimentais , Testes de Inteligência , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Jogos de Vídeo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Biologia Computacional , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Taiwan , Realidade Virtual
15.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(4): 820-825, dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1353458

RESUMO

Objetivo: Prototipar um jogo digital para o estudo da Cardiologia por profissionais e estudantes de saúde. Método: Pesquisa de finalidade aplicada do tipo exploratória e de desenvolvimento tecnológico. Desenvolvido em parceria entre a Faculdade de Enfermagem Nossa Senhora das Graças (FENSG) da Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE) e a Faculdade Nova Roma, no período de fevereiro a setembro de 2018. Para a construção, utilizou-se da plataforma Unity versão 2017.1, e a metodologia SCRUM. Resultados: O game que se trata de um quiz com perguntas e respostas que geram pontuação para avançar em sete níveis. Para testar os conhecimentos em cardiologia, os jogadores estarão utilizando um universo tridimensional, com características lúdicas e movimentam-se por um cenário similar a uma emergência hospitalar, encontrando desafios baseados nas necessidades clínicas dos pacientes. Conclusão: A construção do Heart Quiz trouxe uma proposta inovadora para estudos em cardiologia, sendo aplicável em contextos de interesses diferentes, graduação ou pós-graduação. (AU)


Objective: Prototype a digital game for the study of Cardiology by health professionals and students. Methods: Research of applied purpose of the exploratory type and of technological development. Developed in partnership between the Faculty of Nursing Nossa Senhora das Graças of the University of Pernambuco and the Faculty Nova Roma, from February to September 2018. For the construction, it was used the platform Unity version 2017.1, and the Scrum methodology. Results: The game is a quiz with questions and answers that generate scores to advance in seven levels. To test their knowledge in cardiology, players will be using a three-dimensional universe, with playful characteristics and moving through a scenario similar to a hospital emergency, meeting challenges based on the clinical needs of patients. Conclusion: The construction of the Heart Quiz brought an innovative proposal for studies in cardiology, being applicable in contexts of different interests, undergraduate or graduate. (AU)


Objetivo: Prototipo de un juego digital para el estudio de Cardiología por parte de profesionales de la salud y estudiantes. Métodos: Investigación del propósito aplicado del tipo exploratorio y desarrollo tecnológico. Desarrollado en colaboración entre la Facultad de Enfermería Nossa Senhora das Graças de la Universidad de Pernambuco y Faculdade Nova Roma, de febrero a septiembre de 2018. Para el En la construcción, se utilizó la plataforma Unity versión 2017.1 y la metodología Scrum. Resultados: El juego que es un cuestionario con preguntas y respuestas que generan puntuación para avanzar a través de siete niveles. Para probar sus conocimientos en cardiología, los jugadores usarán un universo tridimensional, con características lúdicas y moverse a través de un escenario similar a una emergencia hospitalaria, encontrando desafíos basados en las necesidades clínicas de los pacientes. Conclusión: La construcción de Heart Quiz trajo una propuesta innovadora para estudios en cardiología, siendo aplicable en contextos de diferentes intereses, pregrado o posgrado. (AU)


Assuntos
Jogos Experimentais , Ensino , Cardiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Educação em Enfermagem
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1962): 20211937, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727713

RESUMO

The ultimatum game (UG) is widely used to investigate our sense of fairness, a key characteristic that differentiates us from our closest living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees. Previous studies found that, in general, great apes behave as rational maximizers in the UG. Proposers tend to choose self-maximizing offers, while responders accept most non-zero offers. These studies do not rule out the possibility that apes can behave prosocially to improve the returns for themselves and others. However, this has never been well studied. In this study, we offer chimpanzee and bonobo proposers the possibility of taking into account the leverage of responders over the offers they receive. This leverage takes the form of access to alternatives for responders. We find that proposers tend to propose fairer offers when responders have the option to access alternatives. Furthermore, we find that both species use their leverage to reject unequal offers. Our results suggest that great apes mostly act as rational maximizers in an UG, yet access to alternatives can lead them to change their strategies such as not choosing the self-maximizing offer as proposers and not accepting every offer higher than zero as responders.


Assuntos
Pan paniscus , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Jogos Experimentais , Comportamento Social
17.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigma and limited mental health literacy impede adolescents getting the help they need for depressive symptoms. A serious game coupled with a classroom session led by lived experience workers (LEWs) might help to overcome these barriers. The school-based Strong Teens and Resilient Minds (STORM) preventive program employed this strategy and offered a serious game, Moving Stories. The current study was carried out to assess inhibiting and promoting factors for scaling up Moving Stories once its effectiveness has been ascertained. METHODS: Moving Stories was offered in three steps: (1) introductory classroom session, (2) students playing the game for five days, (3) debriefing classroom session led by lived experience worker. Data was collected on the number of participating students, costs of offering Moving Stories, and was further based on the notes of the debriefing sessions to check if mental health first aid (MHFA) strategies were addressed. RESULTS: Moving Stories was offered in seven high-schools. Coverage was moderate with 982 participating students out of 1880 (52%). Most participating students (83%) played the Moving Stories app three out of the five days. Qualitative data showed that the MHFAs were discussed in all debriefing sessions. Students showed great interest in lived experience workers' stories and shared their own experiences with depression. CONCLUSIONS: Bringing Moving Stories to scale in the high-school setting appears feasible, but will remain logistically somewhat challenging. Future implementation and scale-up of Moving Stories could benefit from improved selection and training of LEWs that played such an important role in grabbing the full attention of students and were able to launch frank discussions about depressive disorder and stigma in classrooms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register: Trial NL6444 (NTR6622: https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/6444).


Assuntos
Depressão , Jogos Experimentais , Saúde Mental , Estudantes , Adolescente , Criança , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 34(1): 54-78, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673955

RESUMO

Cooperation behaviors during social decision-making have been shown to be sensitive to manipulations of context. However, it remains unclear how aspects of context in dynamic social interactions, such as observed nonverbal behaviors, may modulate cooperation decisions and the associated neural mechanisms. In this study, participants responded to offers from proposers to split $10 in an Ultimatum Game following observation of proposer approach (friendly) or avoidance (nonfriendly) behaviors, displayed by dynamic whole-body animated avatars, or following a nonsocial interaction control condition. As expected, behavioral results showed that participants tended to have greater acceptance rates for unfair offers following observed nonverbal social interactions with proposers compared with control, suggesting an enhancing effect of social interactions on cooperative decisions. ERP results showed greater N1 and N2 responses at the beginning of social interaction conditions compared with control, and greater sustained and late positivity responses for observed approach and avoidance proposer behaviors compared with control. Event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) results showed differential sensitivity within theta, alpha, and beta bands during observation of social interactions and offers that was associated with subsequent decision behaviors. Together, these results point to the impact of proposers' nonverbal behaviors on subsequent cooperation decisions at both behavioral and neural levels. The ERP and ERSP findings suggest modulated attention, monitoring, and processing of biological motion during the observed nonverbal social interactions, influencing the participants' responses to offers. These findings shed light on electrophysiological correlates of response to observed social interactions that predict subsequent social decisions.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Tomada de Decisões , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Comportamento Social
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5698, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588442

RESUMO

Social conventions change when individuals collectively adopt an alternative over the status quo, in a process known as social diffusion. Our repeated trials of a multi-round experiment provided data that helped motivate the proposal of an agent-based model of social diffusion that incorporates inertia and trend-seeking, two behavioural mechanisms that are well documented in the social psychology literature. The former causes people to stick with their current decision, the latter creates sensitivity to population-level changes. We show that such inclusion resolves the contradictions of existing models, allowing to reproduce patterns of social diffusion which are consistent with our data and existing empirical observations at both the individual and population level. The model reveals how the emergent population-level diffusion pattern is critically shaped by the two individual-level mechanisms; trend-seeking guarantees the diffusion is explosive after the diffusion process takes off, but inertia can greatly delay the time to take-off.


Assuntos
Modelos Psicológicos , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mudança Social , Adulto Jovem
20.
Behav Processes ; 193: 104513, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582937

RESUMO

The previous research shows that delaying a reward in the dictator game contributes to less generous offers. If the reason for such results is temporal discounting, it can be expected that the effect of delay would be stronger for persons with a higher discounting rate, as well as the analogous pattern should occur in the ultimatum game. The participants of our study took decisions in the dictator and ultimatum game as proposers and responders. We manipulated delay of a reward (from immediate to in 5 years) and social distance (from the closest person to known only by sight). We observed the expected but weak interaction effect between delay and temporal discounting. However, the correlational analyses did not confirm the significant relationship between temporal discounting and decisions taken in dictator and ultimatum games. Moreover, the offers decline with the social distance, both in the dictator and ultimatum game. However, the social distance does not affect the value of the accepted offer in the ultimatum game. Such a discrepancy between donors' behaviour and beneficiaries' expectations may form a subtle but significant failure of the real-world donation markets.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Recompensa
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