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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e48443, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1116092

RESUMO

Objetivo: comparar o comportamento de pré-escolares durante o uso de administração por inalação, antes e após sessão de Brinquedo Terapêutico. Método: estudo quase-experimental de abordagem quantitativa, com a técnica de observação antes e após a intervenção, realizado por meio de amostra intencional, recrutadas em uma Unidade de Pronto Atendimento no interior de Minas Gerais. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva e inferencial, coletados entre os meses de novembro de 2017 a abril de 2018. Resultados: foram avaliados 25 comportamentos de 99 pré-escolares durante a administração por inalação. Após a sessão, 73,7% estavam com a postura e expressão facial relaxada, 76,8% estavam à vontade, 19,2% interromperam o procedimento e 38,4 % solicitaram a presença da mãe ou acompanhante. Conclusão: o uso do brinquedo, favoreceu maior aceitação e adaptação de pré-escolares submetidos à administração por inalação, evidenciado a importância em implementar essa estratégia em serviços de pronto atendimento pediátrico.


Objective: to compare the behavior of preschoolers during inhalation therapy, before and after a Therapeutic Play session. Method: quasi-experimental, quantitative study using pre- and post-intervention observation with an intentional sample recruited at an Emergency Care Unit in Minas Gerais. Data were collected from November 2017 to April 2018 and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: twenty-five behaviors of 99 preschoolers were evaluated during inhalation administration. After the session, 73.7% were relaxed in posture and facial expression, 76.8% were comfortable, 19.2% interrupted the procedure, and 38.4% requested the mother or companion to be present. Conclusion: the use of toys favored greater acceptance and adaptation by preschoolers undergoing inhalation therapy, evidencing the importance of implementing this strategy in pediatric emergency services.


Objetivo: comparar el comportamiento de los preescolares durante la terapia de inhalación, antes y después de una sesión de Juego Terapéutico. Método: estudio cuantitativo cuasi-experimental utilizando observación previa y posterior a la intervención con una muestra intencional reclutada en una Unidad de Atención de Emergencia en Minas Gerais. Los datos se recopilaron de noviembre de 2017 a abril de 2018 y se analizaron mediante estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Resultados: se evaluaron veinticinco comportamientos de 99 niños en edad preescolar durante la administración por inhalación. Después de la sesión, el 73.7% se relajó en la postura y la expresión facial, el 76.8% se sintió cómodo, el 19.2% interrumpió el procedimiento y el 38.4% solicitó que la madre o la acompañante estuvieran presentes. Conclusión: el uso de juguetes favoreció una mayor aceptación y adaptación por parte de los preescolares sometidos a terapia de inhalación, lo que evidencia la importancia de implementar esta estrategia en los servicios de emergencia pediátricos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Administração por Inalação , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos
2.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 85, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy childhood development is fostered through sufficient physical activity (PA; including time outdoors), limiting sedentary behaviours (SB), and adequate sleep; collectively known as movement behaviours. Though the COVID-19 virus outbreak has changed the daily lives of children and youth, it is unknown to what extent related restrictions may compromise the ability to play and meet movement behaviour recommendations. This secondary data analysis examined the immediate impacts of COVID-19 restrictions on movement and play behaviours in children and youth. METHODS: A national sample of Canadian parents (n = 1472) of children (5-11 years) or youth (12-17 years) (54% girls) completed an online survey that assessed immediate changes in child movement and play behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak. Behaviours included PA and play, SB, and sleep. Family demographics and parental factors that may influence movement behaviours were assessed. Correlations between behaviours and demographic and parental factors were determined. For open-ended questions, word frequency distributions were reported. RESULTS: Only 4.8% (2.8% girls, 6.5% boys) of children and 0.6% (0.8% girls, 0.5% boys) of youth were meeting combined movement behaviour guidelines during COVID-19 restrictions. Children and youth had lower PA levels, less outside time, higher SB (including leisure screen time), and more sleep during the outbreak. Parental encouragement and support, parental engagement in PA, and family dog ownership were positively associated with healthy movement behaviours. Although families spent less time in PA and more time in SB, several parents reported adopting new hobbies or accessing new resources. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of immediate collateral consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak, demonstrating an adverse impact on the movement and play behaviours of Canadian children and youth. These findings can guide efforts to preserve and promote child health during the COVID-19 outbreak and crisis recovery period, and to inform strategies to mitigate potential harm during future pandemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Jogos e Brinquedos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Public Health ; 185: 161-166, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to summarize the results of the 2018 the Netherlands' Physical Activity Report Card (PARC) for children and youth as well as for children and youth with a chronic medical condition (CMC; PARC+). STUDY DESIGN: This study is a survey. METHODS: A total of 12 indicators were graded using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance PARC development process, which includes a synthesis of the best available research, surveillance, policy and practice findings and expert consensus. Grades were based on the best available evidence and ranged from grade A (>80% of the children succeed) to grade F (less than 20% succeed) or incomplete (INC). Sources included national surveys, peer-reviewed literature and grey literature such as government and non-government reports and online content. RESULTS: Grades assigned for PARC/PARC+ were as follows: Overall Physical Activity: C-/D+; Organized Sports Participation: B/B-; Active Play: D/D; Active Transportation: A-/B+; Sedentary Behaviour: D/D; Physical Fitness: INC /INC; Family and Peers: C/INC; School: C+/A-; Community and Environment: INC /INC; Government: INC /INC; Sleep: A-/B+ and Weight Status: A-/A-, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The report shows that the Netherlands' youth scores well on (organized) participation in sports and active transport to and from school. However, they do not participate enough in overall physical activity. Despite the fact that outdoor play is the most important exercise activity for children, outdoor play scores an insufficient score for both healthy children and children with a CMC. Sports participation also contributed significantly to daily physical activity. However, sports participation alone is not enough to comply with the national activity guidelines.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Relatório de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Grupo Associado , Aptidão Física , Jogos e Brinquedos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sedentário , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235884, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730275

RESUMO

Past research has largely ignored children's ability to conjointly manipulate spatial and temporal information, but there are indications that the capacity to do so may provide important support for reasoning about causal processes. We hypothesised that spatial-temporal thinking is central to children's ability to identify the invisible mechanisms that tie cause and effect together in continuous casual processes, which are focal in primary school science and crucial to understanding of the natural world. We investigated this in two studies (N = 107, N = 124), employing two methodologies, one shorter, the other more in depth. Further tasks assessed spatial-temporal (flow of liquid, extrapolation of relative speed, distance-time-velocity), spatial (two mental rotation, paper folding), verbal (expressive vocabulary), and nonverbal (block design) ability. Age dependent patterns were detected for both causal and predictor tasks. Two spatial-temporal tasks were unique and central predictors of children's causal reasoning, especially inference of mechanism. Nonverbal ability predicted the simpler components of causal reasoning. One mental rotation task predicted only young children's causal thinking. Verbal ability became significant when the sample included children from a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Causal reasoning about continuous processes, including inferences of causal mechanism, appears to be within the reach of children from school entry age, but mechanism inference is uncommon. Analytic forms of spatial-temporal capacity seem to be important requirements for children to progress to this rather than merely perceptual forms.


Assuntos
Cognição , Comportamento Espacial , Percepção do Tempo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança/métodos , Memória Espacial , Pensamento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235625, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645036

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The risk of emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance is high in Southeast Asian countries and various strategies are being used to raise awareness about appropriate antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance within communities. Public engagement in science has not been widely practised in Myanmar. We describe the use of a forum theatre to engage with the community about antibiotic use. METHODS: The engagement activities took place in a peri-urban township in Yangon, Myanmar. Five preliminary story gathering workshops with the community were carried out to develop scripts and songs for the forum theatre. After that, we organised forum theatre plays between September and October 2018. Following each play we provided four simple key messages based on WHO's world antibiotic awareness week advocacy materials; 1) Antibiotics are medicines used to treat bacterial infections 2) Antibiotics are not useful for coughs and colds 3) Never use leftover antibiotics or share antibiotics with others 4) Prevent infections by regularly washing hands, preparing food hygienically, avoiding close contact with sick people, and keeping vaccinations up to date. We evaluated the engagement activities by conducting focus group discussions (FGD) with audience members. RESULTS: Ten forum theatre plays were performed on two topics; "Fever and antibiotics" and "Mixed medicines", reaching 1175 community members. Four themes emerged from our thematic analysis: 1) Knowledge dissemination, 2) Enjoyment and fun, 3) Willingness to support and recommendations for future engagement activities and 4) Preference over traditional methods of health education. We found improvement of antibiotic related knowledge and enjoyment among audience who were also willing to support future engagement activities and preferred forum theatre approach over formal health talks. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that forum theatre is an effective innovative approach to engage and disseminate knowledge on appropriate use of antibiotics with the community in a participatory way.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Conhecimento do Paciente sobre a Medicação/métodos , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Mianmar , Jogos e Brinquedos
6.
Clin Teach ; 17(5): 577-578, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638502
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concern has been expressed over how well Africa is prepared to cope with the pandemic of Covid-19. Will rural populations with low levels of education know how to apply community-based infection control? We undertook fieldwork in two villages in central Sierra Leone to gain insight into how rural people faced with Covid-19 assess epidemic infection risks. METHODS: Two communities were selected based on prior contrasted exposure to Ebola Virus Disease-one with substantial number of cases and the other having resisted infection through strong community sequestration measures. We assessed understanding of infection risks via an experimental game. This asked players to express a preference for one of two diseases, one resembling Ebola with lower risk of infection and the other resembling Covid-19 with lower risk of death. Players were not told the identity of the diseases. RESULTS: In total 107 adult villagers played the game (58% women). Half (52%) preferred the disease model with lower risk of infection, 29% preferred the model with lower risk of death, while 21% saw the combined risk of infection and death as being equivalent. Differences in reactions between the two locations were small despite different experiences of Ebola. Asked to explain their choices 48% of players cited information on infection risks modelled by the game and 31% stated that their choices reflected awareness of the need for personal action and respect for local regulations. We concluded that villagers thoughtfully assess disease risks and that some are good intuitive statisticians. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest rural people in Sierra Leone retain the lessons of experience from the Ebola outbreak of 2014-15 and will be able to apply these lessons to a new infectious disease for which have no prior practical experience. Our expectation is that rural populations will understand Covid-19 control measures, thus reducing need for draconian enforcement.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Jogos e Brinquedos , Risco , População Rural , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
8.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 87-93, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prevalence of obesity and overweight among children is rising worldwide. Thus, the importance of restaurants as food environments is also growing. Considering these developments, the present study describes and evaluates menus and meals offered to children in German full-service restaurants. METHODS: Using quota sampling procedure, a representative sample of German full-service restaurants was identified. The individual meals were then assessed, using the Children's Menu Assessment tool (CMA). A total of 500 restaurants and 1,877 individual meals were analyzed. RESULTS: On average, every menu included 3.76 ± 1.31 meals for children. The arithmetic mean of the CMA score was 0.73 ± 0.85. Around 80% of all offered meals were limited to eight typical dishes and over 50% included French fries or another form of fried potatoes. Not one of the meals included any nutritional information. Healthy entrees were never marked (e.g. by an optional qualitative information such as healthy food symbol or a healthier choice tag). Eighty-one percent of all the main components in the meals were rated as unhealthy and none of the meals used wholegrain products. The automatic inclusion of a drink and free refill options are both rather unusual in Germany, as well as the use of cartoon characters and product logos or giving away promotional toys. A positive correlation was found between the price of the food and its quality. The majority of dishes feature a high energy density while simultaneously having a low nutrient density. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the range of food on offer for children in German restaurants is unhealthy and lacking in variety. There is an urgent need for improvement of both the menus themselves as well as the offered meals. Our study is not only by far the most comprehensive study, but also the study with the worst CMA score values worldwide.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Refeições , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Ingestão de Energia , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Planejamento de Cardápio , Jogos e Brinquedos
9.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 231-236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592545

RESUMO

Pets, strays, and wild animals that excrete dispersal forms of parasites into the soil may be a threat in urban areas. The aim of the study was to determine the level of contamination with geohelminth eggs in community playgrounds (fenced and unfenced), playgrounds in city parks, and a transect found along the banks of the River Oder. In 74 out of 424 examined soil samples, the presence of geohelminths was confirmed (Toxocara spp., Ancylostomatidae and Trichuris spp.). The highest prevalence was noted for Toxocara spp. roundworms. Both total and mean number of eggs in the examined samples, as well as the general prevalence, proved to be diversified in almost all types of development that were compared. Areas near the river emerged as places most exposed to the appearance of geohelminth eggs; playgrounds in city parks were less likely sites; community playgrounds in the city centre were the least common places.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Helmintos , Solo , Animais , Helmintos/fisiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Jogos e Brinquedos , Polônia , Densidade Demográfica , Rios , Solo/parasitologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570747

RESUMO

Children with chronic illnesses are called to undertake complicated processes of adjustment and re-organization in their daily lives; as a result, they could experience several internalizing problems. Symbolic play could be a useful way to cope with these difficulties. The main aim of this paper is to assess pretend play, coping, and psychological symptoms in three groups of school-aged children with pediatric chronic diseases. The study involved 44 Italian school-aged, chronically ill children: 16 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), 12 with cystic fibrosis (CF), and 15 with Leukemia. All patients were assessed by the Affect in Play Scale-Brief version (APS-Br), and the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist-Revision1 (CCSC-R1). Children with T1DM and CF also completed the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory for Children (SASI-C) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)-children's version. Cohen's d (effect size) was applied between clinical and normative samples, and it showed a more organized play (APS-BR), but a more negative affect tone, comfort, and frequency of affect expression. Comparing APS-BR and CCSC-R1 rates between the three groups, significant differences were found for all the APS-BR dimensions, except for tone, and for CCSC-R1 seeking understanding. Comparing SASI-C score between T1DM and CF, higher scores were found for children with CF. In the end, correlations between all dimensions highlighted several relationships between play, coping, and adjustment problems for children with T1DM, and relationship between affect play and all variables for children with CF. Symbolic play helps chronically ill children to express emotions; helping them, as well as clinicians, to understand the difficulties caused by chronic conditions, and to cope with them.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Doença Crônica , Fibrose Cística , Emoções , Jogos e Brinquedos , Criança , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Fibrose Cística/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Humanos , Itália , Leucemia/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47406

RESUMO

O artigo “Percepção das crianças acerca da punção venosa por meio do brinquedo terapêutico”, publicado no periódico Acta Paulista de Enfermagem (vol. 33, no. 1), apresenta o uso do brinquedo como parte do tratamento que propiciou vantagens como maior esclarecimento e adesão das crianças acerca do procedimento de punção venosa, bem como diminuição do estresse normalmente relacionado a esse procedimento (JANSSEN; SANTOS; FAVERO, 2010; JESUS et al., 2010). Esses resultados são importantes para o cuidado de enfermagem a crianças internadas, pois é comum que elas sintam medo dos profissionais da área, justamente porque costumam associar a presença deles à realização de procedimentos que lhes causam dor (JESUS et al., 2010; MAIA; RIBEIRO; BORBA, 2011). Com a utilização do brinquedo, as crianças passam a ter a possibilidade de brincar e interagir com esses profissionais e, com isso, começar a ter uma visão diferente (MAIA; RIBEIRO; BORBA, 2011).


Assuntos
Jogos e Brinquedos , Ludoterapia , Criança Hospitalizada , Saúde da Criança Institucionalizada , Humanização da Assistência , Enfermagem Pediátrica
12.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 41(313): 23-25, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446552

RESUMO

In a transcultural therapy session, an auxiliary therapist brings in play dough to the children. This medium will allow the youngs to anchor in the here and now of the session and will ease the therapeutic alliance.


Assuntos
Argila , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Criança , Humanos , Relações Profissional-Paciente
13.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 573-584, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443995

RESUMO

Serious threats to child safety are infrequent and unpredictable but can lead to serious injury and death. To stay safe, children must identify and avoid contact with a safety threat, escape from it, and report it to an adult so the adult can remove the threat. Research shows that active learning approaches are effective for teaching children to engage in these safety skills. Passive learning approaches are not effective. Active learning approaches require children to practice the skills in the presence of simulated threats with feedback to reinforce correct responses and promote generalization of skills to the natural environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Crime/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Segurança , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Ensino
14.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114627, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375089

RESUMO

Contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in children's toys and jewelry is an ongoing problem where PTEs can become bioavailable especially via oral pathway (ingestion as a whole or of parts, and mouthing) and may cause adverse health effects for children. In the present review, legislation updates from the last decade in the United States (U.S.), Canada, and the European Union (E.U.) on PTEs in toys and jewelry are presented. Then, a literature review mostly covering the last decade on the total concentration, bioavailability, children's exposure, and bioaccessibility of PTEs in toys and jewelry is provided. The U.S. and Canadian legislations mainly focus on lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) total/soluble concentration limits to prevent exposure and have received several updates within the last decade, extending particularly the covered span of children's products. It seems that the introduction, subsequent enforcement, and update of regulations in developed countries have shifted the problem towards developing countries. In terms of categories, metallic toys and children's jewelry still have the most severe PTE contamination and the presence of Pb and Cd in these articles is an ongoing issue. Some studies suggest that color can be used as an indicator for the potential presence of PTEs (linked to chemicals such as lead chromate, cadmium sulfide) but the evidence is not always clear. Another concern is vintage/second-hand toys and jewelry as those items might have been produced before the legislation was present. As total and bioaccessible concentrations of PTEs in toys and jewelry do not always correlate, approaches considering bioaccessibility (e.g. of the E.U.) are more scientifically appropriate and help with better estimation of risk from exposure. Studies on toy and jewelry contamination using in vitro bioaccessibility techniques has become more common, however, there is still no in vitro test specifically designed and validated for toys and jewelry.


Assuntos
Joias , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio , Canadá , Criança , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos
15.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126579, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443226

RESUMO

Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) are increasingly reported at significant levels in various matrices, including consumer goods that are manufactured from plastics containing certain brominated flame retardants. PBDD/Fs are known ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) but are not yet considered in the hazard assessment of dioxin mixtures. The aim of the present study was to determine if PBDD/Fs levels present in plastic constituents of toys could pose a threat to children's health. PBDD/Fs, unlike their chlorinated counterparts (PCDD/Fs), have not been officially assigned toxic equivalence factors (TEFs) by the WHO therefore, we determined their relative potency towards AhR activation in both human and rodent cell-based DR CALUX® bioassays. This allowed us to compare GC-HRMS PBDD/F congener levels, converted to total Toxic Equivalents (TEQ) by using the PCDD/F TEFs, to CALUX Bioanalytical Equivalents (BEQ) levels present in contaminated plastic constituents from children's toys. Finally, an estimate was made of the daily ingestion of TEQs from PBDD/Fs-contaminated plastic toys by child mouthing habits. It is observed that the daily ingestion of PBDD/Fs from contaminated plastic toys may significantly contribute to the total dioxin daily intake of young children.


Assuntos
Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Plásticos/química , Jogos e Brinquedos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Animais , Bioensaio , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Luciferases/genética , Plásticos/normas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Ratos , Transfecção
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433717

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of LAB EE prediction models in preschool children completing a free-living active play session. Performance was benchmarked against EE prediction models trained on free living (FL) data. METHODS: 25 children (mean age = 4.1±1.0 y) completed a 20-minute active play session while wearing a portable indirect calorimeter and ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers on their right hip and non-dominant wrist. EE was predicted using LAB models which included Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) models for the wrist, and RF and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models for the hip. Two variations of the LAB models were evaluated; 1) an "off the shelf" model without additional training; 2) models retrained on free-living data, replicating the methodology used in the original calibration study (retrained LAB). Prediction errors were evaluated in a hold-out sample of 10 children. RESULTS: Root mean square error (RMSE) for the FL and retrained LAB models ranged from 0.63-0.67 kcals/min. In the hold out sample, RMSE's for the hip LAB (0.62-0.71), retrained LAB (0.58-0.62) and FL models (0.61-0.65) were similar. For the wrist placement, FL SVM had a significantly higher RMSE (0.73 ± 0.29 kcals/min) than the retrained LAB SVM (0.63 ± 0.30 kcals/min) and LAB SVM (0.64 ± 0.18 kcals/min). The LAB (0.64 ± 0.28), retrained LAB (0.64 ± 0.25), and FL (0.62 ± 0.26) RF exhibited comparable accuracy. CONCLUSION: Machine learning EE prediction models trained on LAB and FL data had similar accuracy under free-living conditions.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Algoritmos , Calorimetria Indireta , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação , Jogos e Brinquedos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294088

RESUMO

Many studies have examined children's understanding of playing and learning as separate concepts, but the ways that children relate playing and learning to one another remain relatively unexplored. The current study asked 5- to 8-year-olds (N = 92) to define playing and learning, and examined whether children defined them as abstract processes or merely as labels for particular types of activities. We also asked children to state whether playing and learning can occur simultaneously, and examined whether they could give examples of playing and learning with attributes either congruent or incongruent with those activities. Older children were more likely to define both playing and learning in terms of abstract processes, rather than by describing particular topics or activities. Children who defined both playing and learning in this way were able to generate more examples of situations where they were simultaneously playing and learning, and were better able to generate examples of learning with characteristics of play, and examples of playing with characteristics of learning. These data suggest that children develop an understanding that learning and playing can coincide. These results are critical to researchers and educators who seek to integrate play and learning, as children's beliefs about these concepts can influence how they reflect on playful learning opportunities.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21071-21083, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266620

RESUMO

Contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in children's toys and jewelry is an ongoing problem, and there is evidence in the literature that the issue is shifting towards developing countries and small markets. The present research aims (1) to characterize total concentrations of eleven PTEs (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in children's jewelry and toys purchased from the Central Asian market (n = 65), and (2) to investigate the relationship between the extent of contamination and sample categories/properties. The laboratory analyses showed that the majority of the samples had PTEs above the total and soluble limits for PTEs stated in the USA, Canadian, and the EU legislation. Particularly for metallic toys and jewelry (n = 46), the total concentrations in 45 samples exceeded the EU migration limits for one or more PTEs. In particular, Cu and Zn concentrations were extremely high (up to 100%) in many samples and highly toxic Cd and Pb were present in elevated quantities in several articles. Contamination was also present, albeit to a much lesser extent, in other toy categories: brittle/pliable toys for Co and Cr, plastic toys and jewelry for Pb, and other toys for Co. Although average values and visual observations suggested evidence, no statistically significant relationship between PTE concentrations and sample properties (color, price, and degree of appeal) could be found. The findings supported the evidence that the contamination issue in children's jewelry and toys by PTEs is an ongoing issue in developing countries. Very high total concentrations of PTEs particularly found in several metallic samples warrant further investigation of migratable concentrations. Thus, conducting bioaccessibility tests and a subsequent human health risk characterization is recommended. Overall, there is a potential risk for children in the case of exposure to PTEs from children's jewelry and toys sold on the Central Asian market. More effective enforcement of legislation for consumer goods in the region and raising public awareness regarding chemicals in children's products are recommended.


Assuntos
Joias , Metais Pesados/análise , Canadá , Criança , Humanos , Plásticos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Medição de Risco
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