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1.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 111, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding determinants of children's outdoor play is important for improving low physical activity levels, and schools are a key setting for both. Safety concerns shape children's opportunity to play actively outdoors, therefore, this qualitative evidence synthesis aimed to i) examine adult (e.g., parent, teacher, yard supervisor, principal) perspectives on safety and risk in children's active play during recess in elementary and/or middle schools, and ii) identify how safety and risk influence playground supervision and decision making in this setting. METHODS: Six electronic databases were systematically searched in March 2021, with an updated search in June 2022. Records were screened against eligibility criteria using Covidence software, and data extraction and synthesis were performed using predesigned coding forms in Microsoft Excel and NVivo. Framework synthesis methodology was employed, guided by a conceptual framework structured on the socio-ecological model (SEM) and affordance theory. RESULTS: From 10,370 records, 25 studies were included that represented 608 adults across 89 schools from nine countries. The synthesis identified 10 constraining and four affording factors that influenced whether school staff were risk-averse or risk tolerant during recess, and, in turn, the degree to which children's play was managed. Constraining factors stemmed from fears for children's physical safety, and fear of blame and liability in the event of playground injury, which shaped parent, school staff and institutional responses to risk. Interrelated factors across SEM levels combined to drive risk-averse decision making and constraining supervision. Emerging evidence suggests children's active play in schools can be promoted by fostering a risk tolerant and play friendly culture in schools through play facilitation training (e.g., risk-reframing, conflict resolution) and engaging stakeholders in the development of school policies and rules that balance benefits of play against potential risks. CONCLUSIONS: Findings show several socio-cultural factors limited the ability of school staff to genuinely promote active play. Future work should seek to foster risk tolerance in schools, challenge the cultural norms that shape parent attitudes and institutional responses to risk in children's play, and explore novel methods for overcoming policy barriers and fear of liability in schools. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration: CRD42021238719.


Assuntos
Jogos e Brinquedos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Audição , Humanos , Motivação , Pais
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 103-110, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073384

RESUMO

Playspaces bring children and adults together for fun and social interaction but are rarely designed for the inclusion of all community members. In Australia, local government authorities (councils) are responsible for parks and playspaces. The New South Wales state government launched their inclusive playspaces policy in 2017. A guideline document was proposed but a guideline does not guarantee implementation. Consequently, an inclusive design process for developing the guide became the strategy. The task was to develop a guide that explained the concepts of inclusion and universal design within the playspace context. The project took an iterative and collaborative approach to the design of the guide. Intended users were those involved in creating playspaces, not playspace users per se. The participatory governance structure involved three levels of collaboration: a small steering group of experts, a larger group with key stakeholders, and a wider group of stakeholders and interested persons. This collegial and participative process consisted of a series of meetings and workshops which fostered learning and ideation for all participants. Through this process three underpinning concepts emerged: Can I get there? Can I play? Can I stay? The process educated and informed stakeholders, encouraged participants to contribute to the outcomes and provided community-led guidance for those contracted to design the guideline. The result was an inclusive playspace guide that recognized the design guidance required by council personnel in the context of universal design. The process and governance structure provides a good working model to build on. The success of the guideline was recognized with a national award from the Institute of Landscape Architects for Community Contribution. The purpose of this paper is not to comment on or evaluate the outcome of the guidelines. Rather, it is to document the inclusive and participatory governance structure and iterative process from a professional participant perspective.


Assuntos
Jogos e Brinquedos , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Humanos , New South Wales
3.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(3): 833-851, 2022.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074365

RESUMO

This article shows how images relating to chemistry sets express the predominance of the male gender in toys that simulate technical, gestural, and laboratory-related aspects of science, creating patterns of conduct towards the professional vocation of being a scientist. Priority is given to documents produced by the companies Gilbert (1920) and Chemcraft (1922) that are kept in the archives of the Chemical Heritage Foundation in the USA. What Joan Scott calls the social organization of sexual difference is discussed and the illustrations are analyzed, demonstrating a predominance of male figures showing how to "be a child," playing at being a scientist.


O artigo apresenta o modo como as imagens relativas aos conjuntos de química expressam as representações sobre a predominância do gênero masculino nas brincadeiras que simulam aspectos técnicos, gestuais, de laboratório, criando padrões de conduta que direcionam para a vocação profissional: o ser cientista. Foram privilegiadas as documentações produzidas pelas empresas Gilbert (1920) e Chemcraft (1922), presentes no acervo da Chemical Heritage Foundation (EUA). Discute-se o que Joan Scott chama de organização social da diferença sexual, enquanto são analisadas as ilustrações que privilegiam a dominância do gênero masculino, nas formas de "ser criança", brincando de cientista.


Assuntos
Arquivos , Médicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos , Comportamento Sexual
5.
J Emerg Nurs ; 48(5): 588, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084982
6.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 28: 100182, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children's executive functions develop rapidly during the preschool years and are critical for attending to lessons and meeting classroom expectations. Engaging in periods of outdoor play that have lower regulatory requirements and that provide opportunities for physical activity may help children maintain control over their behavior when they are back in settings with higher regulatory requirements. However, little work has formally examined this proposition in early childhood. METHODS: This study used a quasi-experimental design to examine preschoolers' executive functions following indoor compared to outdoor play. A total of 72 children (mean age = 4.5 years, 46% female, 73% non-Hispanic White) participated in task-based assessments of attention shifting and inhibitory control and in classroom observations of attention and inhibitory control. A subsample of the children (n = 51) was assessed for physical activity using accelerometry to examine the extent to which young children's physical activity during outdoor play predicted their subsequent executive functions better than their physical activity during indoor play. RESULTS: Children showed greater attention during classroom circle time following outdoor play compared to after indoor play (d = .34). Children's non-sedentary activity during indoor play was not related to their subsequent task-based executive functions but showed negative associations with their subsequent classroom-based executive functions. Children's percentage of time spent in non-sedentary physical activity during outdoor play showed a quadratic association with subsequent task-based inhibitory control but linear associations with subsequent classroom-based attention and inhibitory control during circle time. CONCLUSION: Periods of outdoor play that involve recommended amounts of physical activity may help young children engage executive functions when they return to the classroom.


Assuntos
Creches , Jogos e Brinquedos , Acelerometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Função Executiva , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Pediatr Rev ; 43(9): 481-482, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045152
8.
Am J Occup Ther ; 76(5)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947034

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Play, children's central occupation, and playfulness, its behavioral manifestation, are the foci of occupational therapy intervention. However, information about the development of playfulness behavior and the role of cognitive function is limited. OBJECTIVE: To explore the development of playfulness and its relation to cognitive functioning from infancy to toddlerhood. DESIGN: Longitudinal study with data collected at ages 6 mo, 18 mo, and 24 mo. SETTING: Laboratory (age 6 mo) and home (ages 12 and 18 mo). PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-six typically developing children drawn from a convenience sample of 109 low-risk families of middle to upper socioeconomic status. MEASURES: The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) to assess cognitive functioning and the Test of Playfulness (ToP) to assess children's playfulness. RESULTS: ToP scores were significantly higher at age 24 mo than at age 6 mo, t(88) = -60.30, p < .001, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-1.47, -1.38]. Correlation analysis revealed that the more playful the infant was at age 6 mo, the higher their cognitive functioning was at age 18 mo and the more playful they were at age 24 mo. Toddlers with higher cognitive performance at age 18 mo demonstrated more playful behavior at age 24 mo (ß = 0.120, SE = 0.05, 95% CI [0.0377, -0.2276]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Children's playfulness is evident as early as age 6 mo and continues to develop through toddlerhood, depending on their cognitive growth. Occupational therapists play a key role in working with families with young children, promoting cognitive development to further the development of playfulness behaviors. What This Article Adds: Understanding the development of playfulness and exploring its relationship with cognitive functioning in typically developing children fills important gaps in occupational therapy knowledge and contributes to delivery of early intervention, especially when cognition or playfulness are at risk. Our findings confirmed that cognitive functioning contributes to the development of playfulness.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Jogos e Brinquedos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011891

RESUMO

This research aims to summarize the process and results of the 2022 Report Card on Physical Activity for Brazilian children and adolescents. A group of experts led by 10 PhD researchers gathered the best possible evidence on physical activity indicators. The Report Card Brazil 2022 included the top 10 indicators of physical activity and sleep, obesity, and poor mental health variables, which made up four dimensions: (I) Daily Behaviors; (II) Settings and Sources of Influence; (III) Government Strategies and Investments; and (IV) Health Outcomes. Comprehensive searches, including peer-reviewed and gray literature searches, were performed for each indicator. Data were considered from systematic reviews, local and national surveys, websites, and official information from the Brazilian Federal Government. Grades from the indicators ranged from F (Active Play) to B (School). In addition, the results found for each indicator were Overall Physical Activity (D), Organized Sport Participation (C-), Active Transportation (C), Sedentary Behaviors (D), Sleep (C), Family and Peers (C-), Community and Environment (C), Government (D+), Physical Fitness (D+), Obesity (11.7%), and Poor Mental Health (37.8%). Successfully strategies for increasing physical activity among Brazilian children and adolescents should look at the different indicators presented in this report.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Jogos e Brinquedos , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Exercício Físico , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Obesidade
10.
Semin Speech Lang ; 43(4): 331-346, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896409

RESUMO

Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit early delays and deficits in play. In infancy, they engage in unusual exploratory behaviors with toys. As toddlers, they are slow to develop functional play, and in preschool some children with ASD fail to develop symbolic play despite having the necessary cognitive and language skills. Furthermore, when children with ASD are engaged in play, they demonstrate less playfulness. This article reviews the literature on the characteristics of exploratory, functional, and symbolic/pretend play in children with ASD and possible reasons for their unusual patterns of play development. Increased quantity and quality of play are frequent therapeutic goals for children with ASD. If play interventions are to be successful, it is critical that speech-language pathologists have an adequate assessment of children's play skills. Several frameworks and tools appropriate for assessing play in typical children and children with ASD are described.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
Primates ; 63(5): 535-546, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838928

RESUMO

Gaze aversion is a behavior adopted by several mammalian and non-mammalian species in response to eye contact, and is usually interpreted as a reaction to a perceived threat. Unlike many other primate species, common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are thought to have a high tolerance for direct gaze, barely exhibiting gaze avoidance towards conspecifics and humans. Here we show that this does not hold for marmosets interacting with a familiar experimenter who suddenly establishes eye contact in a playful interaction (peekaboo). Video footage synchronously recorded from the perspective of the marmoset and the experimenter showed that the monkeys consistently alternated between eye contact and head-gaze aversion, and that these responses were often preceded by head-cocking. We hypothesize that this behavioral strategy helps marmosets to temporarily disengage from emotionally overwhelming social stimulation due to sight of another individual's face, in order to prepare for a new round of affiliative face-to-face interactions.


Assuntos
Callithrix , Jogos e Brinquedos , Animais , Callithrix/fisiologia , Humanos , Mamíferos
12.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 72, 2022 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active play is vital for healthy child development, and schools are a valuable setting to promote this behaviour. Understanding the determinants of children's physical activity behaviour during recess, particularly the role of risk-taking and the influence safety concerns have on active play, is required. This systematic review aimed to 1) synthesise qualitative research with children that explored their perceptions of safety and risk in active play during recess in elementary and/or middle school, and 2) develop a model from the findings to guide efforts in schools to optimise children's active play opportunities during recess. METHODS: Six online databases were systematically searched for articles published between January 2000 and March 2021. Following PRISMA guidelines, records were screened against eligibility criteria using Covidence software, and data extraction and synthesis was conducted using customised forms in Excel and NVivo software. Framework synthesis methodology was employed, conceptually guided by Bronfenbrenner's socio-ecological model and Gibson's affordance theory. RESULTS: Of 9664 records, 31 studies met inclusion criteria, representing 1408 children across 140 schools from 11 countries. An emergent conceptual framework was developed encompassing 23 risk and safety themes and 10 risky play types that children desired in schools. Individual characteristics (age, gender, physical literacy) influenced children's engagement with risk and how they kept themselves safe. Across outer SEM levels, factors interacted to constrain or afford children's active play. Socio-cultural factors (supervision practices, rules, equipment restrictions) constrained active play, which children perceived were driven by adults' concern with physical safety. These factors contributed to a cycle of risk-averse decision making and diminished play affordances, which could inadvertently exacerbate safety issues. A model for risk tolerance in children's active play has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show a disparity between the active play children want in schools and what they are able to do. Future work should balance the concerns of adults against the active play children want, involve children in decisions about playground policy, and foster a risk-tolerant culture in schools.


Assuntos
Jogos e Brinquedos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Audição , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
J Sports Sci ; 40(13): 1476-1485, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703158

RESUMO

To increase physical activity levels in children, knowledge on how school playgrounds can be optimally designed is important. Until now, the contribution of playground variety and greening to children's physical activity level during recess remains unclear. This study examined the associations of school playground variety and greening with energy expenditure (EE) in elementary school children in Ecuador and Belgium. Additionally, moderating effects of study site and gender were studied. Observational data were collected using SOPLAY in ten schools in East Flanders (Belgium) and Cuenca (Ecuador). Data were analysed with linear mixed-effects model analyses. Results showed that independent of study site, EE was higher in playground areas with less green elements, and a higher level of total variety. Primary surface was only associated with EE in boys, they were more active when an artificial surface was present. Implementation of loose equipment was somewhat more strongly positively associated with EE in Ecuadorian than in Belgian children. Because of the well-known restorative effects of green elements, we do not wish to suggest that less greening should be implemented at schools. However, ideally green spaces should be designed in a way that active play is stimulated by combining green elements with other improvements.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora , Jogos e Brinquedos , Bélgica , Criança , Equador , Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 45(6): 36-48, Jun. 2022. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-207511

RESUMO

Introducción: La motivación con la que afronta el aprendizaje el alumnado es un aspecto clave que todo docente universitario debe tener en consideración.Objetivos: Analizar la eficacia de un seminario estructurado mediante metodología de gamificación en estudiantes del grado de enfermería durante su formación clínica en unidades hospitalarias pediátricas y determinar el grado de satisfacción con la actividad llevado a cabo.Métodos: Participaron un total de 244 estudiantes de 4º curso del Grado en Enfermería y 50 enfermeras tutoras clínicas de un centro hospitalario. Se llevó a cabo un test pre y post seminario. El caso constó de tres fases: una relacionada con las actividades al ingreso en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, la segunda con el cálculo de medicación pediátrica y la tercera con los cuidados de enfermería a aplicar. Para valorar la eficacia en relación a la práctica clínica se elaboraron dos encuestas ad hoc, una dirigida a los estudiantes y otra a enfermeras asociadas docentes y/o tutoras clínicas. También se administró una encuesta de satisfacción.Resultados: La puntuación media obtenida en el pre test teórico fue de 9,1 puntos sobre 10 y, en el post test, de 9,73. Las tres preguntas relacionadas con el nivel de conocimientos, autoconfianza y seguridad del alumnado obtuvieron las siguientes puntuaciones: 4,09, 4,83 y 3,99 puntos sobre 10 pre seminario versus los 7,71, 7,75 y 7,21 puntos post seminario, observándose significación estadística (p<0.001). Se obtuvo significación estadística en las preguntas que relacionaban la “consecución de objetivos docentes en áreas asistenciales” (enfermero/a) y la de “adquisición de competencias clínicas específicas” (alumnado), p=0.04. El grado de satisfacción global fue de 8,66±1,43 puntos.Conclusiones: La gamificación es una metodología docente eficaz muy bien valorada por parte de las estudiantes, considerándola de gran utilidad. (AU)


Background: The motivation of students in their approach to learning should be a matter of concern to all university instructors.Aims: To analyze the effectiveness of a structured seminar using gamification methodology with nursing degree students during their clinical training in pediatric hospital units, and to determine their level of satisfaction with the activity as carried out.Methods: A total of 244 fourth-year nursing degree students participated, along with 50 nurse clinical tutors from a hospital. A pretest and a post-test were administered. The case had three stages: one related to activities at the time of patient admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, a second involving the calculation of pediatric medication dosages, and a third involving the nursing care to be given. Two ad hoc surveys were used to assess the effectiveness of the seminar, one directed at the students and the other at the nursing instructors and/or clinical tutors. A satisfaction survey was also given.Results: The average score for the theoretical pretest was 9.1 over 10; on the post-test it was 9.73. The three questions addressing the level of knowledge, self-confidence, and self-assuredness of the students yielded the following scores: 4.09, 4.83, and 3.99 over 10 pre- seminar vs 7.71, 7.75, and 7.21 post-seminar; this difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). There was statistical significance in the responses to the questions related to “achieving pedagogical aims in areas of care” (nurses) and “acquisition of specific clinical skills” (students), p=0.04. The overall level of satisfaction was 8.66±1.43 points.Conclusions: Gamification is an effective teaching methodology that is well-received by the students and seen by them as useful. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pediatria/educação , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/tendências , Jogos e Brinquedos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Congressos como Assunto
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742434

RESUMO

A paucity of research has addressed the relationship between each psychological construct of playfulness and smartphone dependency, and the purpose of this research is to understand how each psychological construct of playfulness, including physical animation, social engagement, mental spontaneity, emotional fluidity, and humorous perspective playfulness, influences smartphone dependency of the upper grades of elementary schoolers. For this purpose, a total of 278 questionnaires was analyzed for descriptive, correlation, and multiple regression analysis. The correlation analysis showed that respondents' age positively and parents' education levels negatively correlates to smartphone dependency. The multiple regression analyses showed that physical animation playfulness and emotional fluidity playfulness negatively and social engagement playfulness positively influence smartphone dependency of the respondents. The findings indicate that to reduce smartphone dependency among elementary schoolers, physical animation and emotional fluidity playfulness need to be promoted. The findings also suggest that each component of playfulness has distinctive advantages and disadvantages of developmental processes in childhood, and more future research endeavors need to be directed to understand the role of playfulness in children's behaviors and cognitive processes.


Assuntos
Jogos e Brinquedos , Smartphone , Criança , Emoções , Humanos , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 222: 105446, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688116

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive impacts of tablet use on young children's inhibitory control and error monitoring. A total of 70 children (35 boys) aged 3.5 to 5 years completed an age-appropriate go/no-go task and were then randomly assigned to a technology group or a comparison group. In the technology group, children completed a cooking task on a tablet for 15 min. In the comparison group, children completed a similarly structured cooking task with toys for the same length of time. Children then completed the go/no-go task again. Compared with children in the comparison group, children in the technology group demonstrated poorer inhibitory control as evidenced by lower accuracy on no-go trials after the cooking task. However, both groups displayed post-error reaction time slowing. Collectively, these results suggest that brief tablet use can impose selective impairment on young children's cognitive abilities for a short period of time following use.


Assuntos
Cognição , Função Executiva , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos , Tempo de Reação
17.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(6): e1314-e1319, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize and compare trends in pediatric injuries sustained on motorized and nonmotorized scooters across the United States, to assess the use of safety equipment in children presenting with scooter-related injuries, and provide strategies for injury prevention. METHODS: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried for motorized and nonmotorized scooter-related pediatric injuries from 2014 to 2018 in patients ages 6 to 12 years. Patient demographics, diagnosis, injury location, and narrative of the incident were collected. Bivariate and regression analyses were used to determine demographic and social associations of injury characteristics. RESULTS: An estimated 146,000 (11,452 motorized and 134,548 nonmotorized) injuries occurred in children ages 6 to 12 years over the 5 years. Three of 4 injuries occurred in children younger than 10 years, and most injuries occurred in males (56%).From 2014 to 2018, the nationwide estimated incidence of motorized scooter injuries increased by 112.1%, while that of nonmotorized scooter injuries decreased by 40.3%.Upper extremity injuries were most common with nonmotorized scooters (44.4% of all injuries), while lower extremity injuries were most common with motorized scooters (39.5% of all injuries). Head and neck injuries accounted for 27.4% of nonmotorized scooter injuries and 23.4% of motorized scooter injuries. The number of concussions in motorized scooters increased from 0.4% in 2014 to 2.7% in 2018, while concussions in nonmotorized scooters decreased from 3.5% to 2.7%. Helmets were mentioned in the medical record in 6.6% of the cases. Of these, 60.5% reported no use of helmet at the time of injury. CONCLUSIONS: From 2014 to 2018, the number of motorized scooter injuries increased by 112.1% in the pediatric population ages 6 to 12 years, whereas nonmotorized scooter injuries decreased by 40.3%. In more than 60% of the cases that mentioned a helmet, the child injured was recorded as not wearing a helmet. The rise in pediatric injuries associated with motorized scooters in contrast with the reduction of injuries associated with nonmotorized scooters highlights the need for novel public health policies and interventions promoting helmet use with motorized scooters in the pediatric population.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Jogos e Brinquedos , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Equipamentos de Proteção , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 40(3): 398-409, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531952

RESUMO

The present study examined whether three-year-old children (age = 42-48 months, n = 57; 31 boys) understand that object identities stipulated during pretend play could only be known by people witnessing the stipulation. Children participated in pretend scenarios that included some objects and two experimenters. Two pretend episodes corresponded to an object: one connected to its conventional function, the other to a pretend identity made-up on the spot. These episodes happened either in the presence or absence of the other person. In the test phase, this experimenter expressed an intention to do something with an object and asked for a 'missing' prop. The prediction was that in case she was present previously, children would be more likely to select the prop corresponding to a pretence stipulation, compared to when she was absent. The results confirmed this pattern: in the absent condition, 68.42% of the participants chose the prop connected to the conventional use of the object, while 31.58% chose the prop corresponding to its identity stipulated in pretend play. It seems that preschool aged children refrain from generalizing their knowledge about the pretend identity of an object, in case their interactive partner could not know of this identity.


Assuntos
Imaginação , Jogos e Brinquedos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino
19.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt D): 113500, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594962

RESUMO

Clay toys have been used as play materials and educational tools for children. Clay toys exhibit adherent properties, and may facilitate chemical ingestion via dermal absorption and oral (hand-to-mouth, HTM) exposures. Inhalation exposure also be considered when contain volatile chemicals. The purpose of this study was to estimate the exposure dose for chemicals in clay toys via three exposure routes, and to evaluate the relationship between the exposure contribution of each route considering both the chemical properties and children's age. Chemical analysis was conducted for 9 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), 17 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 7 metal elements in clay toys (n = 66) purchased from Korean market. Exposure factors for usage pattern of clay toys were conducted based on a nationally representative survey in Korea. A total of 12,144 (60.7%) children responded positively to playing with clay toys. Exposure to SVOCs and VOCs in clay toys via HTM, inhalation, and dermal absorption were estimated. The exposure level was the highest in styrene with 5.2 × 10-3 mg/kg-bw/day (95th percentile population), which was approximately 13% of the acceptable daily dose for styrene. In 3-year-old children, dermal absorption route contributed the highest at 59.2-100%. Chemicals with higher octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) had the greater the contribution of the dermal absorption route and the weaker the contribution of the HTM route. In infants (0-2 years), the contribution via HTM exposure was higher than that in the other age groups. The contribution of inhalation exposure differed depending on the volatility of the chemicals. Furthermore, the exposure route contribution significantly differed due to age-dependent behavioral changes in children. These results suggest that the exposure assessments for children could be considered with multiple exposure routes related to chemical properties.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Pré-Escolar , Argila , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Jogos e Brinquedos , Estirenos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
20.
Occup Ther Int ; 2022: 7686818, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35495176

RESUMO

This paper examines the characteristics and current situation of children's vocal enlightenment toy design, studies how to design children's verbal enlightenment toys based on audiovisual associative experience, and develops appropriate optimization strategies and approaches. This paper analyzes the theoretical basis involved in design practice, summarizes the generation and concept of audiovisual association and the significance of associative experience for children's vocal enlightenment, explores the application and characteristics of interaction design in children's toys, and summarizes the creation of interactive toys. The triggered form of associative experience is determined according to the physical and mental development characteristics, interaction behavior, and experimental research of children at this stage. By summarizing the typical design elements of existing children's interactive toys with good sales and reputation and designing a questionnaire, the Kano model was used to obtain the design element priorities to guide design practice. We used audiovisual association as an entry point to writing a sound and picture interactive program through processing and the Arduino platform to develop the interactive toys. "Sound fun" is an interactive toy that extracts the characteristics of children's voices to correspond to the changes of picture elements and can provide real-time feedback of dynamic pictures through the user's voice to achieve the purpose of triggering a synesthetic experience. Interaction design applied to toy design is a new direction in terms of traditional toy design, which enhances the interactivity of toys and enhances the user's sense of experience and participation in the use of toys; it can improve the affinity and fun of toys.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Criança , Humanos , Nigéria , Jogos e Brinquedos
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