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1.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25041, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048322

RESUMO

O objetivo desta pesquisa é compreender as brincadeiras de lutinha e as brigas vivenciadas no ambiente escolar, sob a perspectiva do cotidiano infantil, em um Centro de Atenção Integral à Criança e ao Adolescente, situado em Sobradinho II ­ DF. O estudo tem natureza qualitativa, de orientação etnográfica, com os aportes teórico-metodológicos das sociologias do cotidiano e da infância. O trabalho de campo foi realizado ao longo de sete meses do ano letivo de 2017, com trinta e quatro crianças, entre nove e 12 anos de idade. Os instrumentos utilizados foram observação participante, produção de desenhos e conversas com as crianças. Os registros de campo permitiram a identificação de categorias que evidenciam as brincadeiras de lutinha e as brigas sob dimensões paradoxais do cotidiano infantil, que carregam no seu bojo aspectos circundantes ao conflito enquanto mediador das relações concebidas dentro e fora da escola


This study looks into children's play-fighting and real fights experienced in the school environment from the perspective of children's daily life in a Center for Whole Attention to Children and Adolescents located in Sobradinho II, DF, Brazil. It is a qualitative, ethnographic study with theoretical-methodological contributions from Sociologies of Daily Life and Childhood. Field research was conducted over seven months of the 2017 school year, with 34 children aged 9-12. The instruments used were participant observation, drawing, and conversations with the children. Field records allowed identifying categories that show play-fighting and real fights under the paradoxical dimensions of children's daily life, which carry aspects surrounding conflict as a mediator of relationships conceived inside and outside the school


El objetivo de esta investigación es comprender los juegos de lucha y las peleas vivenciadas en el ambiente escolar, bajo la perspectiva del cotidiano infantil, en un Centro de Atención Integral a Niños y Adolescentes, situado en Sobradinho II - DF. El estudio tiene naturaleza cualitativa, con orientación etnográfica y con los aportes teóricometodológicos de las sociologías de lo cotidiano y de la infancia. La investigación de campo fue realizada a lo largo de siete meses del año 2017, con treinta y cuatro niños de entre 9 y 12 años de edad. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron la observación participante, la producción de dibujos y las conversaciones con los niños. Los registros de campo permitieron la identificación de categorías que evidencian los juegos de lucha y las peleas bajo dimensiones paradójicas del cotidiano infantil, que cargan aspectos circundantes al conflicto como mediador de las relaciones concebidas dentro y fuera de la escuela


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Jogos e Brinquedos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Violência , Conflito (Psicologia)
2.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25048, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048486

RESUMO

En este artículo se presentan los resultados finales de una investigación cualitativa que tuvo por objetivo conocer y comprender el lugar que ocupa el juego en los proyectos de innovación educativa vigentes de una Universidad Pública Argentina. La metodología empleada fue la teoría fundamentada o método de constante comparación. Se utilizaron dos estrategias de recolección de datos: el análisis de textos (proyectos aprobados y financiados), entrevistas en profundidad (a directores de los proyectos). Para garantizar no solo el acceso a la educación superior universitaria, sino el interés por estudiar y la oportunidad de avanzar en los estudios y graduarse en un tiempo prudente, algunos equipos de trabajo, diseñan situaciones de juego para conectar la dimensión práctica de los conocimientos construidos con el dominio teórico conceptual de los objetos de estudio. Aun cuando el juego es más viejo que la cultura, el contexto universitario lo propone como innovación


Este artigo descreve os resultados finais de uma pesquisa qualitativa que tem como objetivo conhecer e compreender o lugar do jogo nos atuais projetos de inovação de ensino da uma universidade pública argentina. A metodologia utilizada foi a teoria fundamentada ou método de comparação constante. Foram utilizadas duas estratégias da coleta de dados: análise do texto (projetos aprovados e financiados) e entrevistas em profundidade (para gerentes de projeto). Para assegurar não só o acesso ao ensino superior, mas o interesse em estudar e a oportunidade de avançar estudos em tempo adequado, alguns professores fazem situações do jogo para ligar a dimensão prática do conhecimento construído com o domínio conceitual teórico dos objetos de estudo. Mesmo quando o jogo é mais antigo que a cultura, o contexto universitário o propõe como uma inovação


This article presents the results of a qualitative study aimed at knowing and understanding the role played by game in current educational innovation projects of a public university in Argentina. It used grounded theory or the constant comparison method, with two data collection strategies: text analysis (projects approved and funded) and indepth interviews (with project directors). In order not only to guarantee access to university education but also to foster interest in studying and the opportunity to advance in one's studies and graduate within a reasonable time, some work teams design game situations to connect the practical dimension of the knowledge constructed with the theoretical conceptual domain of the objects of study. Even when the game is older than the culture, the university context proposes it as an innovation


Assuntos
Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Formulação de Projetos , Educação , Inovação , Inclusão Educacional
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1426, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A rapidly growing body of research suggests that qualities of the built environment can promote active living among children and youth. Nevertheless, shortcomings in the current evidence for understanding which built environment characteristics provide opportunities for taking part in activities in childhood remain. This study aimed to examine whether population density, green spaces, and facilities/amenities are associated with participation in leisure-time physical activity (PA), organized activities, and social activities with friends and peers in Norwegian 8-year-olds. METHODS: Data from a sample of 23,043 children from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) were linked with geospatial data about the built environment. The questionnaire data reported by mothers provided information on the children's leisure activities. We computed exposure to neighborhood population density and access to green spaces and facilities/amenities within 800- and 5000-m radii of the participants' home addresses using geographic information systems. Associations were estimated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: We found beneficial associations between having a park within 800-m and more leisure-time PA during the summer. Furthermore, children living in neighborhoods with higher proportions of green space participated in more PA during the winter. More densely populated areas and access to facilities were associated with participation in organized and social activities. Specifically, we observed that more playgrounds/sport fields in the neighborhood were the strongest and most consistent correlate of activity participation in Norwegian 8-year-olds by being related to more socialization with friends and peers. CONCLUSION: This population-based study underscores the importance of access to a variety of venues and opportunities for different activities in the immediate neighborhood surroundings and in the greater community to support participation in physical activity and organized and social activities in childhood.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício , Parques Recreativos , Densidade Demográfica , Características de Residência , Esportes , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mães , Noruega , Jogos e Brinquedos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 22(257): 3234-3238, out.2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1026098

RESUMO

O estudo objetivou compreender a experiência da criança com Dermatite Atópica em relação ao enfrentamento da doença por meio do conteúdo expresso na brincadeira, à luz do Interacionismo Simbólico. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, realizada em uma unidade ambulatorial filantrópica em São Paulo-SP, com crianças em fase pré-escolar. Este percebeu que o viver com dermatite atópica é marcado por uma série de restrições. Os resultados permitiram compreender a experiência vivenciada pela criança pré-escolar com dermatite atópica e entender como esta condição interfere em sua vida e na interação com o ambiente à sua volta. O brinquedo mostrou-se como um aliado da criança no enfrentamento da doença e importante ferramenta de coleta de dados, possibilitando à criança expressar-se com liberdade. Este avançou no conhecimento sobre o tema e pode auxiliar o enfermeiro na decisão por ações centradas na criança e em sua perspectiva, contribuindo para aprimorar a qualidade da assistência de enfermagem.(AU)


The research aimed to understand the experience of the child with Atopic Dermatitis in relation to the confrontation of the disease through the content expressed in the game, by the light of Symbolic Interactionism. This is a qualitative research, carried out in a philanthropic outpatient unit in São Paulo, Brazil, with pre-school children. The results allowed us to understand the experience of preschool children with atopic dermatitis and to understand how this condition interferes with their life and their interaction with the environment around them. The therapeutic play proved to be an ally of the child in overcoming his hardships and proved to be an important data collection tool that enables the child to express himself with freedom. It has advanced in the knowledge about the subject and can help nurses in the decision for actions centered on the child and their perspective, contributing to improve the quality of nursing care.(AU)


El estudio objetivó comprender la experiencia del niño con Dermatitis Atópica en relación al enfrentamiento de la enfermedad por medio del contenido expresado en la broma, a la luz del Interaccionismo Simbólico. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, realizada en una unidad ambulatorial filantrópica en São Paulo-SP, con niños en fase preescolar. Este percibió que el vivir con dermatitis atópica está marcado por una serie de restricciones. Los resultados permitieron comprender la experiencia vivenciada por el niño preescolar con dermatitis atópica y entender cómo esta condición interfiere en su vida y en la interacción con el ambiente a su alrededor. El juguete se mostró como un aliado del niño en el enfrentamiento de la enfermedad e importante herramienta recolecta de datos, permitiendo al niño expresarse con libertad. Este avanzó en el conocimiento sobre el tema y puede auxiliar al enfermero en la decisión por acciones centradas en el niño y en su perspectiva, contribuyendo a mejorar la calidad de la asistencia de enfermería.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Enfermagem Pediátrica , Jogos e Brinquedos , Dermatite Atópica , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Saúde da Criança
5.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(3): 594-607, jul.-set. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021512

RESUMO

A experiência relatada neste artigo envolveu a elaboração e aplicação do ImunoDAI, um jogo de cartas desenvolvido por alunos e professores do curso de Medicina para abordar o conteúdo técnico de vinte Doenças Autoimunes (DAI). As DAI compreendem numerosas doenças com diferentes apresentações clínicas que compartilham uma etiologia complexa, porém comum, representada pela resposta imunológica contra autoantígenos. O ImunoDAI trata-se de um jogo produzido coletivamente que, enquanto recurso pedagógico, possibilitou o trabalho com as DAI por meio da elaboração de quatro cartas contendo informações sobre as principais causas da doença; imunopatogênese; sinais e sintomas; diagnóstico e tratamento. A utilização do jogo facilitou a fixação dos conteúdos e favoreceu o processo de ensino-aprendizagem ao permitir múltiplas interações, promover a aprendizagem dos conteúdos, desenvolver autonomia, criatividade, cooperação mútua, discussões e tomadas de decisões, habilidades indispensáveis aos futuros médicos.


The experience reported in this article involved the development and application of ImmunoDAI, a card game developed by students and professors of the medical course to address the technical content of twenty autoimmune diseases (DAI). The DAI comprise numerous diseases with different clinical presentations that share a complex but common etiology represented by the immune response against autoantigens. The ImunoDAI is a collectively produced game that, as a pedagogical resource, made possible the work with the DAI through the elaboration of four letters containing information about the main causes of the disease; immunopathogenesis; signals and symptoms; diagnosis and treatment. The use of the game facilitated the fixing of contents and favored the teaching-learning process by allowing multiple interactions, promoting content learning, developing autonomy, creativity, cooperation, discussions and decision making, skills that are indispensable for future doctors.


A experiencia relatada en este artículo involucró la elaboración y aplicación del ImunoDAI, un juego de cartas desarrollado por alumnos y profesores del curso de Medicina para abordar el contenido técnico de veinte Enfermedades autoinmunes (DAI). Las DAI comprenden numerosas enfermedades con diferentes presentaciones clínicas que comparten una etiología compleja, pero común, representada por la respuesta inmunológica contra autoantígenos. El ImunoDAI es un juego producido colectivamente que, en cuanto recurso pedagógico, posibilitó el trabajo con las DAI por medio de la elaboración de cuatro cartas conteniendo informaciones sobre las principales causas de la enfermedad; inmunopatogenia; signos y síntomas; diagnóstico y tratamiento. La utilización del juego facilitó la fijación de los contenidos y favoreció el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje al permitir múltiples interacciones, promover el aprendizaje de los contenidos, desarrollar autonomía, creatividad, cooperación, discusiones y tomas de decisiones, habilidades indispensables para los futuros médicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Doenças Autoimunes , Alergia e Imunologia , Materiais Educativos e de Divulgação , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Ensino , Materiais de Ensino , Universidades , Criatividade , Educação Superior , Tomada de Decisões , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426345

RESUMO

Nature contacts are recognized as positively contributing to humans' health and well-being. Although there have been projects to green daycare or schoolyards, yard greening and microbial biodiversity have never been studied simultaneously. We asked whether simultaneously increasing biodiversity exposure and greening urban daycare yards affects 3-5 years-old children's physical activity and play, their environmental relationships, and their perceived well-being. For transforming six daycare yards in Finland, we used a forest floor with high biodiversity, sod, peat blocks, and planters for vegetable and flower growing. We used qualitative interview and survey-based data collected from the daycare personnel and parents to analyze how green yards encourage children's engagement with their everyday life-worlds. We identified the functional possibilities provided by the yards and the dynamic aspects related to the greening. Green, biodiverse yards were considered safe, and inspired children's play, diversified their activities, and increased physical activity. The greenery offered embodied experiences of nature and provided the children with multi-sensory exploration and diverse learning situations. The dynamic and emotional ways of engaging with the natural environment increased their well-being. The activities related to caring for the yards and exploring them promoted the development of environmental relationships. The results can be used for designing health-enhancing yards.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Creches , Meio Ambiente , Natureza , Jogos e Brinquedos , Adulto , Biodiversidade , Pré-Escolar , Exercício , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Plantas , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 994-999, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374759

RESUMO

Early detection of neurodevelopmental disorders in infants is critical for early intervention to improve their long-term function. Integrating natural play with quantitative measurements of developmental milestones may help to quickly and efficiently identify infants at-risk for developmental delays. Ailu is a sensorized toy designed to elicit and measure natural infant play interactions. Ailu is part of the Play and Neuro Development Assessment (PANDA) gym, whose purpose is to serve as a universal and quantitative screening tool for detection of delays. This case study describes design considerations made developing Ailu and evaluates Ailu's potential in upper limb, lower limb, and parent-guided testing with a 3-month old infant. Ailu can encourage reaching, kicking, and grasping, and will be tested for distinguishing typical and atypical development with further infant trials.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Jogos e Brinquedos , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia
8.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(3): 38-44, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391409

RESUMO

Analytical survey of plasticizers used in about 500 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys in Japanese market was performed in 2014. The results obtained were compared with those obtained in 2009. Fifteen types of plasticizers including di (2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP) were detected. These plasticizers were also detected in the products in 2009, suggesting that the types of plasticizers used in PVC toys have not been changed. Among these detected plasticizers, the detection ratios of DEHTP were 60.3 and 73.7% in both designated and not-designated toys, respectively, both of which are the highest. These ratios are over 20-points higher than those in 2009. The six types of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) prohibited to use for the designated toys in Japan were not detected in designated toys used in this study. However, four types of PAEs, including three types of prohibited PAEs, were detected in not-designated toys with the detection ratios from 2.8 to 15.5%. These ratios are lower than those in 2009. The content levels of plasticizers used in the toys are lower than those in 2009. These results show that the main plasticizer used in PVC toys is DEHTP, and that the usage levels of plasticizers have been decreased.


Assuntos
Plastificantes/análise , Jogos e Brinquedos , Cloreto de Polivinila/análise , Japão
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295904

RESUMO

There are tentative indications that physical activity (PA) during school time can be beneficial for children's academic performance. So far, most studies have focused on the effects of moderate-to-vigorous PA, for example, in the form of energizers or extra physical education lessons. Little is known about the effects of physically active learning, in which PA is integrated with the academic content of the lessons, especially in preadolescent children. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the enjoyment of physically active learning in this age group. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the effects of integrating juggling with math practice in primary school children, on (1) multiplication memorization performance and (2) enjoyment during the math lessons. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial, in which 312 children (mean age 10.4 years) from nine Dutch primary schools participated. Fourteen classes were randomly assigned to either a group that learned juggling whilst practicing multiplication tables (intervention group), or to a group that practiced the same multiplication tables while sedentary (control group). Both interventions had a duration of 5 weeks and consisted of 20 short lessons (4 lessons per week, 5 to 8 min). We used mixed-model analyses to examine the effect of the intervention on multiplication memorization performance. Group (control or intervention) was used as the fixed factor, and class and school as random intercepts. Analyses were adjusted for pretest multiplication performance, age, gender, general motor skill level, physical activity behavior (PAQ-C), and academic math performance. No significant intervention effect on multiplication performance were observed. However, the math-juggling program significantly increased enjoyment of children during the math lessons. We can conclude that the intervention did not improve, but neither deteriorated children's math performance. The increased enjoyment in the math-juggling group can serve as an important starting point for structurally incorporating physical activities in the classroom setting.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Matemática/educação , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Ensino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1603: 311-326, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272731

RESUMO

Herein, we report a multi-residue method based on dissolution-precipitation extraction combined with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis for targeted screening and quantification of 216 harmful chemicals in plastic children's toys. We established a spectrogram database containing the first-order mass spectra of all analytes and their second-order mass spectra at different collision energies. Good separation was attained in less than 60 min. As a simple and low-cost extraction method, dissolution-precipitation exhibited good recoveries for the analytes in the plastic samples. The matrix-matched standard curves were accurate for analyte quantification in specific plastics due to the solvent effects and matrix effects. The limits of quantification range were 0.1 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg. A wide linear range of 0.1-200 mg/kg was also observed, with r2≥0.9924. The average recoveries ranged from 63.9% to 137.6%, and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) varied from 0.6% to 13.2%. Finally, 31 ABS actual toys and 30 PVC actual toys were detected and 20 analytes with contents ranging from 0.4 mg/kg to 172 mg/kg and 30 analytes from 0.8 mg/kg to 141,030 mg/kg were discovered respectively.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Plásticos/química , Jogos e Brinquedos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Criança , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química
12.
Appl Ergon ; 80: 28-34, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280807

RESUMO

The use of a school trolley is reaching and even surpassing the use of backpacks in many countries, although a recommended load has not been studied. To accomplish this, 3D gait kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax were analysed in 49 students walking unloaded, pulling a school trolley or carrying a backpack, all with either 10%, 15%, or 20% BW. The variables obtained were the degrees of flexion/extension, adduction/abduction and internal/external rotation of the thorax, pelvis, hip, knee and ankle. Statistical parametric mapping was used to evaluate differences between conditions and loads throughout the gait cycle. In the backpack conditions, the magnitudes of the differences decreased from proximal to distal joints compared to the unloaded condition. The use of a school trolley only required minor kinematic adaptations. Therefore, from kinematic analysis, it is recommended to avoid loads above 10% BW for children using a backpack and below 20% BW for children using a trolley.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Remoção , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Dorso/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Pelve/fisiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Tórax/fisiologia , Caminhada
13.
Arch Pediatr ; 26(5): 282-284, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281041

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trampolines are responsible for specific injuries. We examined the severity of these injuries in children compared with those occurring in other activities. Our primary goal was to compare the injury severity between trampolining and other activities. Our secondary goal was to evaluate risk factors for severity in order to establish preventative measures and, third, to evaluate the increased prevalence of these injuries in our hospital from 2008 to 2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our study was a retrospective, comparative, descriptive, and epidemiological research. Children aged 2-15 years admitted to our traumatology emergency services between June and October 2016 were included in the study. Non-sport-related injuries were excluded. Serious injuries were classified as fractures and admissions to the operating room. RESULTS: In total, 1106 children were admitted including 107 trampoline accidents. The fracture rate was similar in the two groups: 34 (31.78%) vs. 309 (30.93%), OR=1.039, 95% CI [0.65, 1.62] P=0.91. Surgical treatments were more frequent in the trampoline group: 4 (3.74%) vs. 18 (1.80%) OR=2.114, 95% CI [0.51, 6.58] P=0.156. Several people jumping simultaneously on the trampoline was a risk factor (OR=1.56, 95% CI [1.0908, 2.308], P=0.018). Parental supervision was a protective factor (OR=0.271, 95% CI [0.08, 0.80], P=0.023). Trampolining accidents were 9.7 times more common in our center in 2016 compared with 2008. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, no study has compared trampoline injuries with those stemming from other activities. Awareness campaigns are needed as well as information from sellers, who have to be trained. CONCLUSION: Surgical treatments are twice as likely in trampoline accidents. Prevention is simple: Children should be alone on the trampoline and supervised by an adult.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/lesões , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
14.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(4): 1043-1047, jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1005743

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar o uso do brinquedo terapêutico pelos acadêmicos de enfermagem no cuidado à criança hospitalizada e discutir as implicações de seu uso na trajetória do acadêmico de enfermagem. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida em uma Escola de Enfermagem Federal no Rio de Janeiro com 17 acadêmicos. A coleta de dados foi realizada em outubro e novembro de 2016 por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e tratados com a técnica de análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: o brinquedo terapêutico é apresentado ao aluno no conteúdo teórico, porém sem a oportunidade de aplicá-lo na prática. Sua aplicação prática o deixaria mais seguro para prestar assistência à criança, somado à qualidade do cuidado prestado e os benefícios para ela. Conclusão: o ensino do brinquedo terapêutico deve acontecer em campo prático, e não somente no teórico, contribuindo, assim, para melhor formação do enfermeiro e melhoria da qualidade da assistência pediátrica


Objective: To identify the use of therapeutic toys by nursing students when caring for hospitalized children and to discuss the consequences of their use in the path of nursing students. Method: Qualitative research, developed at a Federal Nursing School in Rio de Janeiro with 17 students. Data were collected in October and November 2016, through semistructured interviews, and they were processed with the thematic content analysis technique. Results: The therapeutic toy is introduced to the student in the theoretical content, but without the opportunity to apply it in practice. Its practical application would make it safer to provide care to the child, added to the quality of the care provided and the benefits for it. Conclusion: The therapeutic toy teaching should happen in the practical field, not only in the theoretical field, thereby contributing to a better training of nurses and improvement of the quality of the pediatric care


Objetivo: Identificar el uso del juguete terapéutico por los académicos de enfermería en la atención al niño hospitalizado y discutir las consecuencias de su uso en la trayectoria del académico de enfermería. Método: Investigación cualitativa, desarrollada en una Escuela Federal de Enfermería en Río de Janeiro con 17 académicos. Los datos se recolectaron en octubre y noviembre 2016 mediante entrevista semiestructurada y se trataron con la técnica de análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: El juguete terapéutico se presenta al alumno en el contenido teórico, pero sin oportunidad de aplicarlo en la práctica. Su aplicación práctica lo dejaría más seguro para ayudar al niño, sumado a la calidad de la atención ofrecida y los beneficios para él. Conclusión: La enseñanza del juguete terapéutico debe ocurrir en el campo práctico, y no sólo en el teórico, contribuyendo así para mejor formación del enfermero y mejoramiento de la calidad de la asistencia pediátrica


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Criança Hospitalizada , Enfermagem Pediátrica/educação , Materiais de Ensino
15.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 266-269, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166122

RESUMO

Obesity and diabetes are two of the biggest public health problems in the modern world. One possible way to combat the rising prevalence of these diseases is through the spread of awareness about its consequences and how to prevent them. Therefore, educational interventions focused on teaching the physiological basis of these conditions might be valuable tools. However, most scholar curriculums lack high-quality material devoted to this topic. Thus we developed an educational booklet, composed of playful elements, targeted toward high school students and destined for application in classrooms. The efficacy of the developed material was validated through a pretest-posttest design, in which the students had to answer a 10-question test. After booklet completion, students had better outcomes, with an increase in the percentage of correct answers in 7 out of 10 questions contained in the test (P < 0.05). Thus we developed an effective material for usage in the high school classroom to spread the awareness of the risks of metabolic diseases and how to prevent them.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Folhetos , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(6)2019 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178435

RESUMO

Gel blasters fire a hydrated gel polymer and are developed to circumvent the restrictions placed on paintball and airsoft guns. Because there are no reported cases of injury caused by gel blasters in the literature, some Australian jurisdictions have categorised them as a toy. Presented here are two cases of potentially blinding blunt ocular trauma which question the misguided notion they are a harmless toy. Two children each with a macrohyphaema were managed at a tertiary ophthalmology centre within 2 weeks of each other after being struck by a gel blaster projectile. Their vision ultimately returned to normal, but both face lifelong risks of ocular complications. These cases highlight the need for vigilance, and the appropriate restriction of powerful weapons, with the inherent need for eye protection when operating any such projectiles reiterated. It is recommended their licensing is made congruous with paintball guns to prevent false reassurance of their safety.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Oculares/etiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/lesões , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/etiologia , Adolescente , Austrália , Pré-Escolar , Traumatismos Oculares/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Acuidade Visual , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações
17.
Occup Ther Int ; 2019: 6397425, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191183

RESUMO

Background: Play is essential to child development, and its evaluation is considered valid to indicate the stage of development of the child and indicate possible lagging. The Revised Knox Preschool Play Scale (RKPPS) provides an evolving description of the typical play behavior of preschool children, in six-month periods from zero to three years of age and then in annual periods up to six years of age. The RKPPS has already undergone the process of cultural adaptation for use in the Brazilian population, and it is necessary to analyze its applicability. Aims: To verify the reliability and internal consistency of the RKPPS for Brazilian children. Method: 135 children participated in the study, divided into different age groups with 15 in each group, and were filmed during free play in school or home contexts. Two independent raters evaluated the footage from two different times. Based on these evaluations, a statistical analysis was carried out in order to ascertain the reliability and the internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the RKPPS. Results: Intra- and interrater reliability showed a predominance of near-perfect to moderate agreement; however, some dimensions of certain age groups presented reasonable to poor agreement. The internal consistency was found to be satisfactory for most of the items evaluated; however, there were items with poor results in some dimensions of certain age groups. Conclusions: There is a need for further analysis of these items by a committee of experts to ensure the reproducibility of the instrument.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional/normas , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Percepção Espacial , Tradução
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 261: 55-61, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156091

RESUMO

The constraints that physical rehabilitation exergames (PREGs) may impose on Player Experience (PX) evaluation should be identified from a physiotherapists' perspective. In this paper, we present the results of a qualitative study to identify the characteristics and constraints that are relevant to evaluate PX in PREGs. The study included semi-structured interviews conducted during two sessions with three physiotherapists from a local hospital. The collected data was analysed using the thematic content analysis method. The findings indicate that the PX evaluation constraints are related to (a) the rehabilitation context in which PREGs are employed; (b) the pursued rehabilitation goal (i.e., the capability of a PREG to assist the achievement of a rehabilitation goal); and (c) the characteristics of target patients, which may affect their experience and willingness to play. The findings of the study contribute to a comprehensive understanding of PX in PREGs. We concluded that the three groups of constraints may impact the three constructs of PX; i.e., context (rehabilitation context), player (patient) and game system (PREG system). Confirming the need to propose or extend PX models of entertaining games for the case of PREGs.


Assuntos
Exercício , Fisioterapeutas , Jogos e Brinquedos , Reabilitação , Humanos , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reabilitação/métodos
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2422, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160605

RESUMO

Domestication is hypothesized to drive correlated responses in animal morphology, physiology and behaviour, a phenomenon known as the domestication syndrome. However, we currently lack quantitative confirmation that suites of behaviours are correlated during domestication. Here we evaluate the strength and direction of behavioural correlations among key prosocial (sociability, playfulness) and reactive (fearfulness, aggression) behaviours implicated in the domestication syndrome in 76,158 dogs representing 78 registered breeds. Consistent with the domestication syndrome hypothesis, behavioural correlations within prosocial and reactive categories demonstrated the expected direction-specificity across dogs. However, correlational strength varied between dog breeds representing early (ancient) and late (modern) stages of domestication, with ancient breeds exhibiting exaggerated correlations compared to modern breeds across prosocial and reactive behaviours. Our results suggest that suites of correlated behaviours have been temporally decoupled during dog domestication and that recent shifts in selection pressures in modern dog breeds affect the expression of domestication-related behaviours independently.


Assuntos
Agressão , Comportamento Animal , Cruzamento , Domesticação , Medo , Comportamento Social , Animais , Cães , Animais de Estimação , Jogos e Brinquedos , Síndrome , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Body Image ; 30: 107-113, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238275

RESUMO

This study utilized Mattel's new line of Fashionista Barbie dolls to examine attitudes about body shape and size in a sample of young girls. A total of 84 girls, 3-10 years of age, were asked to assign positive or negative traits to Barbie dolls which varied in size and shape (original, tall, petite, and curvy). Participants also answered questions about their preferences for the dolls and completed measures of body dissatisfaction. Results generally demonstrated greater negative attitudes towards the curvy Barbie doll and more positive attitudes towards dolls with a thinner body size/shape (i.e., original, tall, and petite dolls). Girls identified the curvy Barbie as the doll they least wanted to play with. Additionally, girls with higher levels of body dissatisfaction demonstrated less negative attitudes towards the original doll. Overall, findings demonstrate a preference for thin bodies and aversion towards larger bodies among young girls. Further, findings suggest that the simple availability of body-diverse dolls may not be a powerful enough intervention to overcome harmful weight attitudes, and highlight the importance of continued efforts to encourage exposure to and acceptance of diverse body shapes and sizes in young children.


Assuntos
Atitude , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Tamanho Corporal , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos
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