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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295904

RESUMO

There are tentative indications that physical activity (PA) during school time can be beneficial for children's academic performance. So far, most studies have focused on the effects of moderate-to-vigorous PA, for example, in the form of energizers or extra physical education lessons. Little is known about the effects of physically active learning, in which PA is integrated with the academic content of the lessons, especially in preadolescent children. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the enjoyment of physically active learning in this age group. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the effects of integrating juggling with math practice in primary school children, on (1) multiplication memorization performance and (2) enjoyment during the math lessons. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial, in which 312 children (mean age 10.4 years) from nine Dutch primary schools participated. Fourteen classes were randomly assigned to either a group that learned juggling whilst practicing multiplication tables (intervention group), or to a group that practiced the same multiplication tables while sedentary (control group). Both interventions had a duration of 5 weeks and consisted of 20 short lessons (4 lessons per week, 5 to 8 min). We used mixed-model analyses to examine the effect of the intervention on multiplication memorization performance. Group (control or intervention) was used as the fixed factor, and class and school as random intercepts. Analyses were adjusted for pretest multiplication performance, age, gender, general motor skill level, physical activity behavior (PAQ-C), and academic math performance. No significant intervention effect on multiplication performance were observed. However, the math-juggling program significantly increased enjoyment of children during the math lessons. We can conclude that the intervention did not improve, but neither deteriorated children's math performance. The increased enjoyment in the math-juggling group can serve as an important starting point for structurally incorporating physical activities in the classroom setting.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Matemática/educação , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Ensino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(4): 1043-1047, jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1005743

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar o uso do brinquedo terapêutico pelos acadêmicos de enfermagem no cuidado à criança hospitalizada e discutir as implicações de seu uso na trajetória do acadêmico de enfermagem. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida em uma Escola de Enfermagem Federal no Rio de Janeiro com 17 acadêmicos. A coleta de dados foi realizada em outubro e novembro de 2016 por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e tratados com a técnica de análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: o brinquedo terapêutico é apresentado ao aluno no conteúdo teórico, porém sem a oportunidade de aplicá-lo na prática. Sua aplicação prática o deixaria mais seguro para prestar assistência à criança, somado à qualidade do cuidado prestado e os benefícios para ela. Conclusão: o ensino do brinquedo terapêutico deve acontecer em campo prático, e não somente no teórico, contribuindo, assim, para melhor formação do enfermeiro e melhoria da qualidade da assistência pediátrica


Objective: To identify the use of therapeutic toys by nursing students when caring for hospitalized children and to discuss the consequences of their use in the path of nursing students. Method: Qualitative research, developed at a Federal Nursing School in Rio de Janeiro with 17 students. Data were collected in October and November 2016, through semistructured interviews, and they were processed with the thematic content analysis technique. Results: The therapeutic toy is introduced to the student in the theoretical content, but without the opportunity to apply it in practice. Its practical application would make it safer to provide care to the child, added to the quality of the care provided and the benefits for it. Conclusion: The therapeutic toy teaching should happen in the practical field, not only in the theoretical field, thereby contributing to a better training of nurses and improvement of the quality of the pediatric care


Objetivo: Identificar el uso del juguete terapéutico por los académicos de enfermería en la atención al niño hospitalizado y discutir las consecuencias de su uso en la trayectoria del académico de enfermería. Método: Investigación cualitativa, desarrollada en una Escuela Federal de Enfermería en Río de Janeiro con 17 académicos. Los datos se recolectaron en octubre y noviembre 2016 mediante entrevista semiestructurada y se trataron con la técnica de análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: El juguete terapéutico se presenta al alumno en el contenido teórico, pero sin oportunidad de aplicarlo en la práctica. Su aplicación práctica lo dejaría más seguro para ayudar al niño, sumado a la calidad de la atención ofrecida y los beneficios para él. Conclusión: La enseñanza del juguete terapéutico debe ocurrir en el campo práctico, y no sólo en el teórico, contribuyendo así para mejor formación del enfermero y mejoramiento de la calidad de la asistencia pediátrica


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Criança Hospitalizada , Enfermagem Pediátrica/educação , Materiais de Ensino
3.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 266-269, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166122

RESUMO

Obesity and diabetes are two of the biggest public health problems in the modern world. One possible way to combat the rising prevalence of these diseases is through the spread of awareness about its consequences and how to prevent them. Therefore, educational interventions focused on teaching the physiological basis of these conditions might be valuable tools. However, most scholar curriculums lack high-quality material devoted to this topic. Thus we developed an educational booklet, composed of playful elements, targeted toward high school students and destined for application in classrooms. The efficacy of the developed material was validated through a pretest-posttest design, in which the students had to answer a 10-question test. After booklet completion, students had better outcomes, with an increase in the percentage of correct answers in 7 out of 10 questions contained in the test (P < 0.05). Thus we developed an effective material for usage in the high school classroom to spread the awareness of the risks of metabolic diseases and how to prevent them.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Folhetos , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
Occup Ther Int ; 2019: 6397425, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191183

RESUMO

Background: Play is essential to child development, and its evaluation is considered valid to indicate the stage of development of the child and indicate possible lagging. The Revised Knox Preschool Play Scale (RKPPS) provides an evolving description of the typical play behavior of preschool children, in six-month periods from zero to three years of age and then in annual periods up to six years of age. The RKPPS has already undergone the process of cultural adaptation for use in the Brazilian population, and it is necessary to analyze its applicability. Aims: To verify the reliability and internal consistency of the RKPPS for Brazilian children. Method: 135 children participated in the study, divided into different age groups with 15 in each group, and were filmed during free play in school or home contexts. Two independent raters evaluated the footage from two different times. Based on these evaluations, a statistical analysis was carried out in order to ascertain the reliability and the internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the RKPPS. Results: Intra- and interrater reliability showed a predominance of near-perfect to moderate agreement; however, some dimensions of certain age groups presented reasonable to poor agreement. The internal consistency was found to be satisfactory for most of the items evaluated; however, there were items with poor results in some dimensions of certain age groups. Conclusions: There is a need for further analysis of these items by a committee of experts to ensure the reproducibility of the instrument.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional/normas , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Percepção Espacial , Tradução
5.
Body Image ; 30: 107-113, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238275

RESUMO

This study utilized Mattel's new line of Fashionista Barbie dolls to examine attitudes about body shape and size in a sample of young girls. A total of 84 girls, 3-10 years of age, were asked to assign positive or negative traits to Barbie dolls which varied in size and shape (original, tall, petite, and curvy). Participants also answered questions about their preferences for the dolls and completed measures of body dissatisfaction. Results generally demonstrated greater negative attitudes towards the curvy Barbie doll and more positive attitudes towards dolls with a thinner body size/shape (i.e., original, tall, and petite dolls). Girls identified the curvy Barbie as the doll they least wanted to play with. Additionally, girls with higher levels of body dissatisfaction demonstrated less negative attitudes towards the original doll. Overall, findings demonstrate a preference for thin bodies and aversion towards larger bodies among young girls. Further, findings suggest that the simple availability of body-diverse dolls may not be a powerful enough intervention to overcome harmful weight attitudes, and highlight the importance of continued efforts to encourage exposure to and acceptance of diverse body shapes and sizes in young children.


Assuntos
Atitude , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Tamanho Corporal , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos
6.
Infant Behav Dev ; 55: 112-122, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009861

RESUMO

Infants from low-income households typically spend less time exploring objects and use less mature strategies when they do explore compared to their higher-income peers (e.g., Clearfield et al., 2014). The current study tested a novel intervention designed to boost early object exploration in infants from low-income households. The intervention, called Play for Success, was administered through the Early Head Start home visiting program, and asked all infants to explore a toy with a caregiver for 10 min a day every day for two weeks. Forty-two 6- to 10-month-old infants were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: Social (unstructured direction), Teach Two (simple structured direction), or Teach Many (complex structured direction). Infants' exploratory behaviors were tested three times: before the intervention, immediately following, and again four weeks later. The results demonstrated that only infants in Teach 2 maintained their level of exploration at both the post-test and 4 weeks later while infants in the other groups showed significant decreases in exploration over time. These results suggest that Play for Success is a promising new intervention, but only in the condition that included repeated simple structured direction.


Assuntos
/métodos , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , /economia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pobreza/economia , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
Dev Psychol ; 55(7): 1453-1460, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998033

RESUMO

Children often encounter events that bear on their moral and other evaluations, such as physical aggression and material disorder. Children's perceptions and evaluations are decisive for how they respond to and learn from these everyday events. Using a new method for investigating the development of social perceptions and evaluations, researchers interviewed 3- to 6-year-olds about naturalistic video recordings of harm, disorder, and joint play events. Children distinguished between the situations in the perceived intent of the protagonists, evaluations, justifications, and what they thought the protagonist should do after. Age differences suggested that perceiving and evaluating simple everyday situations was challenging for younger children. This research highlights the importance of studying children's everyday social perceptions and evaluations and validates a new paradigm for doing so. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Percepção Social , Fatores Etários , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia
8.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 42: 57-61, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954930

RESUMO

Preschool play behaviors have been frequently shown to be associated with prenatal androgens. It has also been proposed that incongruent sex-typed play behaviors in childhood is associated with gender dysphoria in adulthood in both men and women. Most of these studies, however, have been conducted in western countries. In this study, we investigated the recalled childhood play behavior among a total number of 339 Iranian participants (n = 72 transwomen, n = 92 transmen, n = 75 cisgender men and n = 100 cisgender women) using Preschool Activity Inventory (PSAI). We found that PSAI mean scores of the four groups were significantly different (F(3,335 = 223.5, p < 0.001)). Both transmen and cisgender men scored significantly more masculine than transwomen and cisgender women but had no different with each other. Transwomen scored significantly more feminine than cisgender men and cisgender women. Our findings are in line with previous studies that suggest gender nonconforming play behaviors may be associated with gender dysphoria in adulthood. It also emphasizes the importance of this finding for in non-western clinical context and its implications.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Feminilidade , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Masculinidade , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(9): 2557-2568, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903212

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The endocannabinoid and the endogenous opioid systems interact in the modulation of social play behavior, a highly rewarding social activity abundantly expressed in young mammals. Prolonged exposure to opioid or cannabinoid receptor agonists induces cross-tolerance or cross-sensitization to their acute behavioral effects. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Behavioral and biochemical experiments were performed to investigate whether cross-tolerance or cross-sensitization occurs to the play-enhancing effects of cannabinoid and opioid drugs on social play behavior, and the possible brain substrate involved. RESULTS: The play-enhancing effects induced by systemic administration of JZL184, which inhibits the hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-AG, were suppressed in animals repeatedly pretreated with the opioid receptor agonist morphine. Conversely, acute morphine administration increased social play in rats pretreated with vehicle or with either JZL184 or the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2. Acute administration of JZL184 increased the activation of both CB1 receptors and their effector Akt in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, brain regions important for the expression of social play. These effects were absent in animals pretreated with morphine. Furthermore, only animals repeatedly treated with morphine and acutely administered with JZL184 showed reduced activation of CB1 receptors and Akt in the amygdala. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates a dynamic opioid-cannabinoid interaction in the modulation of social play behavior, occurring in limbic brain areas strongly implicated in social play behavior. A better understanding of opioid-cannabinoid interactions in social play contributes to clarify neurobiological aspects of social behavior at young age, which may provide new therapeutic targets for social dysfunctions.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Tonsila do Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Animais , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Tolerância a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Masculino , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Infant Behav Dev ; 54: 120-132, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743164

RESUMO

The current study examined maternal language and prosody production during feeding (milk vs. solid foods) and playing with their infant compared to an adult-directed speech (ADS) baseline in 12 healthy full-term infants (6-13 months old). We recorded maternal language during 10 min of spontaneous speech across the four conditions. We further recorded maternal connected speech containing specific word targets, elicited through picture description, to attain prosodic measures. Results showed that mothers used significantly fewer verbs and more utterances per minute in the baseline condition compared to play or solid feeding conditions. Type token ratio was significantly higher during milk compared to play or solid feeding conditions and baseline was significantly higher than play. Vowel duration and peak fundamental frequency were significantly higher during play compared to ADS baseline. These findings suggest that maternal language and prosody changed across conditions, with feeding offering more lexical diversity than play. The most robust infant directed speech was observed during play and followed by the solid feeding condition, whereas it was not observed during the milk and ADS conditions. Identifying opportunities for maternal linguistic input is key to advancing infant development. These findings suggest that mealtime may provide such an opportunity for speech and language input.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Linguagem , Masculino , Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(2): 178-182, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate effectiveness of leisure and play social group activities for enhancing socialisation skills in a child with intellectual disability.. METHODS: The experimental study was done at a special education school for disadvantaged children Lahore from 28th November, 2016 to 3rd February, 2017. The subject was a boy aged 17 years who was part of a leisure and play group comprising peers. Pre-rating of socialisation domain of the subject was carried out through Portage Guide to Early Education (PGEE). Atotal of 20 groups were conducted in which two sessions per week were carried out. One session of group activity lasted 25-30 minutes. Postrating was carried out after the completion of group activities.. RESULTS: There were 6 children in the play group, but the focus remained on 1(17%) subject. From pre and post rating it was evident that significant reduction in symptoms occurred in the subject, indicating effectiveness of leisure and play social groups approach.. CONCLUSIONS: Leisure and play social group activities were found to be effective in enhancing overall social skills of a child having intellectual disability.


Assuntos
Educação Especial/métodos , Deficiência Intelectual , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Socialização , Criança , Educação/métodos , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Masculino , Grupo Associado
12.
Behav Processes ; 160: 1-9, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650340

RESUMO

Given that many behavior patterns cluster together in sequences that are organized to solve specific problems (e.g., foraging), a fruitful perspective within which to study behaviors is as distinct 'behavior systems'. Unlike many behavior systems that are widespread (e.g., anti-predator behavior, foraging, reproduction), behavior that can be relegated as playful is diverse, involving behavior patterns that are typically present in other behavior systems, sporadic in its phylogenetic distribution and relatively rare, suggesting that play is not a distinct behavior system. Yet the most striking and complex forms of play have the organizational integrity that suggests that it is a behavior system. One model that we develop in this paper, involves three stages of evolutionary transition to account for how the former can evolve into the latter. First, play-like behavior emerges from the incomplete development of other, functional behavior systems in some lineages. Second, in some of those lineages, the behavior patterns typical of particular behavior systems (e.g., foraging) are reorganized, leading to the evolution of specific 'play behavior systems'. Third, some lineages that have independently evolved more than one such play behavior system, coalesce these into a 'super system', allowing some animals to combine behavior patterns from different behavior systems during play. Alternative models are considered, but irrespective of the model, the overall message from this paper is that the conceptual framework of the behavior system approach can provide some new insights into the organization and diversity of play present in the animal kingdom.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Modelos Psicológicos , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal
13.
Infant Ment Health J ; 40(2): 277-288, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681173

RESUMO

"Back to sleep" messages can reduce prone practice for infants, with potential for motor delay and cranial deformation. Despite recommendations for "tummy time," young infants fuss in prone, and parents report uncertainty about how to help infants tolerate prone positioning. We hypothesized that a Child'Space Method lesson, teaching proprioceptive touch and transitions to prone, would facilitate prone tolerance, parent behavioral support, and parent self-efficacy. This randomized study recruited parents (N = 37) of 2- to 5-month-old infants. On two visits, parents answered questions about infant behavior and parent experience, and played with their infant. Lesson group parents had the lesson following the first free play. One week later, lesson parents reported that infants tolerated more prone time and that parents showed more supportive behaviors in bringing infant to prone, as compared to waiting parents. Lesson parents' efficacy, and infant behavior during play, trended in the hypothesized direction. The study demonstrated how a lesson in preparatory touch, and gradual transitions, promoted infant prone tolerance and also parent support of rolling, side-lying, and prone positioning. The lesson could be incorporated in parent education and early pediatric visits, helping infants and parents negotiate the prone challenge and setting the stage for further parent support of infant development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Comportamento do Lactente , Propriocepção , Autoimagem , Sono , Tato , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Decúbito Ventral
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658496

RESUMO

The potential for risky play and independent mobility to increase children's physical activity, and enhance cognitive development and emotional wellbeing has been recognised for some time. The aim of this study was to describe the attitudes of New Zealand parents towards such risky play practices and independent mobility, the barriers preventing them from allowing their children to participate, and how often their children engaged in risky play activities. An online survey comprised mostly of validated scales and standardised questions was completed by a nationally representative sample of 2003 parents. We found that parents had neutral feelings about the risk of injury to their child through play, rather they were concerned about road safety and "stranger danger". There was strong agreement that there are multiple benefits to be gained from exposure to risk and challenge, and that health and safety rules are too strict. However, 73% of respondents stated that their 5⁻12 year old child seldom or never engaged in four or more risky activities, and only 14.3% engaged in four or more often or always. While parents agree that their child is likely to benefit from risky play, they do not have the confidence to allow their children to engage in such activities. Future research should address barriers and fears when implementing strategies to facilitate risky play.


Assuntos
Pais/psicologia , Percepção , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto , Atitude , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Games Health J ; 8(3): 187-194, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649974

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the development and evaluation of a nurse-patient interactive serious game in improving nurses' self-efficacy and performances in teaching the correct inhaler technique. Materials and Methods: The technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) framework was applied to guide the development of the serious game. The learning effectiveness of the serious game was evaluated through a randomized controlled trial that involved 46 registered nurses. Participants in the experimental group were asked to teach the inhaler technique to a standardized patient using the serious game as a teaching tool, whereas participants in the control group were asked to provide their own usual teaching to a standardized patient without the serious game. The performances of both groups were assessed based on their feedback to a standardized patient who made several errors while demonstrating the inhaler technique. Self-efficacy levels of teaching the inhaler technique were examined before and after the intervention. Results: A significantly higher number of participants from the experimental group obtained perfect performance scores than those in the control group (65.21% vs. 21.74%, χ2 = 15.18, P < 0.01). The posttest self-efficacy mean scores for the experimental group improved significantly (P < 0.001) after the intervention, and significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared to the posttest mean scores of the control group. Conclusion: The study provided evidence on the effectiveness of a serious game in improving the self-efficacy and immediate postintervention performances of nurses teaching the inhaler technique. This game provides a practical and accessible learning tool to help nurses ensure effective patient education.


Assuntos
Jogos Recreativos/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/normas , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Singapura
16.
Appl Ergon ; 75: 99-107, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509543

RESUMO

We conducted an empirical study of 57 children using a printed Booklet and a digital Tablet instruction for LEGO® construction while they wore a head-mounted gaze tracker. Booklets caused a particularly strong pupil dilation when encountered as the first media. Subjective responses confirmed the booklet to be more difficult to use. The children who were least productive and asked for assistance more often had a significantly different pupil pattern than the rest. Our findings suggest that it is possible to collect pupil size data in unconstrained work scenarios, providing insight to task effort and difficulties.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Criança , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Cabeça , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas
17.
Pediatrics ; 143(1)2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509931

RESUMO

Play is essential to optimal child development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of children and youth. It also offers an ideal and significant opportunity for parents and other caregivers to engage fully with children using toys as an instrument of play and interaction. The evolution of societal perceptions of toys from children's playthings to critical facilitators of early brain and child development has challenged caregivers in deciding which toys are most appropriate for their children. This clinical report strives to provide pediatric health care providers with evidence-based information that can be used to support caregivers as they choose toys for their children. The report highlights the broad definition of a toy; consideration of potential benefits and possible harmful effects of toy choices on child development; and the promotion of positive caregiving and development when toys are used to engage caregivers in play-based interactions with their children that are rich in language, pretending, problem-solving, and creativity. The report aims to address the evolving replacement of more traditional toys with digital media-based virtual "toys" and the lack of evidence for similar benefits in child development. Furthermore, this report briefly addresses the role of toys in advertising and/or incentive programs and aims to bring awareness regarding safety and health hazards associated with toy availability and accessibility in public settings, including some health care settings.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Internet , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
18.
Psychol Serv ; 16(1): 7-15, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431310

RESUMO

Children and their family members may experience potentially traumatic events during medical treatment that can result in pediatric medical traumatic stress reactions. Play is a normative part of childhood that may facilitate engagement in medical care and may be incorporated in trauma-informed care. This qualitative study used semistructured interviews to examine the role of play and its potential use in trauma-informed care. The perspectives of 30 multidisciplinary pediatric healthcare providers representing 5 divisions (Cardiology, Endocrinology, Oncology, Orthopedics, Pulmonology) in 2 children's hospitals were gathered. Constant comparison and directed content analysis were used to analyze the data. Themes and subthemes were derived in 3 areas: (a) aspects of pediatric medical care that are potentially traumatic (specific events; and physical, emotional, and family-level consequences), (b) uses of play in pediatric healthcare settings (general [relieve boredom] and trauma-specific [prevention/alleviation]), and (c) potential barriers to the use of play in trauma-informed care (infection control; lack of provider training). The results document aspects of pediatric medical experiences that providers recognize as potentially traumatic, highlighting the importance of trauma-informed care. They also identify ways to use play to engage with children and families in a trauma-informed way. Additional training and development regarding play may increase the viability of using play in trauma-informed pediatric healthcare. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Hospitais Pediátricos , Pediatria/métodos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Jogos e Brinquedos , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada/psicologia , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia
19.
J Psychol ; 153(2): 127-140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376644

RESUMO

The study aimed to design and evaluate a program for the prevention of childhood depression ("Pozik-Bizi" [in English, "Live-Happily"]), comparing its effects with a socio-emotional intervention program based on cooperative play. The sample comprised 420 students aged 7 to 10 years from the Basque Country, 51.9% were randomly assigned to the experimental condition ("Pozik-Bizi") program and 48.1% to the control group ("Play program"). Using a pretest-posttest repeated measures experimental design, 7 evaluation instruments were administered. When comparing the two interventions, it was confirmed that those who participated in the "Pozik-Bizi" program significantly decreased their level of clinical maladjustment, school maladjustment, emotional, and behavioral problems, and they increased positive behaviors that inhibit depression. However, the cooperative play program improved self-concept and social skills significantly more than the "Pozik-Bizi" program. The effect size in all the variables was small. The discussion analyzes the effectiveness of specific programs of prevention of childhood depression versus global programs of social-emotional development. This work provides a program to prevent childhood depression that has been shown to be effective in the reduction of clinical variables. In addition, this study confirms the positive potential of programs of cooperative play, to increase self-concept and social skills.


Assuntos
Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/psicologia , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Autoimagem , Habilidades Sociais , Estudantes/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Scand J Occup Ther ; 26(2): 81-102, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supported and therapeutic playgroups aim to support and strengthen vulnerable children and families by increasing parenting capacity, parent-child interaction, enhancing child outcomes and promoting community networks. This review aimed to comprehensively scope the literature to identify the "active ingredients" of supported and therapeutic playgroups. METHOD: A systematic search of grey and scholarly literature was conducted using Medline, PyschINFO, EMBASE, ERIC, CINAHL, MedNar, Informit, Scopus, Libraries of Australia and Trove. Articles were included if they: i) defined playgroup as a group of children and actively involved caregivers; ii) described a therapeutic playgroup or supported playgroup model; iii) targeted children prior to school age; and iv) measured the impact of playgroups. A total of 36 articles met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative data was synthesised using a meta-ethnography approach with findings charted against a conceptual model of engagement. Quantitative data was synthesised using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The findings identified that emotional, practical and informational components of playgroups strongly reflect family centred practice, self-efficacy theory and peer-support principles. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic and supported playgroups are complex interventions, with numerous interacting components that make them beneficial for children and families. This review is the first to identify the "active ingredients" of playgroups with findings informing the design of future playgroups for vulnerable children and families.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Relações Pais-Filho , Ludoterapia , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Instalações Esportivas e Recreacionais , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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