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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370275

RESUMO

The number of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease of 2019) cases in Jordan is rising rapidly. A serious threat to the healthcare system appears on the horizon. Our study aims to evaluate preparedness of Jordanian frontline doctors to the worsening scenario. It has a questionnaire-based cross-sectional structure. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate preparedness according to knowledge about virus transmission and protective measures, adherence to protection guidelines, and psychological impacts affecting doctors. Institutional factors affecting doctors' readiness like adopting approach protocols and making protection equipment available were investigated; 308 doctors from different healthcare facilities participated (response rate: 53.9%). Approximately 25% of doctors (n = 77) previously took care of COVID-19 patients, and 173 (56.2%) have institutional COVID-19 approach protocols. Only 57 doctors (18.5%) reported all PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) available. The self-reported score of preparedness to deal with COVID-19 patients was 4.9 ± 2.4. Doctors having institutional protocols for dealing with COVID-19 cases and those with sustained availability of PPE reported higher scores of preparedness (5.5 ± 2.3 and 6.2 ± 2.1 with p < 0.001, respectively). Correlations with knowledge score, adherence to PPE score, and psychological impacts were investigated. The study revealed multiple challenges and insufficiencies that can affect frontline doctors' preparedness. Policy makers are urged to take these findings into consideration and to act promptly.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Surtos de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Médicos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Br J Nurs ; 29(7): 419-425, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newly qualified nurses (NQNs) face several challenges in their early years of practice. Being empowered and able to speak up against unsafe practice are two important pillars for practising nursing safely and competently. Little research has examined the potential correlation between those two dimensions in the context of NQNs in Jordan. AIMS: To investigate the correlation between NQNs' perceived structural empowerment in their work setting and their willingness to challenge unsafe practice in some hypothetical clinical scenarios. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey involved 233 NQNs, who completed a self-administered questionnaire between January and March 2016. FINDINGS: Participants reported moderate levels of both perceived structural empowerment and willingness to speak up against unsafe practice. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the total structural empowerment score and the mean score for speaking up against unsafe practice. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the impact of peer, managerial and overall organisational support on enabling NQNs to become more empowered and assertive. Concrete, collaborative and organisation-wide efforts must be considered to foster greater empowerment of NQNs, but also revisiting work priorities to include supporting and advocating assertive communication skills among the more vulnerable of the newly qualified cohort.


Assuntos
Assertividade , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comunicação , Empoderamento , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Cultura Organizacional , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zootaxa ; 4732(1): zootaxa.4732.1.3, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230272

RESUMO

A new species, Holophloeus loebli Trýzna Banar sp. nov. (Anthribidae: Anthribinae: Discotenini), from east Madagascar is described. Male genitalia are studied and illustrated, and color photographs are provided. A comparison is provided with the other known Madagascan species of the genus, H. tuberosus (Fairmaire, 1897). Ecological notes, including color photographs of habitats, on H. loebli and H. tuberosus are provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Cor , Ecologia , Jordânia , Madagáscar , Masculino
4.
Gene ; 747: 144683, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311413

RESUMO

Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) deficiency (ASMD) is a spectrum that includes Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) types A (NPD A) and B (NPD B). ASMD is characterized by intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and gangliosides within the endosomal-lysosomal system. It is caused by different mutations in SMPD1 gene that result in reduction or complete absence of acid sphingomyelinase activity in the cells. Herein, four unrelated consanguineous families with two NPD A and three NPD B patients were assessed for their genotypes via sequencing of the SMPD1 gene and their acid sphingomyelinase enzymatic activity. Among the eight identified mutations, three were novel and reported for the first time in Jordanian families (c.120_131delGCTGGCGCTGGC or c.132_143delGCTGGCGCTGGC, c.1758T > G, and c.1344T > A). All the patients displayed ASM activity lower than 1.3 µmol/l/h (P < 0.001). Genotyping and enzymatic assessment might play a significant role in disease identification in people at risk to facilitate genetic counseling in the future.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo A/enzimologia , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo A/genética , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo B/enzimologia , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo B/genética , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Jordânia , Masculino , Linhagem , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase/química
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e18798, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of prevention guidelines and recommendations on infection control, many dental practices lack the minimum requirements for infection control. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the level of awareness, perception, and attitude regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and infection control among Jordanian dentists. METHODS: The study population consisted of dentists who worked in private clinics, hospitals, and health centers in Jordan. An online questionnaire was sent to a sample of Jordanian dentists in March 2020. The questionnaire was comprised of a series of questions about dentists' demographic characteristics; their awareness of the incubation period, the symptoms of the disease, mode of transmission of COVID-19 and infection control measures for preventing COVID-19; and their attitude toward treating patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: This study included a total of 368 dentists aged 22-73 years (mean 32.9 years, SD 10.6 years). A total of 112 (30.4%) dentists had completed a master or residency program in dentistry, 195 (53.0%) had received training in infection control in dentistry, and 28 (7.6%) had attended training or lectures regarding COVID-19. A total of 133 (36.1%) dentists reported that the incubation period is 1-14 days. The majority of dentists were aware of COVID-19 symptoms and ways of identifying patients at risk of having COVID-19, were able to correctly report known modes of transmission, and were aware of measures for preventing COVID-19 transmission in dental clinics. A total of 275 (74.7%) believed that it was necessary to ask patients to sit far from each other, wear masks while in the waiting room, and wash hands before getting in the dental chair to decrease disease transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Jordanian dentists were aware of COVID-19 symptoms, mode of transmission, and infection controls and measures in dental clinics. However, dentists had limited comprehension of the extra precautionary measures that protect the dental staff and other patients from COVID-19. National and international guidelines should be sent by the regional and national dental associations to all registered dentists during a crisis, including the COVID-19 pandemic, to make sure that dentists are well informed and aware of best practices and recommended disease management approaches.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Odontólogos/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 206-211, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141599

RESUMO

Background: Achieving universal health coverage is a strategic goal for the Government of Jordan. Estimating the cost of expanding health coverage to vulnerable Jordanians under the Civil Insurance Programme (CIP) is an important step towards achieving this goal. Aims: This study aimed to estimate the cost and fiscal impact of expanding health insurance coverage to vulnerable Jordanians. Methods: We identified and quantified vulnerable Jordanians and estimated their utilization and cost of health services provided at Ministry of Health facilities using allocation and macrocosting approaches. We calculated the annual actuarial cost per person and the fiscal impact of the expansion. Results: It was estimated that 4.9% of Jordanians were vulnerable. On average, a vulnerable Jordanian used 1.25 ambulatory visits and 0.027 admissions fewer annually than a person insured by CIP. The annual cost (US$ 79 million) and fiscal impact (US$ 73 million) of expanding coverage to vulnerable Jordanians were due to more ambulatory services (20%) and hospitalizations (80%). Conclusion: A combination of additional resources and improvement in system efficiencies may fund this expansion.


Assuntos
Seguro Saúde/economia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Populações Vulneráveis , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Jordânia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19566, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176115

RESUMO

Chemotherapy may cause ovarian toxicity and infertility. Cancer patients are usually overwhelmed, and focus exclusively on cancer diagnosis and may not pay attention to fertility-related issues. In this paper we look at the rate of amenorrhea and fertility counseling among such young patients.Premenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer treated with adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy were recruited. Amenorrhea was defined as absence of menstruation for ≥12 months after the completion of chemotherapy.A total of 94 patients met the eligibility criteria and were included in this analysis. Median age at diagnosis was 35.7 (range, 22-44) years. Seventy-nine (85.9%) respondents were counseled about amenorrhea and 37 (40.2%) were considering having children. Long-term amenorrhea was reported by 51 (54.3%) patients. The addition of taxanes to anthracyclines, in 2 different regimens, increased the risk of amenorrhea to 69.2% and 66.7% compared to 38.9% with anthracycline-alone, P < .0001. Longer duration of chemotherapy (≥24 weeks) might also be associated with higher rate of amenorrhea (67.7%) compared to 43.4% in those who had shorter duration (<24 weeks), P = .031.The addition of taxanes to anthracycline-based chemotherapy increased the risk of amenorrhea. However, shorter duration of chemotherapy, even with taxanes, may lower such risk. Our study highlights the importance of fertility counseling to improve fertility preservation rates. Given the importance of taxanes, shorter regimens are associated with lower amenorrhea rates and should be preferred over longer ones.


Assuntos
Amenorreia/induzido quimicamente , Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Preservação da Fertilidade , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Br J Nurs ; 29(5): 298-302, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167811

RESUMO

Sleep disturbance is common in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Numerous factors can contribute to this. High noise and light levels, nursing interventions and medication administration are major factors. This study investigated the demographic and environmental factors that might adversely affect ICU patients' quality of sleep. Data were collected from 103 patients using a demographic data sheet, the Freedman Quality of Sleep Scale and the Richards-Campbell Sleep Scale. Patients' demographic characteristics were found to have no significant effects on their perceived quality of sleep. Environmental factors, including noise, light, nursing interventions, diagnostic testing, the administration of medication, talking and phones ringing, were significantly related to the patients' perceived quality of sleep.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Privação do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
10.
Br J Nurs ; 29(4): 222-228, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A culture of patient safety is one of the cornerstones of good-quality healthcare, and its provision is one of the significant challenges in healthcare environments. AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a surgical safety educational programme on the attitudes of nurses to patient safety in operating rooms (OR). DESIGN: An interventional one-group pre-/post-test design, which sought to measure changes in OR nurses' attitudes toward patient safety culture. METHODS: A simple random sampling technique was used to recruit 66 OR nurses working at six Royal Medical Service hospitals in Amman, Jordan. All participants took part in a 4-hour educational workshop. Pre-tests and post-tests were done. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that OR nurses' attitudes towards a culture of patient safety was originally negative; significant improvement after attending the programme was found (3.3 ± 0.20 versus 3.8 ± 0.30). There was a negative correlation between years of experience and nurses' attitudes towards patient safety. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating courses about safety culture into continuing education programmes may improve nurses' attitudes towards patient safety. Nurses should be qualified to play an important role in creating a culture of patient safety.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Enfermagem de Centro Cirúrgico/educação , Segurança do Paciente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermagem de Centro Cirúrgico/organização & administração , Gestão da Segurança , Adulto Jovem
11.
Gene ; 737: 144408, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007583

RESUMO

The pharmacogenomics has lately become a focal field of research that investigates the influence of genetic variations of drug-metabolizing enzymes and their receptors and downstream proteins on the interindividual variability in response to medications and adverse drug reactions. Therefore, it is significantly important to study and analyze the variations in drug response between different ethnic groups and populations. The current study aimed to detect the distribution of the genotype and allele frequencies in several very important pharmacogenetic (VIP) gene polymorphisms in the Jordanian population of Arab descent. This study involved 500 unrelated Jordanian individuals of Arab descent. A total of 65 VIP variants located within 33 candidate genes were randomly selected from the PharmGKB database and genotyped using the MassARRAY (iPLEX GOLD) system. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the significant differences of minor allele and genotype frequencies between the Jordanian and other populations including CHE, ASW, CEU, CHB, CDX, GIH, GBR, JPT, LWK, MXL, TSI, YRI, CAR, and ACB. This study revealed six variants were not in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) (P-value > 0.05) and ten SNPs showed monomorphic features. Most of the remaining forty-nine variant frequencies were significantly different from the compared ethnic groups (P-value < 0.05). The results of this study may be helpful to develop safer treatment by applying the concept of personalized medicine based on the profile of VIP pharmacogene variants of the Jordanian population of Arab descent.


Assuntos
Árabes/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Grupos Populacionais/genética , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Jordânia
12.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 157(1): 67-72, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study was performed to test the long-term efficacy of a highly filled resin primer (38%) that has superior fluoride release and recharge ability. METHODS: Sixty patients were divided into 2 groups. In group 1, adhesive-coated brackets (APC Plus Victory series, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were bonded with a fluoride-releasing and rechargeable primer (Opal Seal; Ultradent, South Jordan, Utah). In group 2, the same adhesive-coated brackets were bonded with a conventional primer (Transbond XT Primer; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In group 1, a blacklight source was used to examine the amount of adhesive remaining on enamel surfaces. This primer has a fluorescing agent and fluoresces under blacklight. If there was a lack of primer on any part of the enamel surrounding the brackets, new primer was added. Digital images of each tooth were taken to score and measure the area of white spot lesions (WSLs) after orthodontic treatment. DIAGNOdent (DIAGNOdent pen; KaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany) measurements were also used to assess WSLs after bracket removal. RESULTS: The WSL rate was 26.9% for group 1 and 29% for group 2. There was no significant difference between the WSL scores of the groups; however, a significant difference was observed in the DIAGNOdent measurements between the groups. According to area measurements of the lesions, there was no significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this long-term clinical study indicated that fluoride-releasing primer has no significant advantage in reducing demineralization over the control primer over the full orthodontic treatment period.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Cárie Dentária , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Fluoretos , Humanos , Jordânia
13.
Br J Nurs ; 29(2): 111-117, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is considered to be one of the most common symptoms reported by cancer patients. However, little information is available regarding the variables associated with CRF among Jordanian patients. AIMS: To assess the prevalence of CRF and explore its predictors among Jordanian patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey design was used. FINDINGS: Of the 240 patients surveyed, 210 (87.5%) had fatigue at the time of the survey. The total mean fatigue score was 6.2 (SD=1.7) out of a maximum possible score of 10. The results also showed that being unemployed, with longer hospitalisation, low haemoglobin, and having lung cancer seem to predict higher levels of CRF. CONCLUSION: Several variables and factors associated with CRF were identified. In response to these results, healthcare providers should pay more attention to CRF, which needs to be assessed on a regular basis and to be managed with the available pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.


Assuntos
Fadiga/enfermagem , Neoplasias/complicações , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação em Enfermagem
16.
Int Dent J ; 70(1): 45-52, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489618

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reports examining the impact of oral health on the quality of life of refugees are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine factors influencing oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among Syrian refugees in Jordan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of Syrian refugees, who attended dental clinics held at Azraq camp. The survey assessed the refugees' oral hygiene practices, and measured their OHRQoL using the Arabic version of the United-Kingdom Oral Health-Related Quality of life measure. RESULTS: In total, 102 refugees [36 male and 66 female; mean age 34 (SD = 10) years] participated. Overall, 12.7% did not brush their teeth and 86.3% did not use adjunctive dental cleaning methods. OHRQoL mean score was 56.55 (range 32-80). Comparison of the physical, social and psychological domains identified a statistically significant difference between the physical and the psychological domain mean scores (ANOVA; P = 0.044, Tukey's test; P = 0.46). The factors which revealed association with OHRQoL scores in the univariable analyses, and remained significant in the multivariable linear regression analysis, were: age (P = 0.048), toothbrushing frequency (P = 0.001) and attending a dental clinic in the last year (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: The physical aspect of quality of life was more negatively impacted than the psychological aspect. Toothbrushing frequency and attending a dental clinic at least once in the last year were associated with more positive OHRQoL scores. Older refugees seemed to be more vulnerable to the impact of poor oral health on OHRQoL.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Refugiados , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síria
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134576, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706092

RESUMO

The treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in Jordan was investigated in this work using ultrasound oxidation (sonolysis) combined with other advanced oxidation processes such as ultraviolet radiation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and titanium oxide (TiO2) catalyst. The efficiency of the combined oxidation process was evaluated based on the changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The results showed that 59% COD removal was achieved within 90 min in the ultrasound /UV/TiO2 system. A more significant synergistic effect was observed on the COD removal efficiency when a combination of US/UV/TiO2 (sonophotocatalytic) processes was used at low ultrasound frequency. The results were then compared with the COD values obtained when each of these processes was used individually. The effects of different operating conditions such as, ultrasound power, initial COD concentration, the concentration of TiO2, frequency of ultrasound, and temperature on the OMW oxidation efficiency were studied and evaluated. The effect of adding a radical scavenger (sodium carbonate) on the OMW oxidation efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the sonophotocatalytic oxidation of OMW was affected by the initial COD, acoustic power, temperature and TiO2 concentration. The sonophotocatalytic oxidation of OMW increased with increasing the ultrasound power, temperature and H2O2 concentration. Sonolysis at frequency of 40 kHz combined with photocatalysis was not observed to have a significant effect on the OMW oxidation compared to sonication at frequency of 20 kHz. It was also found that the OMW oxidation was suppressed by the presence of the radical scavenger. The COD removal efficiency increased slightly with the increase of TiO2 concentration up to certain point due to the formation of oxidizing species. At ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz, considerable COD reduction of OMW was reported, indicating the effectiveness of the combined US/UV/TiO2 process for the OMW treatment.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Olea , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Jordânia , Oxirredução , Sonicação , Águas Residuárias
18.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(2): e1900553, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869516

RESUMO

The aroma emitted from the different organs of two Salvia verbenaca L. populations from Jordan were extracted by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and then analyzed by GC/MS. The emission profile of the stem, leaf and sepal samples from the Mediterranean zone (Al-Salt) was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (68.0 %, 33.7 %, and 42.2 %, respectively). The emission profile of flowering parts including pre-flowering buds, fully expanded flowers and petals was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (58.6 %, 59.3 % and 87.1 %, respectively). The major constituent detected in these organs was trans-sabinene hydrate acetate (range 14.5 %-87.0 %). On the other hand, samples collected from Irano-Turanian zone showed different emission patterns. While the stems, leaves and petal emissions were dominated by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (54.9 %, 76.8 % and 52.6 %, respectively), monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the emission profiles of the pre-flowering buds (75.1 %) and fully expanded flowers (73.6 %). Petals emissions were characterized by high concentrations of oxygenated monoterpenes (58.8 %). Notably, trans-sabinene hydrate dominated most organs emissions except for leaves (range 20.0 %-58.8 %). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) revealed two different clusters related to the two different geographical zones. The current investigation revealed two ecotypes of S. verbenaca that could result in two different chemotypes. Trans-sabinene hydrate acetate and trans-sabinene hydrate are suggested compounds for identifying these two chemotypes.


Assuntos
Salvia/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Análise por Conglomerados , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Jordânia , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Salvia/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
19.
Gene ; 729: 144314, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884104

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is widely used in several fields including medical genetics, forensic science, genetic genealogy, and evolutionary anthropology. In this study, mtDNA haplotype diversity was determined for 293 unrelated subjects from Jordanian population (Circassians, Chechens, and the original inhabitants of Jordan). A total of 102 haplotypes were identified and analyzed among the populations to describe the maternal lineage landscape. Our results revealed that the distribution of mtDNA haplotype frequencies among the three populations showed disparity and significant differences when compared to each other. We also constructed mitochondrial haplotype classification trees for the three populations to determine the phylogenetic relationship of mtDNA haplotype variants, and we observed clear differences in the distribution of maternal genetic ancestries, especially between Arab and the minority ethnic populations. To our knowledge, this study is the first, to date, to characterize mitochondrial haplotypes and haplotype distributions in a population-based sample from the Jordanian population. It provides a powerful reference for future studies investigating the contribution of mtDNA variation to human health and disease and studying population history and evolution by comparing the mtDNA haplotypes to other populations.


Assuntos
Árabes/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1667, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are common in rural areas with poor infrastructure and low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected parasitic infections in marginalized rural areas in the northern part of the Palestinian West Bank Region, using conventional and PCR-based methods, and also to assess risk predictors of infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 104 individuals from three rural villages in the Jordan Valley. Stool samples were collected and examined by a battery of tests that included microscopy of wet fecal samples in normal saline with iodine, concentration by ethyl acetate sedimentation and also by zinc sulfate floatation, a conventional PCR and a real-time PCR (qPCR). Risk factors were assessed that included demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral characteristics. Data on method performance was analyzed by kappa-statistic, Cochrane's Q, and McNemar post hoc test. Mid-P exact test and odds ratio were used to discern association between outcome and risk predictors. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 48% (49/102). The predominant parasites were Giardia lamblia at 37% (37/102) and Hymenolepis nana at 9% (9/102). To concentrate cysts and eggs, sedimentation can be used as an alternative to floatation with a loss of 1% of positive cases. The methods employing PCRs proved crucial as it increased the detected infection rate of G. lamblia approximately three-fold from 13% by the conventional methods to 37% by the qPCR. Multiple infections were present in 13% (13/102) of the study group, which included double (10%) and triple (3%) infections. Regarding the genus Entamoeba, E. dispar and E. coli were detected at rates of 2 and 8%, respectively. While none of the individuals were infected with the pathogenic E. histolytica, E. nana (4%) was detected for the first time in the area. Age was a risk predictor for infection (OR = 2.61, CI 95% 1.05-6.45, P = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: The increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in children in marginalized rural areas in Palestine is worrying. The addition of PCR-based methods is important for the diagnosis of such infections as, with cautious interpretation, it increases proficiency and overcomes underestimation and misdiagnosis of cases. Control measures including education on personal hygiene and environmental sanitation, should be introduced to reduce the prevalence of the intestinal parasites and, thus, the infections they cause in this and other areas.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Marginalização Social , Adulto Jovem
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