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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8871287, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855086

RESUMO

Background: Facility-based death review committee (DRC) of neonatal deaths and stillbirths can encourage stakeholders to enhance the quality of care during the antenatal period and labour to improve birth outcomes. To understand the benefits and impact of the DRCs, this study was aimed at exploring the DRC members' perception about the role and benefits of the newly developed facility-based DRCs in five pilot hospitals in Jordan, to assess women empowerment, decision-making process, power dynamics, culture and genderism as contributing factors for deaths, and impact of COVID-19 lockdown on births. Methods: A descriptive study of a qualitative design-using focus group discussions-was conducted after one year of establishing DRCs in 5 pilot large hospitals. The number of participants in each focus group ranged from 8 to10, and the total number of participants was 45 HCPs (nurses and doctors). Questions were consecutively asked in each focus group. The moderator asked the main questions from the guide and then used probing as needed. A second researcher observed the conversation and took field notes. Results: Overall, there was an agreement among the majority of DRC members across all hospitals that the DRC was successful in identifying the exact cause of neonatal deaths and stillbirths as well as associated modifiable factors. There was also a consensus that the DRC contributed to an improvement in health services provided for pregnant women and newborns as well as protecting human rights and enabling women to be more interdependent in taking decisions related to family planning. Moreover, the DRC agreed that a proportion of the neonatal deaths and stillbirths occurring in the hospitals could have been prevented if adequate antenatal care was provided and some traditional harmful practices were avoided. Conclusions: Facility-based neonatal death review audit is practical and can be used to identify exact causes of maternal and neonatal deaths and is a valuable tool for hospital quality indicators. It can also change the perception and practice of health care providers, which may be reflected in improving the quality of provided healthcare services.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Morte Perinatal , Natimorto , Comitês Consultivos/organização & administração , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Jordânia , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804558

RESUMO

Vaccination to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged as a promising measure to overcome the negative consequences of the pandemic. Since university students could be considered a knowledgeable group, this study aimed to evaluate COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among this group in Jordan. Additionally, we aimed to examine the association between vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccine hesitancy. We used an online survey conducted in January 2021 with a chain-referral sampling approach. Conspiracy beliefs were evaluated using the validated Vaccine Conspiracy Belief Scale (VCBS), with higher scores implying embrace of conspiracies. A total of 1106 respondents completed the survey with female predominance (n = 802, 72.5%). The intention to get COVID-19 vaccines was low: 34.9% (yes) compared to 39.6% (no) and 25.5% (maybe). Higher rates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance were seen among males (42.1%) and students at Health Schools (43.5%). A Low rate of influenza vaccine acceptance was seen as well (28.8%), in addition to 18.6% of respondents being anti-vaccination altogether. A significantly higher VCBS score was correlated with reluctance to get the vaccine (p < 0.001). Dependence on social media platforms was significantly associated with lower intention to get COVID-19 vaccines (19.8%) compared to dependence on medical doctors, scientists, and scientific journals (47.2%, p < 0.001). The results of this study showed the high prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and its association with conspiracy beliefs among university students in Jordan. The implementation of targeted actions to increase the awareness of such a group is highly recommended. This includes educational programs to dismantle vaccine conspiracy beliefs and awareness campaigns to build recognition of the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Estudantes , Universidades , Vacinação
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807468

RESUMO

In this study, a total of 335 Palestinian refugees (M = 15.5 years, SD = 1.05, 49% males), recruited from four United Nations Relief and Work Agency (UNRWA) schools at the Al-Baqa'a and Jabal Al-Hussein refugee camps in Jordan, rated their neighborhood physical environment and neighborhood support and cohesion, separately rated their mothers' and fathers' parenting on several dimensions, and reported on their adjustment to these circumstances (internalizing symptoms, self-concept clarity, and norm breaking). Living in more dangerous physical environments was associated with higher levels of refugee youths' internalizing symptoms and norm breaking, but effects were not significant when parenting was considered. Our study showed that higher levels of psychological control-disrespect (significantly for fathers and marginally for mothers) and marginally, higher levels of maternal harsh punishment were associated with more teen internalizing symptoms. In addition, fathers' greater psychological control and lower levels of support had a marginally significant effect on teens' greater norm breaking. For behavioral control, only mothers' greater behavioral control was associated with refugee youths' greater self-concept clarity but not with paternal behavioral control. Thus, fathers' psychological control and mothers' behavioral control had the biggest association with adolescent outcomes.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Árabes , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Mães , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the strong relationship between stress and heart disease, particularly acute myocardial infarction (MI), this study investigated the complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD) among Syrian refugee patients referred to Jordan University Hospital and its relation to war-related stressors. METHODS: This is a retrospective study that utilized the SYNTAX I score in order to evaluate all Syrian refugees that underwent coronary artery catheterization at Jordan University Hospital during the period between May of 2014 and December of 2017. RESULTS: There was a significant association between war-related stressors and high SYNTAX score (SX score), thus indicating a higher complexity of CAD in Syrian war survivors with higher stress scores. The strongest war-related correlation was observed with crossing green-lines, in which Syrian refugee patients who had crossed such lines had significantly higher SYNTAX scores. Regression analysis demonstrated that war stressors were positive predictors of increased SYNTAX scores even when adjusted for conventional CAD risk factors. Surprisingly, none of the CAD risk factors were significantly associated with SYNTAX score. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that exposure to multiple war-related stressors may increase the complexity and severity of CAD in Syrian war survivors. Thus, special attention, efforts, and resources should be allocated to screen for such vulnerable patients in order to provide them with the appropriate healthcare.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Jordânia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sobreviventes
5.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 1): 49, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-care interventions offer a solution to support the achievement of three goals of the World Health Organization (WHO): to improve universal health coverage, reach people in humanitarian situations, and improve health and well-being. In light of implementing WHO consolidated guidelines on self-care interventions to strengthen sexual and reproductive health (SRH) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, pharmacists from four different EMR countries discussed the current SRH situation, inequality gaps, barriers to SRH service access and the pharmacist's crucial role as a first-line responder to patients before, during and after COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: Self-care interventions for SRH allow health care providers to serve a greater number of patients, improve progress toward universal health coverage, and reach people in humanitarian crises. In fact, these interventions can be significantly enhanced by utilizing community pharmacists as first-line health care providers. This review highlights the important role of community pharmacists in promoting self-care interventions and empowering individuals, families and communities. As a result, well-informed individuals will be authoritative in their health decisions. Exploring self-care interventions in the EMR was done through reviewing selected SRH services delivery through community pharmacists before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Somalia. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, community pharmacists were found to be excluded from both governmental and nongovernmental SRH programmes. During the pandemic, community pharmacists managed to support patients with self-care interventions, whether voluntarily or through their pharmacy associations. This highlights the need for the health care decision-makers to involve and support community pharmacists in influencing policies and promoting self-care interventions. CONCLUSION: Self-care interventions can increase individuals' choice and autonomy over SRH. Supporting community pharmacists will definitely strengthen SRH in the EMR and may help make the health system more efficient and more targeted.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Farmacêuticos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Autocuidado , Saúde Sexual , Tomada de Decisões , Difusão de Inovações , Egito , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Jordânia , Líbano , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo , Papel Profissional , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Somália
6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250461, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886655

RESUMO

Due to the sudden emergence of the novel coronavirus as a worldwide pandemic, this study aimed to evaluate the awareness and practices of both the Jordanian and Iraqi populations during the early stages of the pandemic. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between the 19th and 22nd of March to assess the public's awareness toward COVID-19. Multiple scored domains were used to assess the differences between the two populations. Statistical analysis was conducted to reveal the influence of sociodemographic variables on these scores. A total of 3167 participants were recruited in the study, of which, 1599 (50.5%) were from Jordan and 1568 (49.5%) were from Iraq. More than half of the Jordanian (56.8%) and Iraqi participants (53.2%) showed average or adequate awareness about COVID-19. More than 60% of both populations relied on medical staff for COVID-19 related information. Social media was the second most common COVID-19 information source, as it was reported by 53.7% of Jordanian participants and 62.8% of Iraqi participants. More than 90% of both populations participated in precautionary measurements. Finally, about 20% of both populations failed to recognize droplet inhalation as a source of transmission. Despite the portrayed awareness levels, governmental involvement is warranted to increase the public's awareness and fill the gaps within their knowledge.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925024

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices of the general public in the Middle Eastern countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted between the 19th of March and the 6th of April 2020 in three Middle Eastern countries (Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait) to explore the knowledge and practices of the Middle Eastern population regarding COVID-19. A previously developed questionnaire was adapted and used for this study. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of COVID-19 knowledge. Results: A total of 1208 participants (members of the public) participated from the three countries (Jordan = 389, Saudi Arabia = 433, and Kuwait = 386). The majority of participants (n = 810, 67.2%) were females aged 30 to 49 years (n = 501, 41.5%). Participants had moderate overall COVID-19 knowledge, with a mean (SD) score of 7.93 (±1.72) out of 12 (66.1%). Participants had better knowledge about disease prevention and control (83.0%), whereas the lowest sub-scale scores were for questions about disease transmission routes (43.3%). High education level was an important predictor of greater COVID-19 knowledge scores (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Further public education is needed to address the relatively low level of education regarding the transmission of COVID-19 in the Middle Eastern countries. Policymakers are recommended to develop informative COVID-19 related campaigns that specifically target young people (university students), unemployed individuals, and those with lower levels of education.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Jordânia , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248741, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize psychological distress and factors associated with distress in healthcare practitioners working during a stringent lockdown in a country (Jordan) that had exhibited one of the lowest incidence rates of Covid-19 globally at the time of the survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey sent to healthcare practitioners working in various hospitals and community pharmacies. Demographic, professional and psychological characteristics (distress using Kessler-6 questionnaire, anxiety, depression, burnout, sleep issues, exhaustion) were measured as were sources of fear. Descriptive and multivariable statistics were performed using level of distress as the outcome. RESULTS: We surveyed 937 practitioners (56.1% females). Approximately 68%, 14%, and 18% were nurses/technicians, physicians, and pharmacists (respectively). 32% suffered from high distress while 20% suffered from severe distress. Exhaustion, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances were reported (in past seven days) by approximately 34%, 34%, 19%, and 29% of subjects (respectively). Being older or male, a positive perception of communications with peers, and being satisfied at work, were significantly associated with lower distress. Conversely, suffering burnout; reporting sleep-related functional problems; exhaustion; being a pharmacist (relative to a physician); working in a cancer center; harboring fear about virus spreading; fear that the virus threatened life; fear of alienation from family/friends; and fear of workload increases, were significantly associated with higher distress. CONCLUSION: Despite low caseloads, Jordanian practitioners still experienced high levels of distress. Identified demographic, professional and psychological factors influencing distress should inform interventions to improve medical professionals' resilience and distress likelihood, regardless of the variable Covid-19 situation.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Angústia Psicológica , Quarentena , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , /psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249716, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819301

RESUMO

RATIONAL: During pandemics, including the most recent COVID-19 pandemic, the mental health of university healthcare students' is expected to be affected negatively, impacting the students' learning process. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the level of anxiety and depression of healthcare students living in Jordan, and the effect on their learning process during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted via an online survey completed by students studying a healthcare-oriented degree in a university in Jordan. Participants were recruited through social media (Facebook and WhatsApp). The validated previously published Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire was used as a part of the online survey to assess students' anxiety/depression scores. Students' responses regarding their learning process during the COVID-19 was also assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 21.62 (SD = 4.90), with the majority being females (67.1%). The HADs' assessment revealed that 43.8% and 40.0% of participants had normal anxiety and depression scores, while 22.4% showed borderline abnormal anxiety/depression scores (33.8%). Many students (33.8%) were classified to have abnormal anxiety scores, while a smaller proportion (26.2%) was classified to have abnormal depression scores. Smoking (p = 0.022), lower family income (p = 0.039), and use of medications (p = 0.032) were positively associated with higher (worse) anxiety scores. Ranking the learning process during COVID-19 showed that 45.8% of the participants believed it was a 'good/very good/excellent' process. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression levels amongst university healthcare students in Jordan were found to be high when assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, the learning process during the pandemic was not accepted by more than half of the students. Implementing psychological interventions for healthcare students during pandemics is strongly recommended in order to optimize students' mental health and their learning process alike.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Sistema de Aprendizagem em Saúde , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 91, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has an inevitable burden on public health, potentially widening the gender gap in healthcare and the economy. We aimed to assess gender-based desparities during COVID-19 in Jordan in terms of health indices, mental well-being and economic burden. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1300 participants ≥18 years living in Jordan were selected using stratified random sampling. Data were collected via telephone interviews in this cross-sectional study. Chi-square was used to test age and gender differences according to demographics, economic burden, and health indices (access to healthcare, health insurance, antenatal and reproductive services). A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the beta-coefficient (ß) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of factors correlated with mental well-being, assessed by patients' health questionnaire 4 (PHQ-4). RESULTS: 656 (50.5%) men and 644 (49.5%) women completed the interview. Three-fourths of the participants had health insurance during the COVID-19 crisis. There was no significant difference in healthcare coverage or access between women and men (p > 0.05). Half of pregnant women were unable to access antenatal care. Gender was a significant predictor of higher PHQ-4 scores (women vs. men: ß: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.54-1.22). Among women, age ≥ 60 years and being married were associated with significantly lower PHQ-4 scores. Only 0.38% of the overall participants lost their jobs; however, 8.3% reported a reduced payment. More women (13.89%) were not paid during the crisis as compared with men (6.92%) (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed no gender differences in healthcare coverage or access during the COVID-19 crisis generally. Women in Jordan are experiencing worse outcomes in terms of mental well-being and economic burden. Policymakers should give priority to women's mental health and antenatal and reproductive services. Financial security should be addressed in all Jordanian COVID-19 national plans because the crisis appears widening the gender gap in the economy.


Assuntos
/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Jordânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250555, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891660

RESUMO

Vaccines are effective interventions that can reduce the high burden of diseases globally. However, public vaccine hesitancy is a pressing problem for public health authorities. With the availability of COVID-19 vaccines, little information is available on the public acceptability and attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccines in Jordan. This study aimed to investigate the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines and its predictors in addition to the attitudes towards these vaccines among public in Jordan. An online, cross-sectional, and self-administered questionnaire was instrumentalized to survey adult participants from Jordan on the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines. Logistic regression analysis was used to find the predictors of COVID-19 vaccines' acceptability. A total of 3,100 participants completed the survey. The public acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines was fairly low (37.4%) in Jordan. Males (OR = 2.488, 95CI% = 1.834-3.375, p < .001) and those who took the seasonal influenza vaccine (OR = 2.036, 95CI% = 1.306-3.174, p = .002) were more likely to accept COVID-19 vaccines. Similarly, participants who believed that vaccines are generally safe (OR = 9.258, 95CI% = 6.020-14.237, p < .001) and those who were willing to pay for vaccines (OR = 19.223, 95CI% = 13.665-27.042, p < .001), once available, were more likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccines. However, those above 35 years old (OR = 0.376, 95CI% = 0.233-0.607, p < .001) and employed participants (OR = 0.542, 95CI% = 0.405-0.725, p < .001) were less likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccines. Moreover, participants who believed that there was a conspiracy behind COVID-19 (OR = 0.502, 95CI% = 0.356-0.709, p < .001) and those who do not trust any source of information on COVID-19 vaccines (OR = 0.271, 95CI% = 0.183-0.400, p < .001), were less likely to have acceptance towards them. The most trusted sources of information on COVID-19 vaccines were healthcare providers. Systematic interventions are required by public health authorities to reduce the levels of vaccines' hesitancy and improve their acceptance. We believe these results and specifically the low rate of acceptability is alarming to Jordanian health authorities and should stir further studies on the root causes and the need of awareness campaigns. These interventions should take the form of reviving the trust in national health authorities and structured awareness campaigns that offer transparent information about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines and the technology that was utilized in their production.


Assuntos
Atitude , /prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807288

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a persistent zoonotic pathogen with frequent spillover from dromedary camels to humans in the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in limited outbreaks of MERS with a high case-fatality rate. Full genome sequence data from camel-derived MERS-CoV variants show diverse lineages circulating in domestic camels with frequent recombination. More than 90% of the available full MERS-CoV genome sequences derived from camels are from just two countries, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, we employ a novel method to amplify and sequence the partial MERS-CoV genome with high sensitivity from nasal swabs of infected camels. We recovered more than 99% of the MERS-CoV genome from field-collected samples with greater than 500 TCID50 equivalent per nasal swab from camel herds sampled in Jordan in May 2016. Our subsequent analyses of 14 camel-derived MERS-CoV genomes show a striking lack of genetic diversity circulating in Jordan camels relative to MERS-CoV genome sequences derived from large camel markets in KSA and UAE. The low genetic diversity detected in Jordan camels during our study is consistent with a lack of endemic circulation in these camel herds and reflective of data from MERS outbreaks in humans dominated by nosocomial transmission following a single introduction as reported during the 2015 MERS outbreak in South Korea. Our data suggest transmission of MERS-CoV among two camel herds in Jordan in 2016 following a single introduction event.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Variação Genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 151, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quarantine associated with the COVID-19 pandemic forced dental schools to suspend their clinical training and to shift to distant learning methods. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of quarantine on the self-perceived preparedness of dental graduates and to explore the efficacy of online education from students' perspectives. METHODS: The questionnaire distributed to dental students comprised of two main sections. The first part covered the online education experience, and the second part measured the level of self-perceived preparedness for a range of cognitive, communication and professional skills. RESULTS: The survey yielded a response rate of 72%. The majority of students (77%) agreed that they missed educational experiences as a result of the lockdown. More than half of them felt less motivated to follow-up with distant e-learning and believed that online assessment is not a good method for evaluation. A high percentage of the students (66%) thought that online group discussions had a positive value while 67% preferred online lectures compared to theatre lectures. Majority of students particularly 5th year (78.7%) (p < 0.001) stated that the quarantine increased their collaboration with their colleagues. According to 87% of students, the experience most negatively affected was their clinical training. In general, students showed satisfactory self-perceived preparedness related to a range of attributes and professional skills. CONCLUSIONS: The data showed that students partially appreciated the online system, whereas they did not consider it a substitute for face to face clinical practice. The overall self-perceived preparedness level was promising; however students had reservations regarding independent practice following graduation.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Educação em Odontologia , Educação a Distância/métodos , Pandemias , Competência Profissional , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Motivação , Quarentena , Autoimagem , Autoavaliação
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247679, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711026

RESUMO

The emergence of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected health-care workers' psychological and mental health. Few studies have been conducted examining the psychological effect of COVID-19 on health-care worker psychological health in Jordan. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the respective levels of fear, anxiety, depression, stress, social support, and the associated factors, experienced by Jordanian health-care workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic. This study adopted a cross-sectional, correlational design to collect data from 365 health-care workers in Amman, Jordan, from August 16th to 23rd, 2020. Along with collecting sociodemographic characteristics, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support electronically administered to participants. The majority of the participants (69.3%) were registered nurses. The mean overall score for the Fear of COVID-19 scale was 23.64 (SD + 6.85) which again exceeded the mid-point for the total score range (21), indicating elevated level fear of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants had displayed extremely severe depression 40%, extremely severe anxiety 60%, and 35% severely distressed. Scores for depression (21.30 ± 10.86), anxiety (20.37 ± 10.80), stress (23.33 ± 10.87) were also high. Factors determined to be associated with psychological distress were being male, married, aged 40 years and older, and having more clinical experience. Assessment of social support indicated moderate-to-high levels of perceived support for all dimensions (significant other: 5.17 ± 1.28, family: 5.03 ± 1.30, friends: 5.05 ± 1.30). Weak significant correlations were found between social support and the other study variables (r < 0.22), indicating a weak association with fear, depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. Overall, Jordanian health-care workers sample reported fear, depression, anxiety, and stress. The associated factors were being male, married, aged 40 years and older, and having more clinical experience. Regarding social support, participants primarily relied on support from their families, followed by support from friends.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Depressão/patologia , Medo/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , /virologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668873

RESUMO

The abundances of selected elements in different environmental compartments, namely soil, honey, and bee pollen, was determined in this study. For that purpose, sixteen soil and honey samples, and nine pollen samples were taken in the region of Mitrovica, Kosovo. The concentration of elements was measured by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Pollution level concentrations of Pb, Zn, As, and Cd were observed in soil. The level of soil pollution was estimated by calculating pollution indices. Pb was also observed at high concentrations in honey, as was Cd and Pb in pollen. Pearson's correlation coefficients revealed mostly weak and moderate correlations of the concentrations of the eight selected elements among the soil, honey, and pollen samples. Several groups of elements with geogenic and anthropogenic origin were identified by hierarchical cluster analysis. The concentrations of selected heavy metals for soil and honey were compared to those in neighboring countries, and those for pollen with samples from Turkey, Serbia, and Jordan.


Assuntos
Mel , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Abelhas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mel/análise , Jordânia , Kosovo , Metais Pesados/análise , Pólen , Sérvia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Turquia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of foreign students toward the use of medical cannabis (MC) for pain management. METHODS: This study uses data collected from 549 foreign students from India (n = 289) and Middle Eastern countries mostly from Egypt, Iran, Syria, and Jordan (n = 260) studying medicine in Russia and Belarus. Data collected from Russian and Belarusian origin medical students (n = 796) were used for comparison purposes. Pearson's chi-squared and t-test were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Foreign students' country of origin and gender statuses do not tend to be correlated with medical student responses toward medical cannabis use. Students from Russia and Belarus who identified as secular, compared to those who were religious, reported more positive attitudes toward medical cannabis and policy change. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs toward medical cannabis among foreign students from India and Middle Eastern countries studying in Russia and Belarus, two countries who oppose its recreational and medicine use. Indian and Middle Eastern students, as a group, tend to be more supportive of MC than their Russian and Belarusian counterparts. These results may be linked to cultural and historical reasons. This study provides useful information for possible medical and allied health curriculum and education purposes.


Assuntos
Maconha Medicinal , Estudantes de Medicina , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Egito , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Irã (Geográfico) , Jordânia , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor , Federação Russa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síria
18.
Med Confl Surviv ; 37(1): 55-68, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719754

RESUMO

Distance-learning increasingly forms part of many academic and professional courses. OxPal, a collaboration between University of Oxford medical students and doctors and their counterparts in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), sought to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of interactive online distance-learning through a pre-established international partnership as a method for rapid knowledge sharing during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response. Two interactive online lectures for medical students and clinicians in the oPt on the COVID-19 pandemic were conducted. The first lecture was an 'Introduction to COVID-19' and the second focused on 'Data-sharing during the pandemic'. 212 and 174 attended each lecture, respectively. Feedback was via an online questionnaire. >95% of respondents indicated the lectures covered a gap in their medical education. 87% and 77% of respondents rated lecture quality 'Good' or 'Excellent' for the two lectures respectively. Qualitative feedback elicited requests for more clinically focused lectures, which have since been provided. Online lectures are feasible and effective for rapid education of medical students and clinicians in the oPt in a public health emergency. We hope this encourages other institutions to provide similar support in the oPt and other 'tutor-deplete' regions facing specific geopolitical challenges to local medical education.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Medicina Clínica/educação , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Árabes , Instrução por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo , Humanos , Jordânia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 69-76, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692625

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine if further endovascular infrapopliteal angioplasty in combination with femoropopliteal revascularization improves the clinical outcomes regarding major amputation rate, rate of secondary interventions, and mortality in diabetic type-II patients presented with critical lower limb ischemia (CLI). Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study in which all type-II diabetic patients with CLI at King Abdullah University Hospital between October 2015 and September 2019 were identified. Patients with concomitant femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal vessels atherosclerotic lesions (total occlusion or more than 50% stenosis) who received successful endovascular treatment were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group-I included patients treated for femoropopliteal segment alone, while Group-II included patients treated for both femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal segments. The outcomes of the two groups were compared regarding major amputation rate, rate of secondary interventions, and mortality. In addition, demographic data, atherosclerotic lesions distributions and cardiovascular risk factors were also collected and analyzed. Results: In all, 90 patients (65 males and 25 females) with a mean age of 67.5±12 years were included. In Group-I; 44 patients (48.9%) were included (36 males and 8 females) with a mean age of 67±12 years. In group-II; 46 patients (51.1%) were included (29 males and 17 females) with a mean age of 68±13 years. The major amputation rate was higher and statistically significant in Group-I (38.6% vs 17.4%, p-value = 0.034). However, the secondary interventions and the mortality rates showed no statistically significant differences (56.8% vs 39.1%, p-value = 0.139) and (22.7% vs 28.3%, p-value = 0.632), respectively. Conclusion: Endovascular infrapopliteal angioplasty in combination with femoropopliteal revascularization in diabetic type-II patients with CLI improves the clinical outcome regarding major amputation rate. However, there were no significant differences regarding the rate of secondary interventions and the mortality rate.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Angiopatias Diabéticas/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Artéria Femoral , Isquemia/terapia , Artéria Poplítea , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação , Estado Terminal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/mortalidade , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Poplítea/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 42: 132-137, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID- 19) constitutes a major global pandemic health care system challenge. Shortly following the disease outbreak, like SARS-CoV virus, all affected countries are implementing various preventive and control measures to mitigate the spread of the disease. Optimizing public health system during COVID-19 pandemic requires not only advanced medical and biological sciences knowledge, but also all human sciences related to social, as well as nutritional behavior, and lifestyle practices. AIM: To investigate the effect of COVID-19- quarantine on healthy nutritional behavior and lifestyle practices among Jordanian population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among Jordanian population was conducted using an online questionnaire between March and April 2020. Participants were kindly requested to answer a standardized and validated structured questionnaire. Demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, and occupation), anthropometric data (reported weight and height); nutritional behavior information (number of meals per day, snakes, water intake), and physical activity behavior were requested. RESULTS: A total of 4473 respondents were included in the study; obese (n = 1135), normal body weight (n = 1561), and underweight (n = 116). During COVID-19 quarantine, a significant increase in body weight (12.9% underweight, 28.5% normal body weight, 36.4% overweight' and 41.1% of obese (p < 0.001) was reported. Moreover, the number of snacks between meals (p < 0.001), number of main meals (p < 0.001), and the smoking rate was also increased significantly; however, there was no significant difference regarding physical activity among various weight status groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have provided evidence, for the first time, that there were significant negative changes in healthy nutritional behavior among Jordanians during COVID-19 quarantine who encountered significantly increased body weight, appetite, and smoking. Hence, future larger cross-sectional studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quarentena , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
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