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2.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 89(2): 268-278, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702330

RESUMO

Previous research indicates a positive link between youth runaway episodes and the likelihood of homelessness in later adolescence and early adulthood. An adolescent's decision to run away from home often accompanies depressive symptomology compared with stably housed youth. The present study used a large, nationally representative sample of 8,560 youth to identify links among runaway behavior, changes in depressive symptomology during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood, and homelessness. Results suggest that running away during adolescence is linked with later homelessness across depressive symptom classes. In fact, even a single runaway episode as a teenager tripled the odds of reporting homelessness by young adulthood. However, the magnitude of the association varies based on depressive symptom trajectories. Adolescents reporting high levels of depressive symptomology that increased over time were 6 times more likely to experience homelessness, compared with youth with consistently low depressive symptoms. Interestingly, among participants who reported never running away, this same high/increasing depressive symptoms group were less likely to report homelessness than were peers with consistently low depressive symptoms. These findings point to a potential resiliency process among youth in this category that needs to be further explored to identify differences in youth with poor mental health who leave home verses those who remain stably housed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Jovens em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
AIDS Behav ; 23(3): 792-801, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715636

RESUMO

Recent research shows high rates of poor behavioral health outcomes among homeless former foster youth, including increased risk for HIV-risk behaviors. In the current study, data were collected from 184 youth at drop-in centers in Los Angeles using behavioral health questionnaires to explore the relationships between specific aspects of foster care experiences and engagement in HIV-risk behaviors. Results indicated that youth whose first homelessness experience occurred before leaving foster care were significantly more likely to engage in drug use with sex and exchange sex than those whose first homelessness experience occurred after leaving foster care. Intervention services targeting HIV-risk behaviors should consider the aspects of foster care placements that may increase the risk of these behaviors, such as long periods of placement or experiencing homelessness before exiting foster care, as well as those that may decrease the risk of these behaviors, such as exiting placement at an older age.


Assuntos
Criança Acolhida/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Jovens em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , HIV , Humanos , Los Angeles , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696049

RESUMO

Human trafficking is a significant and growing public health concern. Subgroups of adolescents and young adults are particularly vulnerable to human trafficking, especially youth who are unstably housed or homeless. While youth experiencing trafficking come into contact with the healthcare system, they are often not identified during routine assessment due to lack of specific inquiry and low disclosure. Therefore, we utilized a mixed-methods study design to assess the differences in the identification of human trafficking among youth experiencing homelessness (n = 129) between a standard psychosocial assessment tool and a human trafficking specific assessment tool. Findings indicate that the tool developed to specifically assess for human trafficking was more likely to identify youth experiencing sexual and labor exploitation, as well as the risk factors for human trafficking. Secondly, youth reported that mistrust of the system, fear of involving the police if reported, not wanting to interact with the mental healthcare system, and stigma are barriers to disclosing human trafficking. In conclusion, healthcare providers caring for youth experiencing homelessness should adopt improved screening tools for human trafficking to reduce the risk of missed opportunities for prevention and treatment among this high-risk population of youth.


Assuntos
Pessoas Escravizadas/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Jovens em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Jovens em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Tráfico de Pessoas/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoas Escravizadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Tráfico de Pessoas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Texas , Adulto Jovem
5.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(5): 572-577, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569301

RESUMO

Introduction Homelessness can result in poor health. The number of families with children living in NYC homeless shelters increased 55% from 2008 to 2014. Half of children living in shelter in 2014 were younger than 6 years old. We compared demographics and health outcomes of mothers and infants residing in NYC homeless shelters to those residing in public housing in this cross-sectional study. Methods Addresses of NYC Department of Homeless Services shelters and NYC Housing Authority (NYCHA) developments were matched to NYC Department of Health birth certificate data for the years 2008-2013. Sociodemographic and health characteristics of newborns residing in shelters were compared to newborns in NYCHA housing using Chi square tests. Results Mothers residing in shelters were younger, more likely to be black and less likely to be Hispanic, more likely to have been born outside NYC and reside in the Bronx. Babies born to mothers living in shelter were more likely to have low birth weight (< 2500 g), be born preterm (< 37 gestational weeks), require assisted ventilation immediately following delivery, have a NICU admission, and use Medicaid. They were less likely to breastfeed within 5 days of delivery and be discharged to their residence. Discussion Homeless mothers and infants had poorer health outcomes compared with those living in public housing. Understanding the health disparities of homeless infants can provide guidance for developing future policies and research initiatives, which may be used to inform the development of new policies to improve health outcomes of homeless infants and their mothers.


Assuntos
Jovens em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação Popular/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Jovens em Situação de Rua/etnologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Habitação Popular/organização & administração
6.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 32(8): 873-884, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556713

RESUMO

The current study identified subgroups of homeless youth and young adults that exhibited distinct co-occurring patterns of substance use and social stability (e.g., employment, school attendance, and housing), and evaluated the relative effectiveness of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA), Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), and case management (CM) in interrupting substance use and improving social stability. The differentiating effects of personal characteristics on the co-occurrence of substance use and social stability were also examined. Participants included 270 homeless youth and young adults who were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention conditions: CRA, n = 93, MET, n = 86, or CM, n = 91. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months postbaseline. A dual trajectory latent class growth analysis identified four co-occurring patterns: low-stable substance use paired with low-increasing social stability, high-stable substance use paired with low-stable social stability, high-declining substance use paired with low-increasing social stability, and low-increasing substance use paired with high-stable social stability. Findings showed that CRA was superior in improving substance use and social stability simultaneously compared to MET and CM, and further, CM was more effective than MET. Personal factors including race, age, coping strategies, and behavior problems differentiated the co-occurring patterns of substance use and social stability. The findings underscore the significance in identifying subgroups of homeless youth that vary in problem severity in terms of their substance use and social stability, and offer evidence to help practitioners identify the most effective intervention that responds to the needs of homeless youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Administração de Caso , Jovens em Situação de Rua , Entrevista Motivacional , Reforço (Psicologia) , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Emprego , Feminino , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
8.
Afr Health Sci ; 18(1): 180-187, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977272

RESUMO

Background: Street youths are faced with a number of health challenges that could be linked to their exposure to the risk elements, accessing medical care including motivation and /or ignorance to utilise available health care. Objective: This qualitative study therefore aimed at determining the behavioural risks for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and health seeking behaviour of street youths in Ibadan. Methods: Sixteen focus group discussion (FGD) sessions were conducted among 160 street youths aged between 15-24 years. Result: The result showed that most of the respondents had low perception of risk of contracting STIs in spite of their risky behaviours which included multiple sexual partnering, sharing of personal effects, malnourishment and sexual harassment. Most of the street youth could not identify the various types however; Gonorrhea and HIV were commonly mentioned by them. The major treatment regimen for STIs was traditional remedies and drugs obtained from patent medicine vendors. Traditional remedies were preferred by most of the participants and considered to be more effective. Conclusion: Majority of the street youths were sexually active, engaged in high risk sexual behaviours and had inappropriately treated sexually transmitted infections. Development of risk reduction and appropriate sexual health interventions targeted at prevention and appropriate treatment is recommended.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Jovens em Situação de Rua , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Nigéria , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
AIDS Behav ; 22(11): 3508-3518, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725788

RESUMO

Although homeless youth are likely to engage in concurrent sexual relationships and doing so can accelerate HIV transmission, the issue of sexual concurrency (i.e., having sexual partnerships that overlap in time) has received scarce attention in this vulnerable population. The literature that exists tends to focus on individuals' characteristics that may be associated with concurrency and overlooks the influence of their social environment. Informed by the risk amplification and abatement model (RAAM), this study explored the association between pro-social and problematic social network connections, and sexual concurrency among homeless youth using drop-in center services (N = 841). Nearly 37% of youth engaged in concurrency. Partially consistent with the RAAM, regression analyses showed that affiliation with more problematic ties (i.e., having more network members who practice concurrency and unprotected sex) was associated with greater sexual concurrency. Programs addressing HIV risk among homeless youth in drop-in centers should consider the role youths' network composition may play in concurrency.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Jovens em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Meio Social , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Jovens em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(4): 1055-1066, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694597

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of pregnancy and abortion experience, along with associated factors among street children, adolescents and youths in Porto Alegre and Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. The sampling method in this cross-sectional study was Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS), innovative in research about hidden populations. Interviews were conducted with 307 subjects, aged 10 to 21 years. In multivariate analysis, Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used. Most of this sample were males, with no contact with school and family. Almost half of the participants had been on the street for five years or more, spending more than 15 hours per day on the streets. The prevalence of pregnancy experience was 29.3%, independently associated with being a girl, having 10 sexual partners or more in the last year, having a fixed sexual partner in the last year, and being older. The prevalence of abortion experience was 10.4%, independently associated with not living with the family, having more than two pregnancies, and being younger. The high prevalence of pregnancy and abortion experience highlights the need for the development of better sexual and reproductive health policies focused on this population.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Jovens em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Distribuição de Poisson , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Trauma Dissociation ; 19(4): 431-443, 2018 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601290

RESUMO

Numerous homeless youth experience trauma prior to leaving home and while on the street. Bullying and trading sex (i.e. exchanging sexual favors for survival items such as food) are additional forms of trauma experienced by many homeless youth. Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) homeless youth experience higher rates of child abuse compared to their heterosexual counterparts, there is a paucity of research comparing these two groups. As such, we compare whether difficulties finding items of necessity (e.g. food) and different forms of trauma including child sexual abuse, being bullied, trading sex, and street sexual victimization significantly differ for LGB and heterosexual homeless youth. Bivariate results reveal that LGB youth have more trouble finding shelter and are more likely to trade sex compared to heterosexual youth. Logistic regression results show that trading sex is correlated with street sexual victimization. In the second model, we find that being female, experiencing more child sexual abuse, and ever having traded sex are all positively linked with street sexual victimization. LGB youth are over-represented among homeless youth populations and are also more likely to trade sex; therefore, these young people need services that are widely accessible and specific to their needs.


Assuntos
Bullying , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Jovens em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Trabalho Sexual/psicologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 37(3): 421-428, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430806

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Street-involved youth are known to be at elevated risk of initiating injection drug use. However, the impact of so-called 'gateway' drugs, such as cannabis, on injection initiation is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the association between cannabis use and initiation of injection drug use among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data for this study were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study. From September 2005 to May 2015, participants aged 14-26 who reported illicit drug use were recruited into this open prospective cohort study. An extended Cox regression model with time-updated covariates was used to identify factors independently associated with injection initiation. RESULTS: During the study period, 481 street-involved youth were included in this study. Of these, 228 (47.4%) reported at least daily cannabis use, and 103 (21.4%) initiated injection drug use. In a multivariable analysis, ≥daily cannabis use was associated with slower rates of injection initiation (adjusted relative hazard 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.45-0.98; P = 0.038). Sub-analyses revealed that cannabis use was negatively associated with initiation of injection stimulants but not initiation of injection opioids. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Given the expansion of cannabis legalisation throughout North America, it is encouraging that cannabis use was associated with slower time to initiation of injection drug use in this cohort. This finding challenges the view of cannabis as a gateway substance that precipitates the progression to using harder and more addictive drugs.


Assuntos
Jovens em Situação de Rua , Fumar Maconha , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Drogas Ilícitas , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425129

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to examine the factors associated with suicidal ideation among youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda. Analyses are based on cross-sectional survey data, collected in 2014, of a convenience sample (n = 1134) of urban service-seeking youth participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center. Logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the psychosocial factors associated with suicidal ideation. Among youth participants, 23.54% (n = 266) reported suicidal ideation in the past year. In the multivariable analysis, suicidal ideation was associated with being female (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.25), reporting one (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.18) or two deceased parents (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.35), ever living on the streets (OR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.86, 3.79), problem drinking (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.80), sexually transmitted infection (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.21), ever being raped (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.20), and experiencing physical child abuse (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.75, 3.27). Our findings underscore many unmet needs in this vulnerable population. However, strategies that specifically seek to address problem drinking-a modifiable risk factor for suicidal ideation-may be particularly warranted in this low-resource setting.


Assuntos
Áreas de Pobreza , Ideação Suicida , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Jovens em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 35, 2018 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence of and risk factors associated with initiating nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) before and after illegal drugs using data from two linked cohort studies of street youth and adults who use illegal drugs in Vancouver, Canada. All participants who attended a study visit between 2013 and 2016 were eligible for the primary analyses. RESULTS: Among 512 youth and 833 adult participants, the prevalence of NMPOU was extremely high (88% among street youth; 90% among adults), and over one-third of those who reported engaging in NMPOU had initiated NMPOU before illegal drug use (vs. transitioning from illegal drugs to NMPOU). Participants who reported either transitioning to or from NMPOU had higher risk profiles, particularly related to substance use, when compared with those who reported never engaging in NMPOU. Sub-analyses restricted to only those who engaged in NMPOU found few statistically significant differences between those who initiated NMPOU prior to illegal drugs versus those who initiated illegal drugs prior to NMPOU. Findings suggest that among people who use illegal drugs, early NMPOU trajectories do not appear to critically shape future patterns and practices.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamento , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Jovens em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia
15.
Rev. psicol. (Fortaleza, Online) ; 9(1): 107-116, jan.-jun 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-878332

RESUMO

A intervenção para o enfrentamento à situação de rua de crianças e adolescentes é discutida a partir de estudo de avaliação do Serviço Ação Rua. Utiliza-se delineamento qualitativo de Estudo de Caso Único com Unidades de Análise Incorporadas, envolvendo inserção ecológica, análise documental e grupos focais com Adolescentes, Famílias, Trabalhadores Sociais e Gestores vinculados ao Serviço. O estudo se refere aos seus três primeiros anos (2007-2009), entre implantação e execução. Os resultados, com base na Teoria Bioecológica do Desenvolvimento Humano, indicam que o Serviço se constituiu em microssistema direto, ampliou o número e a qualidade dos microssistemas do público atendido. A regularidade e a reciprocidade afetiva destacaram-se nos processos proximais estabelecidos, percebidos como apoio social formal e informal. A presença constante nos espaços de vida do público atendido cria estabilidade presencial que se contrapõe à imprevisibilidade da rua, e ultrapassa os limites tradicionalmente esperados para a abordagem social de rua. Destaca-se a importância da pessoa do trabalhador social para o desenvolvimento da intervenção. As lições aprendidas do Caso Ação Rua são relevantes para refletir sobre intervenções dirigidas à abordagem social de rua e programas de apoio sociofamiliar em diferentes contextos. Limitações e propostas de estudos futuros são apresentadas.


Intervention with children and adolescents in street situation are discussed through the Ação Rua Case evaluation study. A Single Case Study with Embedded Analysis Units was used by means of ecological insertion, documentary analysis and focus groups with Adolescents, Families, Social Workers and Managers connected to the Service. The present study considers the three first years (2007-2009) of the case study, considering implementation and execution. Results, based on Bioecological Theory of Human Development, indicate that the Service comprised a direct microsystem, and increased the number and quality of the microsystems of the public served. Regularity and affective reciprocity were highlighted as elements of the proximal processes established, also perceived as formal/informal social support. The Service constant presence in the living spaces of the attended public created a face-to-face stability that contrasted to the unpredictability of the street situation, and went beyond the traditional limits of the street outreach approach. The importance of the social worker for the development of the intervention is emphasized. The lessons learned from the Ação Rua Case are relevant to examine on interventions aimed at the street outreach approach and socio-family support programs in different contexts. Limitations and suggestions for future studies are presented.


Assuntos
Jovens em Situação de Rua , Organizações , Política Pública , Fatores Sociológicos , Características da Família , Serviços de Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Apoio Social , Teoria Social
17.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0207742, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596659

RESUMO

We inquire whether there are race and gender differences in the recovery of missing children. We argue that race and gender differences may arise due to differential media attention, socio-economic background and police resources. Datasets used in previous research lack the representativeness and longitudinal character necessary for probing victim demographic effects on recovery success. Here we use official New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services records of all children reported missing in the period 2007-2010 containing exact dates of disappearance and recovery. In event-history analysis of these data we find that missing boys and girls have comparable daily recovery chances. Black children, however, on average remain missing longer and are more likely to still be missing by the end of our observation period than non-black children.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Vítimas de Crime , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Vítimas de Crime/reabilitação , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Direito Penal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Jovens em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , New York , Polícia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 12(1): 50, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the initiation of injection drug use has been well characterized among at-risk youth, factors that support or impede cessation of injection drug use have received less attention. We sought to identify socioeconomic factors associated with cessation of injection drug use among street-involved youth. METHODS: From September 2005 to May 2015, data were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Multivariate extended Cox regression was utilized to identify socioeconomic factors associated with cessation of injection drug use for six months or longer among youth who were actively injecting. RESULTS: Among 383 participants, 171 (44.6%) youth reported having ceased injection (crude incidence density 22 per 100 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 19-26) at some point during study follow-up. Youth who had recently dealt drugs (adjusted hazard ration [AHR], 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29-0.87), engaged in prohibited street-based income generation (AHR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.69), and engaged in illegal income generating activities (AHR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.06-0.61) were significantly less likely to report cessation of injection drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that socioeconomic factors, in particular engagement in prohibited street-based and illegal income generating activities, may pose barriers to ceasing injection drug use among this population. Effort to improve access to stable and secure income, as well as employment opportunities may assist youth in transitioning away from injection drug use. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Our study is not a randomized controlled trial; thus the trial registration is not applicable.


Assuntos
Jovens em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Harm Reduct J ; 14(1): 79, 2017 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The distribution of take-home naloxone (THN) kits has been an important strategy in reducing overdose fatalities among people who use drugs. However, little is known about the use of THN among youth who are street-involved. The present study explores knowledge and possession of THN among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth age 14-28 at enrollment in Vancouver, Canada. Participants completed a standardized questionnaire, which included items related to knowledge and possession of THN, sociodemographic characteristics, and substance use-related factors. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with knowledge and possession of THN. RESULTS: Between December 2014 and November 2016, 177 youth were interviewed, including 68 females (38.4%). While 126 (71.2%) participants reported knowledge of THN, only 40 (22.6%) possessed a THN kit. Caucasian/white ethnicity was found to be positively associated with both knowledge and possession of THN (both p < 0.05). Public injection drug use in the last 6 months was found to be positively associated with knowledge of THN, while daily heroin use and daily methamphetamine use were associated with possession of THN (all p < 0.05). Male gender was negatively associated with possession of THN (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight important gaps between knowledge and possession of THN among youth and the need to increase participation in THN programs among specific populations including non-white and male youth. Further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the barriers that may prevent certain youth from acquiring THN kits.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Jovens em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/complicações , Colúmbia Britânica , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Dependência de Heroína/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Metanfetamina , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 25: [e29603], jan.-dez. 2017. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-916035

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar o perfil sócio-econômico-demográfico de mulheres adolescentes em situação de rua, na perspectiva das condições socioculturais. Metodologia: pesquisa quantitativa com 21 mulheres adolescentes com experiência de viver na rua, acolhidas em duas unidades da rede municipal de acolhimento do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram produzidos a partir de entrevistas contendo questões objetivas de caracterização do perfil sócio-econômico-demográfico, e submetidos à análise estatística com cálculos de frequência absoluta e percentual. Resultados: maioria das adolescentes é preta/parda; apresenta baixa escolaridade; proveniente de comunidades pobres; seus responsáveis têm baixa escolaridade, desemprego/subemprego ou envolvimento com ilegalidade/criminalidade; maioria afastada do convívio familiar há mais de 1 ano com sucessivas passagens pelo acolhimento institucional. Conclusão: dados refletem as raízes históricas do grupo, com reprodução do padrão parental, ressaltando a precariedade intergeracional. A longa história de afastamento do convívio familiar indica a dimensão do esgarçamento dos laços familiares, fornecendo indícios das precariedades econômicas e psicoafetivas e da necessidade de intervenções preventivas.


Objectives: to analyze the social, economic and demographic profile of female adolescents in a street situation, from the standpoint of socio-cultural conditions. Methodology: this quantitative study of 21 adolescent women with experience of living on the street, in care at two of Rio de Janeiro's municipal shelters. Data were produced from interviews with objective questions to characterize a social, economic and demographic profile, and were subjected to statistical analysis by calculating absolute and percentage frequencies. Results: most of the adolescents were black or brown, had little schooling, and were from poor communities; most had lived away from their families for more than one year and had been institutionalized several times; their guardians had little schooling, and were un- or under-employed or involved in illegal or criminal activities. Conclusion: the data reflect the group's historical roots and its reproduction of parental patterns, and highlight the intergenerational precarity. The long histories of removal from the family indicate the extent to which family ties are fragmentary, and evidence precarious economic and psycho-affective conditions and the need for preventive interventions.


Objetivos: analizar el perfil socioeconómico-demográfico de chicas adolescentes en situación de calle, en la perspectiva de las condiciones socioculturales. Metodología: investigación cuantitativa con 21 adolescentes del sexo femenino con experiencia de vivir en la calle, recibidas en dos unidades de acogida de la red municipal de Río de Janeiro. Los datos fueron producidos a partir de entrevistas con preguntas objetivas de caracterización del perfil socioeconómico-demográfico y sometidos al análisis estadístico con cálculos de frecuencia absoluta y porcentual. Resultados: la mayoría de las adolescentes son negras/pardas; tienen baja escolaridad; proceden de comunidades pobres; sus responsables tienen baja escolaridad, desempleo/subempleo o implicación con ilegalidad/ criminalidad; la mayoría está alejada de la convivencia familiar desde hace más de un año con sucesivos pasos por instituciones de acogida. Conclusión: los datos reflejan las raíces históricas del grupo, resaltando la precariedad intergeneracional. La larga historia de alejamiento de la convivencia familiar indica cómo se desgastan los lazos familiares, mostrando indicios de las precariedades económicas y psicoafectivas y de la necesidad de intervenciones preventivas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Saúde Pública , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Enfermagem , Jovens em Situação de Rua
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