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1.
Food Chem ; 352: 129404, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676122

RESUMO

This study was designed to identify and quantify the major phenolic constituents in peeled kernel and pellicle of the walnut Juglans regia L. Data were compared across six different cultivars: 'Fernor', 'Fernette', 'Franquette', 'Sava', 'Krka' and 'Rubina'. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify these compounds. Nineteen ellagitanins, 12 ellagic acid derivatives, 4 anthocyanins and 5 other phenols were identified in the pellicle of these walnuts, and 15 dicarboxylic acid derivatives and 1 phenol in the peeled walnut kernels. Thirteen previously unreported compounds were identified in the peeled walnut kernels, and 14 in the walnut pellicle. Hydrolysable tannins were the main phenolic compounds identified in the walnut kernels, and accounted for 31.0% to 35.1% of the total phenolics analysed. The highest intake of total phenolics content per walnut kernel can be obtained by consumption of 'Franquette' and 'Rubina', with the lowest for 'Krka'.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Juglans/química , Fenóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Análise de Alimentos , Nozes/química , Fenóis/química
2.
Food Chem ; 350: 129217, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607410

RESUMO

The free, esterified and bound forms of 37 phenolic compounds (including hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanols, flavonols and flavones) from walnut kernel (Juglans regia L.) were investigated in this study. Results showed that the majority of walnut phenolics were presented in the free form (51.1%-68.1%), followed by bound (21.0%-38.0%) and esterified forms (9.7%-18.7%). Ellagic acid, gallic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid and caffeic acid were widely distributed in three forms. Differently, jeuglone, kaempferol, quercetin-7-o-ß-d-glucoside and dihydroquercetin were only found in free phenolics. Among the three forms, free phenolics had the highest radical scavenging activity (IC50: DPPH, 15.5 µg/ml; ABTS, 13.6 µg/ml). The correlation coefficients between the antioxidant activities of phenolics and their corresponding contents were 0.82-0.92. More soluble phenolics (free and esterified forms) could be extracted by acetone, while methanol was better at extracting insoluble bound phenolics.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Análise de Alimentos , Juglans/química , Nozes/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Esterificação
3.
Food Chem ; 347: 129062, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476918

RESUMO

Walnut protein was hydrolyzed with different proteases to evaluate the hydrolytic efficiency and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activity in vitro. All of walnut protein hydrolysates (WPHs) exhibited DPP-IV inhibitory activity and Alcalase-derived hydrolysate (WPH-Alc) with better DPP-IV inhibitory activity of 33.90% (at 0.50 mg/mL) was subsequently separated by ultrafiltration and cation exchange chromatography on a SP Sephadex C-25 column. The results showed that fractions with lower molecular weight and higher basic amino acid residues possessed stronger DPP-IV inhibitory activity. Comparably, the obtained fraction B with the yield of 19.80% had the highest DPP-IV inhibitory activity of 76.19% at 0.25 mg/mL. Moreover, nine novel DPP-IV inhibitory peptides were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Molecular docking revealed the peptides could interact with DPP-IV through hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, hydrophobic interactions, π-cation bonds and π-π bonds. The walnut DPP-IV inhibitory peptides showed better stability with heating treatment, pH treatment, or in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/química , Juglans/química , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Juglans/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Subtilisinas , Temperatura , Ultrafiltração
4.
Food Chem ; 339: 128047, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949916

RESUMO

The antioxidative activity of natural products has commonly been studied by free radical scavenging methods. However, the mechanisms by which antioxidation is explored by free radical scavenging methods remain largely unknown. This study analyzed the composition of walnut-derived pentapeptides PW5 with potential biological activity and its oxidation reaction products in 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) test by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The amino acid sequence of PW5 peptide successfully characterized as Proline-Proline-Lysine-Asparagine-Tryptophan exhibited significant antioxidant activity with lower IC50 value (0.2210 ± 0.0032 mM) compared to glutathione (GSH, 0.2567 ± 0.0023 mM, p < 0.001). Furthermore, we found that the tryptophan residue was the only residue in PW5 with obvious alteration after treatment with ABTS free radicals, which was linked to its potential antioxidant properties. These findings revealed how NMR-characterized structures and oxidation reaction products may be used to explore the antioxidative mechanisms of food-derived peptides as well as other natural products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Juglans/química , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Radicais Livres/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Nozes/química , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Plantas/química
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(52): 15526-15534, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322897

RESUMO

Walnuts, with their health-promoting ingredients, are among the most popular nuts, and practicable methods for determining their geographical origin are needed to tackle food fraud. Authentic walnut samples (235, Juglans Regia L.) from different harvest years (2016-2019) and countries were analyzed by 1H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric methods to determine their geographical origin. Two sample groups were analyzed at a time with a support vector machine algorithm to obtain two-class classifier models. In total, nine two-class models were built (e.g., Germany/China, France/Germany, and USA/Switzerland), and a repeated nested cross-validation was performed. The models obtained showed high accuracies from 78.0% (±2.3%) to 96.6% (±0.6%). Furthermore, identification of potential chemical markers in the walnut extract was performed.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Juglans/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Algoritmos , China , Análise Discriminante , França , Geografia , Alemanha , Nozes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110996, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678764

RESUMO

The potential health risk of trace elements in nut foods has been widely concerned. The accumulations of trace elements by plants in the environment are disturbed by multiple factors. The objective of this work was to investigate the risk levels of trace elements in walnuts and their influence factors (planting area and cultivar). A total of 228 walnut samples were collected from four major walnut producing areas of China. The contents of essential elements for Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo and Se were 35.8, 21.9, 14.8, 0.3 and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively. The contribution of Cu for dietary reference intake was as high as 82.22%. The risk levels of potential toxicological elements and toxic elements within the acceptable limits. Significantly, the hazard quotients (HQs) of Ba and Co were up to 26.14% and 25.31%, respectively. The effect of planting area on trace elements was determined from the aspects of regional distribution and urbanization. Significant differences of essential elements were found between northeast and northwest areas. The urbanization directly influenced toxic elements, which could cause variation up to 85.0% (Pb) and 42.9% (As). Finally, cultivar effect was confirmed that all walnut cultivars were divided into four categories with different trace element characteristics.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Juglans/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Nozes/química , Oligoelementos/análise , China , Juglans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Urbanização
7.
Food Chem ; 331: 127180, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544651

RESUMO

Walnut leaves are rich in phenolic components with antibiotic and antioxidative effects. However, few studies have reported the quantitative analysis of active components in walnut leaf. In this study, a novel method for quantifying the active components in walnut leaves was developed by combining ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) with quantitative analysis of multi-components by a single marker (QAMS). In total, 13 bioactive components were analyzed by a single marker, quercetin. To evaluate the accuracy of this method, an auxiliary quantification method with 13 reference standards was established and validated. The standard method differences (SMDs) of the quantification results between QAMS and the auxiliary method were lower than 20%, indicating that the QAMS method can accurately determine the active components in walnut leaves. This method can provide a reference to address the absence of reference standards for analyzing other foods and herbs.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Juglans/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Limite de Detecção , Fenóis/análise , Quercetina/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Food Chem ; 329: 127158, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512394

RESUMO

In order to improve the bioavailability of Juglans regia L. polyphenols (JRP) in human body, the novel Juglans regia L. polyphenols-Hohenbuehelia serotina polysaccharides (HSP) nanoparticles (JRP-HSP NPs) were synthesized based on electrostatic interaction. Moreover, the physicochemical properties, morphologies and gastrointestinal digestive characteristics of JRP-HSP NPs were respectively measured and analyzed. Among four kinds of JRP-HSP NPs prepared by different condition of mass ratio, JRP-HSP NPs (1:16) with encapsulation efficiency of 51.62%, average particle size of 341.0 nm, and zeta potential of -29.3 mv, presented better physicochemical properties, such as thermal stability, photostability and crystalline properties. Morphological analysis revealed JRP-HSP NPs (1:16) appeared spherical and almost uniform. Through evaluation of simulated gastrointestinal digestion, JRP-HSP NPs prevented the variation of phenolic composition induced by gastrointestinal digestion, which was similar as the one of undigested JRP, while un-encapsulated JRP exhibited totally different state due to degradation and biotransformation, suggesting that JRP-HSP NPs possessed the sustained release characteristics in gastrointestinal system. This study provided a non-toxic strategy to encapsulate polyphenols for improving their bioavailability.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Juglans/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Digestão , Suco Gástrico/metabolismo , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Polifenóis/síntese química , Saliva , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
9.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108466, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590067

RESUMO

Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf-2) is transcription factor implicated in the antioxidant response element-mediated induction of endogenous antioxidant enzyme such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase, and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1, among which HO-1 is an enzyme catalyzing the degradation of heme.producing biliverdin, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide. In the stomach, as much as regulating gastric acid secretions, well-coordinated establishment of defense system stands for maintaining gastric integrity. In previous study, author et al. for the first time discovered HO-1 induction was critical in affording faithful gastric defense against various irritants including Helicobacter pylori infection, stress, alcohol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin, and toxic bile acids. In this review article, we can add the novel evidence that dietary walnut intake can be reliable way to rescue from NSAIDs-induced gastrointestinal damages via the induction of HO-1 transcribed with Nrf-2 through specific inactivation of Keap-1. From molecular exploration to translational animal model of indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal damages, significant induction of HO-1 contributed to rescuing from damages. In addition to HO-1 induction action relevant to walnut, we added the description the general actions of walnut extracts or dietary intake of walnut regarding cytoprotection and why we have focused on to NSAID damages.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Alimento Funcional , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Juglans , Animais , Alimento Funcional/análise , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Juglans/química , Juglans/metabolismo
10.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(5): 423-428, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378548

RESUMO

A study was carried out to evaluate oil contents, fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents of several walnut types in relation to roasting process. The major fatty acid identified was linoleic acid in both roasted and unroasted walnut oils. Linoleic acid contents of unroasted walnut oil varied from 46.44 (Type 9) and 63.59% (Type 7), while the linoleic acid contents of roasted walnut oils at 120℃/h ranged from 55.95% (Type 3) to 64.86% (Type 10). Interestingly, linolenic acid contents of both roasted and unroasted oils changed between 9.43 (Type 10) and 16.29% (Type 8) to 9.64 (Type 10) and 16.58% (Type 8), respectively and were significant (p < 0.05) different. γ-tocopherol content of unroasted walnut oils varied between 6.3 (Type 3) and 11.4 mg/100g (Type 1) and γ-tocopherol contents of roasted walnut oils ranged between 28.1 (Type 8) and 38.2 mg/100g (Type 3). The oil could be useful for industrial applications owing to good physicochemical properties. Fatty acid values for oil obtained from roasted walnut were slightly higher than those reported for unroasted walnut oils.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Juglans/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Linoleicos/análise , gama-Tocoferol/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 321: 126672, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244136

RESUMO

The phenols in Diaphragma juglandis fructus (DJF), walnut pellicle (WP), and flowers of Juglans regia (FJR) from walnut were extracted using three methods (methanolic condensation reflux extraction, ultrasonic wave extraction, and enzyme assisted-extraction), and phenolics and antioxidant capacities of different extractions were compared. Overall, 50 phenolics were identified by HPLC-MS/MS with 41 compounds in DJF, 32 in WP, and 29 in FJR. It was observed that tannins in WP was higher than those in DJF and FJR. As for PCA, more than 70% of the variance was explained with the obvious comparison between the phenolic constituents. The phenolics in walnut contributed to remarkable antioxidant effect, with the highest effect observed in WP. This study presents the analysis and comparison of the phenols can be further extended for the development of functional walnut instant foods.


Assuntos
Juglans/química , Fenóis/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flores/química , Frutas/química , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ondas Ultrassônicas
12.
Food Chem ; 322: 126711, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283362

RESUMO

Jug r 1, the major allergen of walnut, triggers severe allergic reactions through epitopes. Hence, research on the efficient strategy for analyzing the linear epitopes of Jug r 1 are necessary. In this work, bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the linear epitopes of Jug r 1. Overlapping peptide synthesis was used to map linear epitopes. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion and HPLC-MS/MS were used to identify digestion-resistant peptides. The results showed that six predicted linear epitopes were AA28-35, AA42-49, AA55-62, AA65-73, AA97-104, and AA109-121. AA16-30 and AA125-139 were identified by the sera of walnut allergic patients. Five digestion-resistant peptides were AA19-33, AA40-45, AA54-74, AA96-106, and AA117-137. The predicted results only included one of the linear epitopes identified by sera, while the digestion-resistant peptides covered all. Therefore, the digestion-resistant property of food allergens may be a promising direction for studying the linear epitopes of Jug r 1.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/química , Epitopos/química , Juglans/química , Peptídeos/química , Alérgenos/genética , Alérgenos/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Juglans/genética , Juglans/imunologia , Nozes/química , Nozes/genética , Nozes/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Análise de Sequência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2381-2392, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037817

RESUMO

Increasing level of inflammation and oxidative stress could lead to memory impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effects of walnut peptides against memory deficits induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice and further to explore the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms against LPS-elicited inflammation in BV-2 cells. Results showed that walnut protein hydrolysate (WPH) and its low-molecular-weight fraction (WPHL) could ameliorate the memory deficits induced by LPS via normalizing the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in brain, especially WPHL. Furthermore, 18 peptides with anti-inflammatory activities on LPS-activated BV-2 cells were identified from WPHL and it was found that Trp, Gly, and Leu residues in peptides might contribute to the anti-inflammation. Meanwhile, the strong anti-inflammatory effects of LPF, GVYY, and APTLW might be related to their hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues as well. LPF, GVYY, and APTLW could reduce the content of proinflammatory mediators and cytokines by downregulating related enzyme expressions and mRNA expressions. Additionally, ROS and mitochondria homeostasis might also contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Juglans/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/imunologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Nozes/química , Peptídeos/química
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 137: 111189, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045648

RESUMO

Juglans regia L. (walnut) green husks are an important fraction of waste resulting from the walnut production, thus representing an interesting natural matrix to explore as a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the hydroethanolic extract of walnut green husks was studied considering the phytochemical composition and the biological activity using different cell model assays, most of them evaluated for the first time for this matrix. From the HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn analysis, sixteen compounds were identified, being the extract mostly composed of naphthalene derivatives (including tetralone derivatives) and less abundant in phenolic compounds (hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols). The cytotoxic potential of the extract was assessed against tumour (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2) and non-tumour (PLP2) cell lines. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by inhibition of the oxidative haemolysis (OxHLIA) and the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the anti-inflammatory potential by the inhibition of the NO production by the RAW264.7 cell culture. The antibacterial effects of the extract were also evaluated against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The results obtained represent a stepping stone for the development of future applications using walnut green husks as a source of added value compounds with bioactive potential.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Juglans/química , Nozes/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suínos , Tetralonas/química , Tetralonas/isolamento & purificação , Tetralonas/farmacologia
16.
J Nutr ; 150(4): 818-825, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walnuts have established lipid-/lipoprotein-lowering properties; however, their effect on lipoprotein subclasses has not been investigated. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which walnuts improve lipid/lipoprotein concentrations are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine, as exploratory outcomes of this trial, the effect of replacing SFAs with unsaturated fats from walnuts or vegetable oils on lipoprotein subclasses, cholesterol efflux, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). METHODS: A randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding study was conducted in individuals at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (n = 34; 62% men; mean ± SD age 44 ± 10 y; BMI: 30.1 ± 4.9 kg/m2). After a 2-wk run-in diet (12% SFAs, 7% PUFAs, 12% MUFAs), subjects consumed the following diets, in randomized order, for 6 wk: 1) walnut diet (WD) [57-99 g/d walnuts, 7% SFAs, 16% PUFAs [2.7% α-linolenic acid (ALA)], 9% MUFAs]; 2) walnut fatty acid-matched diet [7% SFAs, 16% PUFAs (2.6% ALA), 9% MUFAs]; and 3) oleic acid replaces ALA diet (ORAD) [7% SFAs, 14% PUFAs (0.4% ALA); 12% MUFAs] (all percentages listed are of total kilocalories ). Serum collected after the run-in (baseline) and each diet period was analyzed for lipoprotein classes and subclasses (vertical auto profile), cholesterol efflux, and PCSK9. Linear mixed models were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the ORAD, total cholesterol (mean ± SEM -8.9± 2.3 mg/dL; -5.1%; P < 0.001), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.4 ± 2.0 mg/dL; -5.4%; P = 0.001), and LDL cholesterol (-6.9 ± 1.9 mg/dL; -6.5%; P = 0.001) were lower after the WD; no other pairwise differences existed. There were no between-diet differences for HDL-cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol subclasses. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], cholesterol efflux, and PCSK9 were unchanged after the diets. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals at risk of CVD, replacement of SFAs with unsaturated fats from walnuts or vegetable oils improved lipid/lipoprotein classes, including LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol, without an increase in Lp(a). These improvements were not explained by changes in cholesterol efflux capacity or PCSK9. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01235832.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Juglans/química , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Óleos Vegetais/química , Adulto , Idoso , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta , Gorduras Insaturadas/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 131, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965342

RESUMO

A large number of human activities result in the release of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) into the environment, which could lead to the degradation of riparian areas. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Salix alba, Juglans regia and Populus nigra for the biomonitoring of PTEs in the riparian soils of the Sava River. Levels of seven PTEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured in the soils, roots and leaves of plants at selected sampling sites and evaluated according to bioaccumulation and translocation factors. The obtained results showed that in riparian soils, As, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were at levels considered to be critical for plants. The levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn measured in roots of Salix alba and As, Cr, Ni and Zn in its leaves were toxic for plant tissue. Toxic levels of Cr were also measured in the roots of Juglans regia and As in its leaves, as well as As and Cr in the roots of Populus nigra, and Zn in its leaves. Bioconcentration and translocation factors showed that S. alba and P. nigra have potential for the phytoextraction of Zn and Cd, while J. regia has potential for the phytoextraction of As. In terms of phytostabilization potential, S. alba proved to be good for the phytostabilization of Cd and Cu, and J. regia for the phytostabilization of Cr, As, Ni and Pb, while P. nigra showed potential for the phytostabilization of Cr, Ni, Pb and Cu.


Assuntos
Juglans , Metais Pesados , Populus , Salix , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Juglans/química , Populus/química , Rios , Salix/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 124: 109879, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991383

RESUMO

AIMS: African walnuts were previously shown to modulate hepatic lipid bio-accumulation in obesity. Herein, we investigated the impact of the nuts on fat accumulation in adipose and ectopic regions, and associated oxidatiive stress status in obese rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole ethanol extract (WE) of the nuts, and its liquid-liquid fractions-ethyl acetate (ET) and residue (RES) were separately administered to obese rats for 6 weeks. The normal (NC) and obese (OC) controls received normal saline and the standard control (SC), orlistat (5.14 mg/kg b.w.), during the same period. Thereafter, the animals were euthanized and the adipose, brain, kidneys and heart tissues were studied. RESULTS: The change in body weight to naso-anal length which increased by 63.52 % in OC compared to NC (p < 0.05), decreased by 57.88, 85.80 and 70.20 % in WE, ET and RES-treated groups, respectively, relative to the OC (p < 0.05). Also, adipose tissue weights were lowered upon treatment with the extracts and fractions versus OC (p < 0.05). Total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations in the studied tissues which were higher in OC (p < 0.05) were lowered (p < 0.05) and compared favorably with SC. Further, malondialdehyde levels in the tissues were lowered upon treatment, compared to the OC (p < 0.05). Glutathione level and activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase which were decreased (p < 0.05) in OC, were restored upon treatment with the extracts, relative to the obese control (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: African walnuts assuaged lipogenesis, oxidative stress and peroxidation in extra-hepatic tissues of obese rats, hence, may attenuate ectopic fat accumulation and its associated pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Juglans/química , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Glutamato de Sódio/toxicidade
19.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936720

RESUMO

People living in non-Mediterranean West Balkan countries have diets with a low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content. Walnuts, a traditional Serbian food, could be an excellent source of n-3 PUFA. The first sub-study evaluated the fatty acid and mineral content of Serbian walnuts, demonstrating that walnuts had the high content of linolenic acid (C18:3, n-3 ALA). The second sub-study assessed the consumption of walnuts (Juglans regia L.) and total n-3-fatty acid intake in apparently healthy Serbian residents, using 24-h dietary recalls (n = 352). An inadequate intake of n-3 fatty acids and a low consumption of walnuts was seen. Additionally, we evaluated the fatty acid profile of healthy Serbian adults (n = 110) and finally, via a randomized intervention 4-weeks study, we assessed the effects of walnut consumption on n-3 fatty acid profile of participants (n = 18). The plasma content of n-3 PUFA was low and the n-6/n-3 ratio was high in our study participants. The n-3 plasma fatty acid profile was improved after 4 weeks of walnut consumption, meaning that ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and total n-3 were significantly increased. The results of our study pointed out the potential health benefits of walnuts consumption on amelioration of the n-3 fatty acid profile that should be taken into account in preventive management programs. The higher conversion of ALA to EPA (>10%) in examined study participants, suggests the importance of a moderate walnut consumption.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Juglans/química , Nozes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sérvia
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(6): 2372-2379, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is one of the most widely cultivated nuts. Walnut milk beverage is very popular in China due to its nutritional value. However, adulterated walnut milk ingredients have been detected in the Chinese market. Peanut and soybean are sold at much lower prices than walnut and are reported to be commonly used for adulteration in the industrial chain of walnut milk production. The purpose of this study is therefore to develop an accurate and efficient method for detecting the authenticity of the raw materials used in walnut milk beverage. RESULTS: DNA barcoding and high-resolution melting (HRM) analyses were used to identify common adulterated raw ingredients such as peanut and soybean in commercial walnut milk beverage samples. The chloroplast psbA-trnH gene was used for sequencing, and HRM analysis was performed. We also prepared experimental mixtures, in the laboratory, with different quantities of walnut, peanut, and soybean. High-resolution melting analysis of the experimental mixtures clearly distinguished all of them. The results revealed that most of the walnut milk beverage samples fell in the same cluster of walnut species. Several samples fell in the peanut cluster, confirming that they were adulterated products. CONCLUSION: The results revealed that HRM analysis based on the psbA-trnH barcode sequence can be used to identify raw ingredients in walnut milk beverages. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Juglans/química , Juglans/genética , Arachis/química , Arachis/genética , China , Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nozes/química , Soja/química , Soja/genética
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