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1.
Behav Brain Res ; 437: 114144, 2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216140

RESUMO

Accurate perception of genuine vs. posed smiles is crucial for successful social navigation in humans. While people vary in their ability to assess the authenticity of smiles, little is known about the specific biological mechanisms underlying this variation. We investigated the neural substrates of smile authenticity judgments using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We also tested a preliminary hypothesis that a common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) rs53576 would modulate the behavioral and neural indices of accurate smile authenticity judgments. A total of 185 healthy adult participants (Neuroimaging arm: N = 44, Behavioral arm: N = 141) determined the authenticity of dynamic facial expressions of genuine and posed smiles either with or without fMRI scanning. Correctly identified genuine vs. posed smiles activated brain areas involved with reward processing, facial mimicry, and mentalizing. Activation within the inferior frontal gyrus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex correlated with individual differences in sensitivity (d') and response criterion (C), respectively. Our exploratory genetic analysis revealed that rs53576 G homozygotes in the neuroimaging arm had a stronger tendency to judge posed smiles as genuine than did A allele carriers and showed decreased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex when viewing genuine vs. posed smiles. Yet, OXTR rs53576 did not modulate task performance in the behavioral arm, which calls for further studies to evaluate the legitimacy of this result. Our findings extend previous literature on the biological foundations of smile authenticity judgments, particularly emphasizing the involvement of brain regions implicated in reward, facial mimicry, and mentalizing.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Receptores de Ocitocina , Humanos , Adulto , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Julgamento/fisiologia , Ocitocina , Sorriso
2.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 147: 105953, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334546

RESUMO

Chronic stress is a known risk factor for the development of major depression (MDD) and is commonly used to induce a depression-like phenotype in rodents. Similar phenotypic effects are also observed in rodents when treated chronically with the stress hormone corticosterone. In this study, we investigated the neuropsychological consequences of chronic corticosterone treatment in male rats using two translational rodent assays of affective bias, the judgement bias task (JBT) and affective bias test (ABT). We also used the reward learning assay (RLA) and sucrose preference test (SPT) to quantify reward-related behaviours. Negative biases in decision-making were observed in the chronic corticosterone-treated group but only when the treatment was given shortly before each behavioural session. The same dose of corticosterone, when given daily after completion of the behavioural session had no effects. Chronic corticosterone treatment did not potentiate negative affective biases in the ABT induced by either an acute pharmacological or stress manipulation but both reward learning and reward sensitivity were blunted. Analysis of the brain tissue from animals receiving chronic corticosterone found reduced hippocampal neurogenesis consistent with previous studies suggesting corticosterone-induced neurotrophic deficits. Taken together, these data suggest chronic corticosterone treatment induces neuropsychological effects related to changes in reward learning, memory and negative biases in decision making, but these decision-making biases depend on whether rewarding outcomes were experienced during the acute effects of the drug. These findings suggest an important interaction between psychological and biological factors resulting in negative biases in decision-making in this model.


Assuntos
Corticosterona , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Depressão/psicologia , Recompensa , Julgamento
3.
Cognition ; 230: 105259, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087356

RESUMO

Recent experimental work revealed that rule violation judgments are sensitive to morality. For instance: when someone blamelessly violates a rule's text, about half of the participants say that the rule was violated, with the remainder saying that it wasn't. Why is that so? Current evidence is compatible with three distinct explanations. According to the pragmatic view, rule violation judgments pragmatically imply judgments of blame. Hence, the results don't tell us anything about the concept of rule itself. Instead, they are simply caused by conversational pragmatics. On the other hand, the mixed character view states that the concept of rule simultaneously combines text and purpose into a single criterion. Finally, the dual character view states that the concept of rule is similar to the concepts of scientist and father. These concepts have two distinct sets of criteria, each sufficient to determine one sense in which the concept applies. One of the criteria is descriptive, while the other is normative. In this paper, we report the results of four studies designed to adjudicate between these alternatives. Studies 1A and 1B find results that are incompatible with the pragmatic view, while Study 2 shows that the concept of rule behaves in a way that is notably different than some mixed character concepts on a linguistic test. Finally, Studies 3-5 support the idea that the concept of rule has a dual character. We consider the jurisprudential implications of each alternative.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Comunicação
4.
Cognition ; 230: 105264, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087357

RESUMO

Subjective confidence plays an important role in guiding behavior, for example, people typically commit to decisions immediately if high in confidence and seek additional information if not. The present study examines whether people are flexible in their use of confidence, such that the mapping between confidence and behavior is not fixed but can instead vary depending on the specific context. To investigate this proposal, we tested the hypothesis that the seemingly natural relationship between low confidence and requesting advice varies according to whether people know, or do not know, the quality of the advice. Participants made an initial perceptual judgement and then chose between re-sampling evidence or receiving advice from a virtual advisor, before committing to a final decision. The results indicated that, when objective information about advisor reliability was not available, participants selected advice more often when their confidence was high rather than when it was low. This pattern reflects the use of confidence as a feedback proxy to learn about advisor quality: Participants were able to learn about the reliability of advice even in the absence of feedback and subsequently requested more advice from better advisors. In contrast, when participants had prior knowledge about the reliability of advisors, they requested advice more often when their confidence was low, reflecting the use of confidence as a self-monitoring tool signaling that help should be solicited. These findings indicate that people use confidence in a way that is context-dependent and directed towards achieving their current goals.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Julgamento , Humanos
5.
Cognition ; 230: 105285, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152391

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that the ability to process number in the face of conflicting dimensions of magnitude is a crucial aspect of numerosity judgments, relying in part on the inhibition of the non-numerical dimensions. Here we report, for the first time, that these inhibitory control processes are specific to the conflicting dimension of magnitude. Using a non-symbolic numerical comparison task adapted to a conflict adaptation paradigm on a group of 82 adults, we show that congruency effects between numerical and non-numerical information were reduced only when the conflicting dimension was the same in the preceding incongruent trial. Attention to number thus involves inhibitory control processes acting at a specific level of information. These results contribute to better characterize the domain general abilities involved in numerical cognition, and provide evidence for a specific interaction between numerosity perception and inhibitory control.


Assuntos
Cognição , Inibição Psicológica , Adulto , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia
6.
Cognition ; 230: 105283, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209687

RESUMO

How much we value the welfare of others has critical implications for the collective good. Yet, it is unclear what leads people to make more or less equal decisions about the welfare of those from whom they are socially distant. The current research sought to explore the psychological mechanisms that might underlie welfare judgements across social distance. Here, a social discounting paradigm was used to measure the tendency for the value of a reward to be discounted as the social distance of its recipient increased. Across two cohorts (one discovery, one replication), we found that a more expansive identity with all of humanity was associated with reduced social discounting. Additionally, we investigated the specificity of this association by examining whether this relationship extended to delay discounting, the tendency for the value of a reward to be discounted as the temporal distance to its receipt increases. Our findings suggest that the observed association with identity was unique to social discounting, thus underscoring a distinction in value-based decision-making processes across distances in time and across social networks. As data were collected during the COVID-19 pandemic, we also considered how stress associated with this global threat might influence welfare judgements across social distances. We found that, even after controlling for COVID-19 related stress, correlations between identity and social discounting held. Together, these findings elucidate the psychological processes that are associated with a more equal distribution of generosity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Valores Sociais , Recompensa , Julgamento
7.
Cognition ; 230: 105257, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228381

RESUMO

Number line estimation tasks are frequently used to study numerical cognition skills. In a typical version, the bounded number line task, target numerals must be placed on a bounded line labeled only at its endpoints (e.g., with 0 and 100). Placements by adults, while highly accurate, reveal a cyclical pattern of over- and underestimation of target numerals. The pattern suggests use of proportion judgment strategies and is well-captured by cyclical power models. Another systematic number line bias that has recently been observed, but has not yet been considered in modeling efforts, is the left digit effect. Numerals with different leftmost digits (e.g., 39 and 41) are placed farther apart on a line than is warranted. In the current study (N = 60), adult estimates were obtained for all numerals on a 0-100 number line estimation task, and fit of the standard cyclical power model was compared with two modified versions of the model. One modified version included a parameter that underweights the rightward digit's place value (e.g., the ones digit here), and the other used the same parameter to underweight all digits' place values. We found that both modifications provided a considerably better fit for individual and median data than the standard model, and we discuss their relative merits and cognitive interpretations. The data and models suggest how a left digit bias might impact estimates across the number line.


Assuntos
Cognição , Julgamento , Adulto , Humanos , Matemática
8.
Cognition ; 230: 105322, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370613

RESUMO

Acceptability judgments are a primary source of evidence in formal linguistic research. Within the generative linguistic tradition, these judgments are attributed to evaluation of novel forms based on implicit knowledge of rules or constraints governing well-formedness. In the domain of phonological acceptability judgments, other factors including ease of articulation and similarity to known forms have been hypothesized to influence evaluation. We used data-driven neural techniques to identify the relative contributions of these factors. Granger causality analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-constrained magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) data revealed patterns of interaction between brain regions that support explicit judgments of the phonological acceptability of spoken nonwords. Comparisons of data obtained with nonwords that varied in terms of onset consonant cluster attestation and acceptability revealed different cortical regions and effective connectivity patterns associated with phonological acceptability judgments. Attested forms produced stronger influences of brain regions implicated in lexical representation and sensorimotor simulation on acoustic-phonetic regions, whereas unattested forms produced stronger influence of phonological control mechanisms on acoustic-phonetic processing. Unacceptable forms produced widespread patterns of interaction consistent with attempted search or repair. Together, these results suggest that speakers' phonological acceptability judgments reflect lexical and sensorimotor factors.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Fonética , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia
9.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116462, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272292

RESUMO

Risk assessments are key for the effective management of potential environmental threats. Across probabilistic phenomena, climate change is an exemplar of paramount uncertainties. These uncertainties have been embraced in supporting governments' decisions; yet receive scarce attention when studying individual behavior. Analyzing a survey conducted in the USA, China, Indonesia, and the Netherlands (N=6242), we explore socio-economic, psychological, and behavioral differences between individuals who can subjectively assess risks, and those who are risk-uncertain. We find that risk-uncertain individuals are more likely to belong to societal subgroups classically considered as vulnerable, and have reduced capacities and intentions to adapt to hazards-specifically floods. The distinctions between risk-aware and risk-uncertain individuals indicate that ignoring differences in individuals' capacity to assess risks could amount to persistent vulnerability and undermine climate-resilience efforts. While we use floods emblematically, these finding have consequences for the standard practice of dropping or bootstrapping uncertain responses, irrespective of the hazard, with implications for environmental management.


Assuntos
Inundações , Julgamento , Humanos , Incerteza , Mudança Climática , Aclimatação
10.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278409, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454962

RESUMO

Policy-capturing (PC) methodologies have been employed to study decision-making, and to assess how decision-makers use available information when asked to evaluate hypothetical situations. An important assumption of the PC techniques is that respondents develop cognitive models to help them efficiently process the many information cues provided while reviewing a large number of decision scenarios. With this study, we seek to analyze the process of answering a PC study. We do this by investigating the information acquisition and the cognitive processes behind policy-capturing, building on cognitive and attention research and exploiting the tools of eye-tracking. Additionally, we investigate the role of experience in mediating the relationship between the information processed and judgments in order to determine how the cognitive models of student samples differ from those of professionals. We find evidence of increasing efficiency as a function of practice when respondents undergo the PC experiment. We also detect a selective process on information acquisition; such selection is consistent with the respondents' evaluation. While some differences are found in the information processing among the split sample of students and professionals, remarkable similarities are detected. Our study adds confidence to the assumption that respondents build cognitive models to handle the large amounts of information presented in PC experiments, and the defection of such models is not substantially affected by the applied sample.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Políticas , Humanos , Cognição , Sinais (Psicologia) , Julgamento
11.
Cogn Sci ; 46(12): e13210, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458630

RESUMO

Becoming productive with grammatical categories is a gradual process in children's language development. Here, we investigated this transition process by focusing on Turkish causatives. Previous research examining spontaneous and elicited production of Turkish causatives with familiar verbs attested the onset and early stages of productivity at ages 2 to 3 (Aksu-Koç & Slobin, 1985; Nakipoglu, Uzundag, & Sarigül, 2021). So far, however, we know very little about children's understanding of causatives with novel verbs. In the present study, we asked: (a) When does the generalization of causative morphology in a novel context emerge? and (b) What role does child-directed input play in this development? To answer the first question, we conducted comprehension-judgment experiments with children aged 2;6-6;11 using pseudo-verbs (Study 1 & 2). Results showed that children preferred the Turkish causative suffix -DIr over an unrelated or no suffix to denote caused events earliest at age 4;10. To answer the second question, we analyzed child-directed speech from a longitudinal corpus of Turkish language acquisition (Study 3). Results showed that when addressing children younger than age 3, caregivers used the -DIr suffix with little variation considering the overall variability of verbs they could utter. Overall, these findings suggest that productivity with morphological causatives in a novel context emerges in a later stage of acquisition. This later development might partly be accounted for by the insufficient variation of morphological causatives in the early input.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Fala , Generalização Psicológica , Julgamento
12.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(5): 2781, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456284

RESUMO

Although crosslinguistic similarity is a crucial concept for many disciplines in the speech sciences, there is no clear consensus as to the most appropriate method to measure it. This paper assessed the perceived similarity between English and Catalan vowels by means of an overt direct task evaluating perceptual similarity. The extent to which perceptual similarity is reciprocal is also explored by comparing perceptual judgements obtained by speakers of the two languages involved. Twenty-seven native Catalan speakers and 27 native English speakers rated the perceived dissimilarity between two aurally presented vowel stimuli. Trials included native-non-native pairs as well as native-native pairs to serve as baseline data. Some native-non-native pairs were perceived to be as similar as same-category native pairs, illustrating cases of very high crosslinguistic perceptual similarity. Further, in terms of reciprocity, the results showed a bidirectionality in similarity relationships that point to some cases of near-identical or shared categories and also illustrate the role of language-specific cue weighting in determining perceptual similarity. Finally, a comparison with the outcome of a previous study [Cebrian (2021). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 149(4), 2671-2685], involving the same participants and languages but exploring ecphoric similarity, shows a generally high degree of agreement and a close relationship between the two types of similarity.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fala , Humanos , Julgamento , Percepção
13.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 112028, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461248

RESUMO

For a delicacy food that it is not routinely consumed, the criteria by which consumers determine whether they like it may not be clear. For such foods, it is highly likely that external cues, such as information, play an important role in sensory perception and hedonic judgment. However, such information may have different effects depending on the consumers' preconceived stereotype. Sashimi is thin slices of fresh raw fish, considered a delicacy food in many countries. This study was conducted to investigate whether information about the size of a fish affected expectations and acceptance of sashimi and whether the effect of such information differed depending on the type of stereotype about the relationship between fish size and the sensory quality of sashimi. Sashimi was prepared from large- (2.5 kg; LS) and small-sized (1.5 kg; SS) olive flounders. The overall sensory difference between LS and SS was determined using a triangle test (n = 58) and liking of the sashimi samples was rated by 48 consumers in blind and informed settings. There was no significant difference in sensory characteristics between LS and SS. Different types of stereotypes were associated with different interpretations of the same extrinsic cues, and affected expectations and acceptance. The stereotype that sashimi from large fish tastes better than that from small fish induced higher expected liking and actual liking for LS than for SS. This suggests that hedonic judgment of sashimi, a delicacy food, is influenced more strongly by external cues and stereotype than by intrinsic sensory traits.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Julgamento , Animais , Emoções , Peixes , República da Coreia
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1030035, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339236

RESUMO

Objectives: Patient-initiated hospital violence is a global problem which threatens the safety of health professionals and is indicative of doctor-patient tensions, impeding health system quality and access. The current study aimed to improve the understanding of medical workplace violence (WPV) in China, using authoritative and nationally representative judgment records, and to approach violence prevention strategies. Methods: All litigation records relating to violence against health professionals between 2013 and 2021 were extracted from the China Judgment Online System. Basic case information, victim characteristics, perpetrator characteristics and the nature of the violence were collated. The relationship between different treatment outcomes and violence was also explored. Results: Numbers of cases of hospital violence gradually increased from 2013 to a peak in 2016 before gradually decreasing in the following years. The most common perpetrators were patients' relatives (58.2%), followed by patients themselves (38.2%). Only 9 perpetrators had a confirmed history of mental illness and only two were intoxicated with alcohol. More than half of the cases (52.5%) occurred in rural areas and this percentage is even greater for primary health care institutions (71.4%) and secondary hospitals (73.5%). On a departmental level, the highest incidence of medical WPV was found in the emergency (18.9%), pediatrics (13.2%) and obstetrics (11.5%) departments. Violent behaviors, such as stalking, mass occupation of the ward and sharp instrument injury were significantly related to cases not involving patient death (p < 0.05). Disruptive behavior, such as hanging banners, blocking hospital passages, placing flower wreaths and burning paper money were significantly correlated with cases involving patient death (p < 0.01). The interval between a patient's death and the ensuing violence was short, happening on the same day in 54.8% of cases. Conclusions: A comprehensive overview of medical WPV in China is presented and may have utility for the formulation of prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Violência no Trabalho , Humanos , Criança , Violência no Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Julgamento , Pessoal de Saúde , China/epidemiologia
15.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 53(11): 483-485, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318707

RESUMO

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is foundational to nursing practice, but initiatives can be challenging to implement and sustain. A strategic process framework can successfully guide EBP initiatives. This column describes how nursing professional development specialists can teach nurses how to use a strategy process framework to guide an EBP initiative. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(11):483-485.].


Assuntos
Educação Continuada em Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Humanos , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/educação , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação , Julgamento , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 53(11): 500-504, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318710

RESUMO

Background Clinical judgment is one of the crucial skills necessary for nurses to practice safely and support positive patient outcomes. Inpatient nurse educators often seek engaging and meaningful methods of providing important learning to bedside nurses. Method A game-based learning (GBL) activity, originally created to enhance clinical judgment in the management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) for undergraduate nursing students, was replicated for RNs' continuing education on an obstetric unit. Results Although less remarkable than undergraduate students' scores, RNs' scores improved significantly (p < .05) for every aspect of the clinical judgment model applied to PPH (recognition, analysis, action, evaluation) from pre- to posttest after using the GBL activity. Conclusion GBL is effective for enhancing the clinical judgment ability of RNs for specific topics such as PPH and can be utilized to support education across a continuum of expertise for those in, or preparing for, direct patient care. [ J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(11):500-504.].


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Feminino , Humanos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Julgamento , Docentes de Enfermagem , Competência Clínica
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18432, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319732

RESUMO

Previous research has indicated that facial attractiveness may provide cues to the functioning of the immune system. Mating with individuals who have a more effective immune system could lead to a higher reproductive success. Our main aim was to test a possible association between immunoreactivity (stimulated by vaccination) and perceived facial attractiveness and healthiness. We experimentally activated the immune system of healthy men using vaccination against hepatitis A/B and meningococcus and measured levels of specific antibodies (markers of immune system reactivity) before and 30 days after the vaccination. Further, 1 day before the vaccination, we collected their facial photographs that were judged by females for attractiveness, healthiness, and facial skin patches for healthiness. In view of its proposed connection with the functioning of the immune system, we also measured skin colouration (both from the facial photographs and in vivo using a spectrophotometer) and we assessed its role in attractiveness and healthiness judgements. Moreover, we measured the levels of steroid hormones (testosterone and cortisol) and the percentage of adipose tissue, because both are known to have immunomodulatory properties and are related to perceived facial attractiveness and healthiness. We found no significant associations between antibody levels induced by vaccination and perceived facial attractiveness, facial healthiness, or skin healthiness. We also found no significant connections between steroid hormone levels, the amount of adipose tissue, rated characteristics, and antibody levels, except for a small negative effect of cortisol levels on perceived facial healthiness. Higher forehead redness was perceived as less attractive and less healthy and higher cheek patch redness was perceived as less healthy, but no significant association was found between antibody levels and facial colouration. Overall, our results suggest that perceived facial attractiveness, healthiness, and skin patch healthiness provide limited cues to immunoreactivity, and perceived characteristics seem to be related only to cortisol levels and facial colouration.


Assuntos
Beleza , Hidrocortisona , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Face , Julgamento , Nível de Saúde
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2001, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People increasingly use the Internet to seek health information. However, the overall quality of online health information remains low. This situation is exacerbated by the unprecedented "infodemic", which has had negative consequences for patients. Therefore, it is important to understand how users make judgements about health information by applying different judgement criteria. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine how patients apply different criteria in their judgement of the quality of online health information during the pandemic. In particular, we investigate whether there is consistency between the likelihood of using a particular judgement criterion and its perceived importance among different groups of users. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in one of the leading hospitals in a coastal province of China with a population of forty million. Combined-strategy sampling was used to balance the randomness and the practicality of the recruiting process. A total of 1063 patients were recruited for this study. Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis analyses were used to analyse the survey data. RESULTS: In general, patients make quality judgement of health information more frequently based on whether it is familiar, aesthetic, and with expertise. In comparison, they put more weights on whether health information is secure, trustworthy, and with expertise when determining its quality. Criteria that were considered more important were not always those with a higher likelihood of being used. Patients may not use particular criteria, such as familiarity, identification, and readability, more frequently than others even if they consider them to be more important than other do and vice versa. Surprisingly, patients with a primary school degree put more weight on whether health information is comprehensive than those with higher degrees do in determining its quality. However, they are less likely to use this guideline in practice. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the consistency between the likelihood of using certain quality judgement criteria and their perceived importance among patients grouped by different demographic variables and eHealth literacy levels. The findings highlight how to improve online health information services and provide fine-grained customization of information for users.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Telemedicina , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Julgamento , Internet
19.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1247, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376446

RESUMO

Distinguishing animate from inanimate things is of great behavioural importance. Despite distinct brain and behavioural responses to animate and inanimate things, it remains unclear which object properties drive these responses. Here, we investigate the importance of five object dimensions related to animacy ("being alive", "looking like an animal", "having agency", "having mobility", and "being unpredictable") in brain (fMRI, EEG) and behaviour (property and similarity judgements) of 19 participants. We used a stimulus set of 128 images, optimized by a genetic algorithm to disentangle these five dimensions. The five dimensions explained much variance in the similarity judgments. Each dimension explained significant variance in the brain representations (except, surprisingly, "being alive"), however, to a lesser extent than in behaviour. Different brain regions sensitive to animacy may represent distinct dimensions, either as accessible perceptual stepping stones toward detecting whether something is alive or because they are of behavioural importance in their own right.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Julgamento/fisiologia
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 833, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357829

RESUMO

Forecasts of the trajectory of an infectious agent can help guide public health decision making. A traditional approach to forecasting fits a computational model to structured data and generates a predictive distribution. However, human judgment has access to the same data as computational models plus experience, intuition, and subjective data. We propose a chimeric ensemble-a combination of computational and human judgment forecasts-as a novel approach to predicting the trajectory of an infectious agent. Each month from January, 2021 to June, 2021 we asked two generalist crowds, using the same criteria as the COVID-19 Forecast Hub, to submit a predictive distribution over incident cases and deaths at the US national level either two or three weeks into the future and combined these human judgment forecasts with forecasts from computational models submitted to the COVID-19 Forecasthub into a chimeric ensemble. We find a chimeric ensemble compared to an ensemble including only computational models improves predictions of incident cases and shows similar performance for predictions of incident deaths. A chimeric ensemble is a flexible, supportive public health tool and shows promising results for predictions of the spread of an infectious agent.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Julgamento , Previsões , Saúde Pública , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Estatísticos
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