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1.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 144, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little evidence of which sepsis screening tool to use in the ambulance setting. The primary aim of the current study was to compare the performance of NEWS2 (National Early Warning score 2) and RETTS (Rapid Emergency Triage and Treatment System) with respect to identification of sepsis among ambulance patients with clinically suspected infection. The secondary aim was to compare the performance of the novel Predict Sepsis screening tools with that of NEWS2, RETTS and clinical judgment. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 323 adult ambulance patients with clinically suspected infection, transported to hospitals in Stockholm, during 2017/2018. The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (Area Under the receiver operating Curve) were calculated and compared by using McNemar´s test and DeLong's test. RESULTS: The prevalence of sepsis in the current study population was 44.6% (144 of 323 patients). No significant difference in AUC was demonstrated between NEWS2 ≥ 5 and RETTS ≥ orange. NEWS2 ≥ 7 demonstrated a significantly greater AUC than RETTS red. The Predict Sepsis screening tools ≥ 2 demonstrated the highest sensitivity (range 0.87-0.91), along with RETTS ≥ orange (0.83), but the lowest specificity (range 0.39-0.49). The AUC of NEWS2 (0.73) and the Predict Sepsis screening tools (range 0.75-0.77) was similar. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that NEWS2 could be the better alternative for sepsis identification in the ambulance, as compared to RETTS. The Predict Sepsis screening tools demonstrated a high sensitivity and AUCs similar to that of NEWS2. However, these results need to be interpreted with caution as the Predict Sepsis screening tools require external validation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03249597. Registered 15 August 2017-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03249597 .


Assuntos
Ambulâncias , Sepse , Adulto , Humanos , Julgamento , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Triagem
2.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 150(6): 1070, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647786

RESUMO

Reports the retraction of ""That's bitter!": Culture-specific effects of gustatory experience on judgments of fairness and advancement" by Jialiang Xu, Fang Wan and Norbert Schwarz (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Advanced Online Publication, Oct 29, 2020, np). The following article is being retracted: Xu, J., Wan, F., & Schwarz, N. (2020, October 29). "That's bitter!": Culture-specific effects of gustatory experience on judgments of fairness and advancement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10 .1037/xge0000985 A user of the open science data sets accompanying the article noticed confounds between culture condition or treatment condition and sex of participants in studies 3, 4, and 5. What caused these confounds could not be fully reconstructed. The first and second authors, who handled data collection, assume that the confounds resulted from a confluence of two decisions. First, students were recruited through campus advertisements and encouraged to bring friends, which resulted in the arrival of mostly same-sex groups. Second, in deviation from standard protocol, the administration of the taste tests was simplified in these studies by administering the same treatment to all participants who arrived together. Hence, the authors asked for a retraction..... (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2020-80845-001.) In English, unfair treatment and social injustice are often described as "bitter" experiences, whereas "eating bitterness" refers to endurance in the face of hardship in Chinese. This suggests that bitter taste may ground experiences of adversity in both cultures, but in culture-specific forms. We tested this possibility by assessing Canadian and Chinese participants' responses to fairness and achievement scenarios after incidental exposure to bitter or neutral tastes. Tasting something bitter increased self-reported motivation and intention to invest effort for Chinese participants, but not Anglo-Canadian participants (Studies 1, 4, 5). Tasting something bitter decreased perceived fairness for Anglo-Canadian participants (Studies 1-3) but not Chinese participants living in China (Study 2). The fairness judgments of Chinese participants living in Canada shed light on adaptation to the host culture: Bitter taste decreased these participants' fairness judgments after living in Canada for 4 years or more (Study 4), provided they were tested in English (Studies 3-4), but exerted no influence when they were tested in Chinese (Study 4). The observed cultural differences are compatible with a relatively higher emphasis on self-improvement in China versus self-enhancement in Canada. Supporting this conjecture, the fairness judgments of Chinese students in Canada followed the Anglo-Canadian pattern when primed with a self-enhancement motive and the effort judgments of Anglo-Canadian students followed the Chinese pattern when primed with a self-improvement motive (Study 5). This suggest that a universal aversive experience (bitter taste) grounds thought about adversity in ways compatible with cultural orientations and reflected in culture-specific metaphors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Julgamento , Paladar , Canadá , Humanos , Metáfora , Motivação
3.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13023, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606126

RESUMO

Successful language use requires accurate intention recognition. However, sometimes this can be undermined because communication occurs within an interpersonal context. In this research, I used a relatively large set of speech acts (n = 32) and explored how variability in their inherent face-threat influences the extent to which they are successfully recognized by a recipient, as well as the confidence of senders and receivers in their communicative success. Participants in two experiments either created text messages (senders) designed to perform a specific speech act (e.g., agree) or interpreted those text messages (receivers) in terms of the specific speech act being performed. The speech acts were scaled in terms of their degree of face threat. In both experiments, speech acts that were more threatening were less likely to be correctly recognized than those that were less threatening. Additionally, the messages of the more threatening speech acts were longer and lower in clout than the less threatening speech acts. Senders displayed greater confidence in communicative success than receivers, but judgments of communicative success (for both senders and receivers) were unrelated to actual communicative success. The implications of these results for our understanding of actual communicative episodes are discussed.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fala , Comunicação , Humanos , Intenção , Julgamento
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5776, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599174

RESUMO

Judgments of whether an action is morally wrong depend on who is involved and the nature of their relationship. But how, when, and why social relationships shape moral judgments is not well understood. We provide evidence to address these questions, measuring cooperative expectations and moral wrongness judgments in the context of common social relationships such as romantic partners, housemates, and siblings. In a pre-registered study of 423 U.S. participants nationally representative for age, race, and gender, we show that people normatively expect different relationships to serve cooperative functions of care, hierarchy, reciprocity, and mating to varying degrees. In a second pre-registered study of 1,320 U.S. participants, these relationship-specific cooperative expectations (i.e., relational norms) enable highly precise out-of-sample predictions about the perceived moral wrongness of actions in the context of particular relationships. In this work, we show that this 'relational norms' model better predicts patterns of moral wrongness judgments across relationships than alternative models based on genetic relatedness, social closeness, or interdependence, demonstrating how the perceived morality of actions depends not only on the actions themselves, but also on the relational context in which those actions occur.


Assuntos
Julgamento/fisiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Princípios Morais , Percepção Social
5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258470, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637454

RESUMO

Faces are one of the key ways that we obtain social information about others. They allow people to identify individuals, understand conversational cues, and make judgements about others' mental states. When the COVID-19 pandemic hit the United States, widespread mask-wearing practices were implemented, causing a shift in the way Americans typically interact. This introduction of masks into social exchanges posed a potential challenge-how would people make these important inferences about others when a large source of information was no longer available? We conducted two studies that investigated the impact of mask exposure on emotion perception. In particular, we measured how participants used facial landmarks (visual cues) and the expressed valence and arousal (affective cues), to make similarity judgements about pairs of emotion faces. Study 1 found that in August 2020, participants with higher levels of mask exposure used cues from the eyes to a greater extent when judging emotion similarity than participants with less mask exposure. Study 2 measured participants' emotion perception in both April and September 2020 -before and after widespread mask adoption-in the same group of participants to examine changes in the use of facial cues over time. Results revealed an overall increase in the use of visual cues from April to September. Further, as mask exposure increased, people with the most social interaction showed the largest increase in the use of visual facial cues. These results provide evidence that a shift has occurred in how people process faces such that the more people are interacting with others that are wearing masks, the more they have learned to focus on visual cues from the eye area of the face.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Emoções , Reconhecimento Facial , Julgamento , Máscaras , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Dev Psychol ; 57(8): 1387-1402, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591580

RESUMO

Participants ranging in age from 3 to 98 years (N = 708; approximately 60% female; 49% Caucasian, 38% Asian; 12% Other ethnicities, 1% Indigenous; modal household income > $80,000) completed a battery of tasks involving verbal ability, executive function, and perspective-taking. Wherever possible, all participants completed the same version of a task. The current study tested hindsight bias and false-belief reasoning to determine how these constructs relate to each other across the child-to-adult life span. Participants of all ages showed robust hindsight bias and false-belief reasoning errors. Hindsight bias followed a U-shaped function, wherein preschoolers and older adults showed more hindsight bias than older children and younger adults. False-belief reasoning, conversely, was relatively constant from preschool to older adulthood. Hindsight bias did not correlate with false-belief reasoning. We conclude that hindsight bias and false-belief reasoning errors are robust but unrelated cognitive biases across the life span. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Julgamento , Resolução de Problemas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Viés , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cultura , Escolaridade , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Dev Psychol ; 57(8): 1297-1317, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591573

RESUMO

Growth in working memory capacity, the number of items kept active in mind, is thought to be an important aspect of childhood cognitive development. Here, we focused on participants' awareness of the contents of their working memory, or meta-working memory, which seems important because people can put cognitive abilities to best use only if they are aware of their limitations. In two experiments on the development of meta-working memory in children between 6 and 13 years old and adults, participants were to remember arrays of colored squares and to indicate if a probe item was in the array. On many trials, before the probe recognition test, they reported a metajudgment, how many items they thought they remembered. We compared meta-working memory judgments to actual performance and looked for associations between these measures on individual and trial-by-trial levels. Despite much lower working memory capacity in younger children there was little change in meta-working memory judgments across age groups. Consequently, younger participants were much less realistic in their metajudgments concerning their working memory capability. Higher cognitive capacity was associated with more accurate meta-working memory judgments within an age group. Trial-by-trial tuning of metajudgments was evident only in young adults and then only for small array set sizes. In sum, meta-working memory ability is a sophisticated skill that develops with age and may be an integral aspect of the development of working memory across the school years. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Metacognição , Adolescente , Aptidão , Criança , Humanos , Julgamento , Rememoração Mental , Adulto Jovem
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544874

RESUMO

By 2 y of age, children possess expectations about several different moral principles. Building on these results, we asked whether children who observed a wrongdoer violate a principle would draw negative inferences from this violation about how the wrongdoer was likely to behave in other contexts. In four experiments, 25-mo-old toddlers (n = 152) first saw a wrongdoer harm a protagonist. When toddlers judged the wrongdoer's behavior to violate the principle of ingroup support or harm avoidance, they did not find it unexpected if the wrongdoer next violated the principle of fairness by dividing resources unfairly between two other protagonists (Exps. 2 and 3), but they did find it unexpected if the wrongdoer next acted generously by giving another protagonist most of a resource to be shared between them (Exp. 4). When toddlers did not construe the wrongdoer's harmful behavior as a moral violation, these responses reversed: They found it unexpected if the wrongdoer next acted unfairly (Exp. 1) but not if the wrongdoer next acted generously (Exp. 4). Detecting a moral violation thus lowered toddlers' assessment of the wrongdoer's moral character and brought down their expectations concerning the likelihood that the wrongdoer would perform: 1) obligatory actions required by other principles and 2) supererogatory or virtuous actions not required by the principles. Together, these findings expand our understanding of how young children evaluate others' moral characters, and they reveal how these evaluations, in turn, enable children to form sophisticated expectations about others' behavior in new contexts.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comportamento de Escolha , Emoções/fisiologia , Julgamento , Comportamento Social , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Princípios Morais
9.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(2): 1311, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470281

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that for high-rate click trains and low-frequency pure tones, interaural time differences (ITDs) at the onset of stimulus contribute most strongly to the overall lateralization percept (receive the largest perceptual weight). Previous studies have also shown that when these stimuli are modulated, ITDs during the rising portion of the modulation cycle receive increased perceptual weight. Baltzell, Cho, Swaminathan, and Best [(2020). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 147, 3883-3894] measured perceptual weights for a pair of spoken words ("two" and "eight"), and found that word-initial phonemes receive larger weight than word-final phonemes, suggesting a "word-onset dominance" for speech. Generalizability of this conclusion was limited by a coarse temporal resolution and limited stimulus set. In the present study, temporal weighting functions (TWFs) were measured for four spoken words ("two," "eight," "six," and "nine"). Stimuli were partitioned into 30-ms bins, ITDs were applied independently to each bin, and lateralization judgements were obtained. TWFs were derived using a hierarchical regression model. Results suggest that "word-initial" onset dominance does not generalize across words and that TWFs depend in part on acoustic changes throughout the stimulus. Two model-based predictions were generated to account for observed TWFs, but neither could fully account for the perceptual data.


Assuntos
Localização de Som , Estimulação Acústica , Julgamento , Fala
10.
J Exp Psychol Appl ; 27(3): 461-472, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582246

RESUMO

Prior research has shown that reading biased media content (e.g., Wikipedia articles) can increase recipients' hindsight bias. It remained unclear, however, which features of the biased texts led to such an increase. We examined this question in a longitudinal experimental study (N = 190). Specifically, we tested whether repeated exposure to already known information (H1), a more coherent presentation of the information (H2), or the presentation of novel information (H3) affected readers' hindsight impressions of likelihood, inevitability, and foreseeability. To this end, participants initially learned about an event by reading several short news, and, 1 week later, received one of several summarizing texts, which systematically varied in the information contained. We found empirical support for the unique effect of mere repeated exposure and receiving novel information. Since media coverage of meaningful events is usually highly repetitive but also often comprising novel information, our findings contribute to a better understanding of how hindsight bias may publicly persist or even increase over time. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comunicação , Leitura , Viés , Humanos , Julgamento , Probabilidade
11.
Cogn Sci ; 45(9): e13041, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490914

RESUMO

Humans routinely make inferences about both the contents and the workings of other minds based on observed actions. People consider what others want or know, but also how intelligent, rational, or attentive they might be. Here, we introduce a new methodology for quantitatively studying the mechanisms people use to attribute intelligence to others based on their behavior. We focus on two key judgments previously proposed in the literature: judgments based on observed outcomes (you're smart if you won the game) and judgments based on evaluating the quality of an agent's planning that led to their outcomes (you're smart if you made the right choice, even if you didn't succeed). We present a novel task, the maze search task (MST), in which participants rate the intelligence of agents searching a maze for a hidden goal. We model outcome-based attributions based on the observed utility of the agent upon achieving a goal, with higher utilities indicating higher intelligence, and model planning-based attributions by measuring the proximity of the observed actions to an ideal planner, such that agents who produce closer approximations of optimal plans are seen as more intelligent. We examine human attributions of intelligence in three experiments that use MST and find that participants used both outcome and planning as indicators of intelligence. However, observing the outcome was not necessary, and participants still made planning-based attributions of intelligence when the outcome was not observed. We also found that the weights individuals placed on plans and on outcome correlated with an individual's ability to engage in cognitive reflection. Our results suggest that people attribute intelligence based on plans given sufficient context and cognitive resources and rely on the outcome when computational resources or context are limited.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Percepção Social , Atenção , Humanos , Inteligência , Motivação
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580214

RESUMO

Global cooperation rests on popular endorsement of cosmopolitan values-putting all humanity equal to or ahead of conationals. Despite being comparative judgments that may trade off, even sacrifice, the in-group's interests for the rest of the world, moral cosmopolitanism finds support in large, nationally representative surveys from Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany, China, Japan, the United States, Colombia, and Guatemala. A series of studies probe this trading off of the in-group's interests against the world's interests. Respondents everywhere distinguish preventing harm to foreign citizens, which almost all support, from redistributing resources, which only about half support. These two dimensions of moral cosmopolitanism, equitable security (preventing harm) and equitable benefits (redistributing resources), predict attitudes toward contested international policies, actual charitable donations, and preferences for mask and vaccine allocations in the COVID-19 response. The dimensions do not reflect several demographic variables and only weakly reflect political ideology. Moral cosmopolitanism also differs from related psychological constructs such as group identity. Finally, to understand the underlying thought structures, natural language processing reveals cognitive associations underlying moral cosmopolitanism (e.g., world, both) versus the alternative, parochial moral mindset (e.g., USA, first). Making these global or local terms accessible introduces an effective intervention that at least temporarily leads more people to behave like moral cosmopolitans.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Julgamento , Linguística , Teoria Psicológica , Política Pública , Alocação de Recursos , Segurança , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Cognition ; 217: 104906, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583131

RESUMO

Statistical concepts (e.g., mean, variance, correlation) offer powerful ways to characterize the structure of the environment. To what extent do statistical concepts also play a role for people assessing the environment? Previous work on the mind as "intuitive statistician" has mainly focused on the judgment of means and correlations (Peterson & Beach, 1967). Much less is known about how people conceptualize and judge variance. In a survey and three experimental studies, we explored people's intuitive understanding of variance as a concept and investigated the factors affecting people's judgments of variance. The survey findings showed that most people hold concepts of variance that they can articulate; these concepts, however, reflect not only statistical variance (i.e., deviations from the average) but also the pairwise distance between stimuli, their range, and their variety. The experimental studies revealed that although people's judgments of variance are sensitive to the statistical variance of stimuli, variety and range also play an important role. The results can inform psychological models of judgments of variance.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Julgamento , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Percepção
14.
Cognition ; 217: 104890, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487974

RESUMO

When holding others morally responsible, we care about what they did, and what they thought. Traditionally, research in moral psychology has relied on vignette studies, in which a protagonist's actions and thoughts are explicitly communicated. While this research has revealed what variables are important for moral judgment, such as actions and intentions, it is limited in providing a more detailed understanding of exactly how these variables affect moral judgment. Using dynamic visual stimuli that allow for a more fine-grained experimental control, recent studies have proposed a direct mapping from visual features to moral judgments. We embrace the use of visual stimuli in moral psychology, but question the plausibility of a feature-based theory of moral judgment. We propose that the connection from visual features to moral judgments is mediated by an inference about what the observed action reveals about the agent's mental states, and what causal role the agent's action played in bringing about the outcome. We present a computational model that formalizes moral judgments of agents in visual scenes as computations over an intuitive theory of physics combined with an intuitive theory of mind. We test the model's quantitative predictions in three experiments across a wide variety of dynamic interactions.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Intenção , Física
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360328

RESUMO

Research on morality has focused on differences in moral judgment and action. In this study, we investigated self-reported moral reasoning after a hypothetical moral dilemma was presented on paper, and moral reasoning after that very same dilemma was experienced in immersive virtual reality (IVR). We asked open-ended questions and used content analysis to determine moral reasoning in a sample of 107 participants. We found that participants referred significantly more often to abstract principles and consequences for themselves (i.e., it is against the law) after the paper-based moral dilemma compared to the IVR dilemma. In IVR participants significantly more often referred to the consequences for the people involved in the dilemma (i.e., not wanting to hurt that particular person). This supports the separate process theory, suggesting that decision and action might be different moral concepts with different foci regarding moral reasoning. Using simulated moral scenarios thus seems essential as it illustrates possible mechanisms of empathy and altruism being more relevant for moral actions especially given the physical presence of virtual humans in IVR.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Empatia , Humanos , Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Resolução de Problemas
16.
Cogn Sci ; 45(8): e13030, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379325

RESUMO

Similarity is one of the most important relations humans perceive, arguably subserving category learning and categorization, generalization and discrimination, judgment and decision making, and other cognitive functions. Researchers have proposed a wide range of representations and metrics that could be at play in similarity judgment, yet have not comprehensively compared the power of these representations and metrics for predicting similarity within and across different semantic categories. We performed such a comparison by pairing nine prominent vector semantic representations with seven established similarity metrics that could operate on these representations, as well as supervised methods for dimensional weighting in the similarity function. This approach yields a factorial model structure with 126 distinct representation-metric pairs, which we tested on a novel dataset of similarity judgments between pairs of cohyponymic words in eight categories. We found that cosine similarity and Pearson correlation were the overall best performing unweighted similarity functions, and that word vectors derived from free association norms often outperformed word vectors derived from text (including those specialized for similarity). Importantly, models that used human similarity judgments to learn category-specific weights on dimensions yielded substantially better predictions than all unweighted approaches across all types of similarity functions and representations, although dimension weights did not generalize well across semantic categories, suggesting strong category context effects in similarity judgment. We discuss implications of these results for cognitive modeling and natural language processing, as well as for theories of the representations and metrics involved in similarity.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Semântica , Cognição , Humanos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural
17.
Hum Mov Sci ; 79: 102862, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416490

RESUMO

Bernstein's (1996) levels of movement organization includes tonus, the muscular-contraction level that primes individual movement systems for (re)organizing coordination patterns. The hypothesis advanced is that the tonus architecture is a multi-fractal tensegrity system, deeply reliant on haptic perception for regulating movement of an individual actor in a specific environment. Further arguments have been proposed that the tensegrity-haptic system is implied in all neurobiological perception and -action. In this position statement we consider whether the musculoskeletal system can be conceptualized as a neurobiological tensegrity system, supporting each individual in co-adapting to many varied contexts of dynamic performance. Evidence for this position, revealed in investigations of judgments of object properties, perceived during manual hefting, is based on each participant's tensegrity. The implication is that the background organizational state of every individual is unique, given that no neurobiological architecture (musculo-skeletal components) is identical. The unique tensegrity of every organism is intimately related to individual differences, channeling individualized adaptations to constraints (task, environment, organismic), which change over different timescales. This neurobiological property assists transitions from one stable state of coordination to another which is needed in skill adaptation during performance. We conclude by discussing how tensegrity changes over time according to skill acquisition and learning.


Assuntos
Movimento , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adaptação Fisiológica , Humanos , Julgamento , Aprendizagem
18.
Cognition ; 216: 104864, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339907

RESUMO

How does orienting attention in space affect the quality of our confidence judgments? Orienting attention to a particular location is known to boost visual performance, but the deployment of attention is far from being instantaneous. Whether observers are able to monitor the time needed for attention to deploy remains largely unknown. To address this question, we adapted a "Wundt clocks" paradigm, asking observers (N=140) to reproduce the phase of a rotating clock at the time of an attentional cue, and to evaluate their confidence in their responses. Attention affected the latency between objective and perceived events: the average reported phase was delayed in accordance with the known latencies of voluntary and involuntary attention. Yet, we found that confidence remains oblivious to these attention-induced perceptual delays, like a 'metacognitive blind spot'. In addition, we observed weaker metacognition specifically during the deployment of voluntary attention, suggesting a tight relationship between the attentional and metacognitive systems. While previous work has considered how visual confidence adjusts to fully attended versus unattended locations, our study demonstrates that the very process of orienting attention in space can alter metacognition.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Cegueira , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Julgamento , Estimulação Luminosa
20.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 130: 240-251, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454913

RESUMO

Humans express stable differences in pessimism that render some individuals more vulnerable to stressors and mood disorders. We explored whether non-human animals express stable individual differences in expectations (assessed via judgment bias tests) and whether these differences relate to susceptibility to stressors. Judgment bias tests do not distinguish pessimism from sensitivity to reinforcers; negative expectations are likely driven by a combination of these two elements. The available evidence suggests that animals express stable individual differences in expectations such that some persistently perceive ambiguous situations in a more negative way. A lack of research prevents drawing firm conclusions on how negative expectations affect responses to stressors, but current evidence suggests a link between negative expectations and the adoption of avoidance coping strategies, stronger responses to uncontrollable stressors and risk of mood-related disorders. We explore implications for animals living in captivity and for research using animals as models for human disorders.


Assuntos
Motivação , Pessimismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Viés , Julgamento
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