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1.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 151(3): 577, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499848

RESUMO

Reports an error in "Visual perspective taking in young and older adults" by Andrew K. Martin, Garon Perceval, Islay Davies, Peter Su, Jasmine Huang and Marcus Meinzer (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2019[Nov], Vol 148[11], 2006-2026). In the article "Visual Perspective Taking in Young and Older Adults" by Andrew K. Martin, Garon Perceval, Islay Davies, Peter Su, Jasmine Huang, and Marcus Meinzer (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2013, Vol. 148, No. 11, pp. 2006-2026. https://doi:10.1037/xge0000584), incorrect versions of Figures 3 and 4 were set due to a copyediting error.. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2019-20323-001.) Advanced age is associated with difficulties in social understanding. However, little is known about the underlying cognitive processes. In the present study, healthy young and older adults completed measures of implicit and explicit visual perspective taking (VPT) and measures of executive and social cognition across four experiments. Congruency effects (slower response times or reduced accuracy when scenes were incongruent with the alternate perspective) were identified for the egocentric ("self") and allocentric ("other") conditions of both Level 1 ("line of sight") and Level 2 ("egocentric transformation") explicit VPT. Older adults showed less influence of the alternate perspective during Level 1 VPT, as indexed by fewer errors when the alternate perspective was incongruent. However, during Level 2 VPT, compared with young adults, older adults showed greater influence of the allocentric perspective during egocentric judgments as indexed by slower response times when the scene was incongruent with the allocentric perspective. Older adults were also slower at taking the allocentric perspective in general across both Level 1 and 2 tasks. An implicit VPT effect was identified that was consistent across both age groups. Several VPT measures were associated with executive and social cognition, with different patterns in young and older adults suggesting differing underlying strategies or cognitive processes may partially explain VPT differences between the groups. Difficulties in higher order social tasks may arise from underlying cognitive processes involved in perspective taking and these may be different depending on the requirement to perform an egocentric transformation into the allocentric frame of reference. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Julgamento , Cognição Social , Idoso , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5704, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383294

RESUMO

Neuropsychological studies have demonstrated that the preferential processing of near-space and egocentric representation is associated with the self-prioritization effect (SPE). However, relatively little is known concerning whether the SPE is superior to the representation of egocentric frames or near-space processing in the interaction between spatial reference frames and spatial domains. The present study adopted the variant of the shape-label matching task (i.e., color-label) to establish an SPE, combined with a spatial reference frame judgment task, to examine how the SPE leads to preferential processing of near-space or egocentric representations. Surface-based morphometry analysis was also adopted to extract the cortical thickness of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to examine whether it could predict differences in the SPE at the behavioral level. The results showed a significant SPE, manifested as the response of self-associated color being faster than that of stranger-associated color. Additionally, the SPE showed a preference for near-space processing, followed by egocentric representation. More importantly, the thickness of the vmPFC could predict the difference in the SPE on reference frames, particularly in the left frontal pole cortex and bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex. These findings indicated that the SPE showed a prior entry effect for information at the spatial level relative to the reference frame level, providing evidence to support the structural significance of the self-processing region.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Percepção Espacial , Julgamento/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia
3.
J Vis Exp ; (181)2022 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311816

RESUMO

Judgment biases (JB) are differences in the way that individuals in positive and negative affective/emotional states interpret ambiguous information. This phenomenon has long been observed in humans, with individuals in positive states responding to ambiguity 'optimistically' and those in negative states instead showing 'pessimism'. Researchers aiming to assess animal affect have taken advantage of these differential responses, developing tasks to assess judgment bias as an indicator of affective state. These tasks are becoming increasingly popular across diverse species and fields of research. However, for laboratory mice, the most widely used vertebrates in research and a species heavily relied upon to model affective disorders, only one JB task has been successfully validated as sensitive to changes in affective state. Here, we provide a detailed description of this novel murine JB task, and evidence of its sensitivity to mouse affect. Though refinements are still necessary, assessment of mouse JB opens the door for answering both practical questions regarding mouse welfare, and fundamental questions about the impact of affective state in translational research.


Assuntos
Emoções , Julgamento , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Viés , Emoções/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Camundongos , Olfato
4.
Cognition ; 223: 105048, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131578

RESUMO

Immoral actions can elicit a wide array of responses, ranging from pugnacious confrontation to passive distancing. What leads onlookers to react so differently to various violations? Across four studies (N = 2085), we investigated how responses vary depending on whether moral transgressions are committed by adults or by children. Findings reliably demonstrated that adult participants were more likely to avoid adult transgressors, and more likely to instruct child transgressors about why their actions were wrong. These patterns arose from varying cost-benefit structures, derived in part from asymmetries in interpersonal power between adults and children, rendering adults' direct confrontation of children both less costly and more beneficial. Although adults' transgressions were judged to be relatively more wrong, participants had greater anxiety about the negative consequences of confronting adults, and they viewed adults' personalities as less malleable, thus diminishing the effectiveness of confrontation. In contrast, 4- to 9-year-old children did not differ in their willingness to avoid or instruct adult and child transgressors. Across studies, the content of transgressions (e.g., being harmful or impure) mattered little for determining the nature of responses. Overall, diverse responses to moral transgressions were uniquely tailored to the different costs and benefits associated with confronting adult and child transgressors.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Punição , Adulto , Ansiedade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Personalidade
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263669, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139122

RESUMO

It has previously been shown that readers spend a great deal of time skim reading on the Web and that this type of reading can affect comprehension of text. Across two experiments, we examine how hyperlinks influence perceived importance of sentences and how perceived importance in turn affects reading behaviour. In Experiment 1, participants rated the importance of sentences across passages of Wikipedia text. In Experiment 2, a different set of participants read these passages while their eye movements were tracked, with the task being either reading for comprehension or skim reading. Reading times of sentences were analysed in relation to the type of task and the importance ratings from Experiment 1. Results from Experiment 1 show readers rated sentences without hyperlinks as being of less importance than sentences that did feature hyperlinks, and this effect is larger when sentences are lower on the page. It was also found that short sentences with more links were rated as more important, but only when they were presented at the top of the page. Long sentences with more links were rated as more important regardless of their position on the page. In Experiment 2, higher importance scores resulted in longer sentence reading times, measured as fixation durations. When skim reading, however, importance ratings had a lesser impact on online reading behaviour than when reading for comprehension. We suggest readers are less able to establish the importance of a sentence when skim reading, even though importance could have been assessed by information that would be fairly easy to extract (i.e. presence of hyperlinks, length of sentences, and position on the screen).


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental/métodos , Gráficos por Computador , Internet , Percepção/fisiologia , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Controle Comportamental/ética , Compreensão/fisiologia , Gráficos por Computador/ética , Gráficos por Computador/normas , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet/ética , Internet/organização & administração , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Comunicação Persuasiva , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Neuroimage ; 250: 118967, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35124228

RESUMO

Neuroimaging studies have suggested that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key brain region for social feedback processing, but previous findings are largely based on correlational approaches. In this study, we use the deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) to manipulate mPFC activity, then investigate participants' behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) during the Social Judgment Paradigm. A between-subject design was applied, such that both the active dTMS group and the sham group consisted of 30 participants. We found that the sham group was more likely to predict that they would be socially accepted (rather than rejected) by peers, but the same was not true in the active group. Additionally, this study is the first one to observe ERP signal changes in response to dTMS manipulation. ERP results show that both the expectation stage and the experience stage of social feedback processing were modulated by dTMS: (1) at the expectation stage, the P1 component was smaller in the active group than the sham group, while the stimulus-preceding negativity showed a stronger differentiating effect between positive and negative prediction in the sham group than the active group; (2) at the experience stage, the sensitivity of the late positive potential to the valence and predictability of social feedback was stronger in the sham group than the active group. These results improve our understanding about the relationship between the mPFC and social feedback processing.


Assuntos
Julgamento/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Potenciais Evocados , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Neuroimage ; 250: 118954, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093520

RESUMO

Believing as a fundamental mental process influences other cognitive/affective processes and behavior. However, it is unclear whether believing engages distinct neurocognitive mechanisms in people with different cultural experiences. We addressed this issue by scanning Chinese and Danish adults using functional MRI during believing judgments on personality traits of oneself and a celebrity. Drift diffusion model analyses of behavioral performances revealed that speed/quality of information acquisition varied between believing judgments on positive and negative personality traits in Chinese but not in Danes. Chinese adopted a more conservative strategy of decision-making during celebrity- than self-believing judgments whereas an opposite pattern was observed in Danes. Non-decisional processes were longer for celebrity- than for self-believing in Danes but not in Chinese. Believing judgments activated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in both cultural groups but elicited stronger left anterior insular and ventral frontal activations in Chinese. Greater mPFC activity in Chinese was associated with longer duration of non-decision processes during believing-judgments, which predicted slower retrieval of self-related information in a memory test. Greater mPFC activity in Danes, however, was associated with a less degree of adopting a conservative strategy during believing judgments, which predicted faster retrieval of self-related information. Our findings highlight different neurocognitive processes engaged in believing between individuals from East Asian and Western cultures.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Cultura , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto , China , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Cognition ; 222: 105012, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998243

RESUMO

The brain-time account posits that the physical timing of sensory-evoked neural activity determines the perceived timing of corresponding sensory events. A canonical model formalises this account for tasks such as simultaneity and order judgements: Signals arrive at a decision centre in an order, and at a temporal offset, shaped by neural propagation times. This model assumes that the noise affecting people's temporal judgements is primarily neural-latency noise, i.e. variation in propagation times across trials, but this assumption has received little scrutiny. Here, we recorded EEG alongside simultaneity judgements from 50 participants in response to combinations of visual, auditory and tactile stimuli. Bootstrapping of ERP components was used to estimate neural-latency noise, and simultaneity judgements were modelled to estimate the precision of timing judgements. We obtained the predicted correlation between neural and behavioural measures of latency noise, supporting a fundamental feature of the canonical model of perceived timing.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Percepção Visual , Estimulação Acústica , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Tato , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
9.
J Appl Anim Welf Sci ; 25(1): 62-74, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054369

RESUMO

It is widely acknowledged that environmental enrichment can improve animals' welfare and emotional state. This study used cognitive bias and response to a novel object to assess the effect of enriched housing on emotional state in sheep. Eighteen sheep were trained to discriminate between high-quality and low-quality reward locations using a go/go task. Sheep were allocated to a housing treatment (enriched or standard) for three weeks. Judgment bias tests were conducted using three ambiguous, unrewarded locations across three days, followed by assessing responses to a novel object. Effects of anxiety levels shown in training on responses to ambiguous locations and to the presence of a novel object were assessed. Enriched-housed sheep tended to have shorter latencies to approach ambiguous positions than standard-housed sheep (P = 0.08), particularly to the near and middle locations. Sheep from standard housing tended to have shorter latencies to approach food with the novel object present than sheep from enriched hosing (P = 0.06). This study shows that enrichment can affect emotional state and that go/go tasks can be successful in sheep and should be considered in future studies of emotional state.


Assuntos
Habitação , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Viés , Cognição/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Ovinos
10.
Anim Cogn ; 25(2): 425-445, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633570

RESUMO

Judgement bias tasks (JBTs) are used to assess the influence of farm practices on livestock affective states. The tasks must be adjusted to the species and age group of focus. In cattle, most JBTs were designed for calves instead of adult cows. This study aimed to develop a JBT suitable for adult dairy cows, combining feasibility, validity, sensitivity and repeatability. Three JBTs were developed in which cows were trained to reach or avoid reaching a feeder, the location of which signalled a reward or punisher. The tasks differed in terms of punisher-cows being allocated either to "no-reward", an air puff or an electric shock. Cows were then exposed twice to three ambiguous positions of the feeder, on two separate occasions. Speed of learning and proportions of correct responses to the conditioned locations were used to assess the feasibility of the task. Adjusted latencies to reach the ambiguous feeder positions were used to examine whether response patterns matched the linear and monotonic graded pattern expected in a valid and sensitive JBT at baseline. Latencies to reach the feeders in the two repeated testing sessions were compared to assess ambiguity loss over tasks' repetitions. The validity of using spatial JBTs for dairy cows was demonstrated. While the effect on JBT feasibility was nuanced, the punisher did influence JBT sensitivity. None of the JBTs' repeatability could be supported. We conclude that using an air puf as punisher led to the most sensitive, yet non-repeatable, JBT for dairy cows.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Recompensa , Animais , Viés , Bovinos , Emoções , Feminino , Julgamento/fisiologia , Aprendizagem
11.
Brain Struct Funct ; 227(3): 843-863, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767078

RESUMO

The judgments of moral goodness and moral beauty objectively refer to the perception and evaluation of moral traits, which are generally influenced by facial attractiveness. For centuries, people have equated beauty with the possession of positive qualities, but it is not clear whether the association between beauty and positive qualities exerts a similarly implicit influence on people's responses to moral goodness and moral beauty, how it affects those responses, and what is the neural basis for such an effect. The present study is the first to examine the neural responses to facial attractiveness in the judgments of moral goodness and moral beauty. We found that beautiful faces in both moral judgments activated the left ventral occipitotemporal cortices sensitive to the geometric configuration of the faces, demonstrating that both moral goodness and moral beauty required the automatic visual analysis of geometrical configuration of attractive faces. In addition, compared to beautiful faces during moral goodness judgment, beautiful faces during moral beauty judgment induced unique activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and midline cortical structures involved in the emotional-valenced information about attractive faces. The opposite comparison elicited specific activity in the left superior temporal cortex and premotor area, which play a critical role in the recognition of facial identity. Our results demonstrated that the neural responses to facial attractiveness in the process of higher order moral decision-makings exhibit both task-general and task-specific characteristics. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the essence of the relationship between morality and aesthetics.


Assuntos
Beleza , Julgamento , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
12.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 43(3): 915-928, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877718

RESUMO

Numerical estimation of arrays of objects is faster and more accurate when items can be clustered into groups, a phenomenon termed "groupitizing." Grouping can facilitate segregation into subitizable "chunks," each easily estimated, then summed. The current study investigates whether spatial grouping of arrays drives specific neural responses during numerical estimation, reflecting strategies such as exact calculation and fact retrieval. Fourteen adults were scanned with fMRI while estimating either the numerosity or shape of arrays of items, either randomly distributed or spatially grouped. Numerosity estimation of both classes of stimuli elicited common activation of a right lateralized frontoparietal network. Grouped stimuli additionally recruited regions in the left hemisphere and bilaterally in the angular gyrus. Multivariate pattern analysis showed that classifiers trained with the pattern of neural activations read out from parietal regions, but not from the primary visual areas, can decode different numerosities both within and across spatial arrangements. The behavioral numerical acuity correlated with the decoding performance of the parietal but not with occipital regions. Overall, this experiment suggests that the estimation of grouped stimuli relies on the approximate number system for numerosity estimation, but additionally recruits regions involved in calculation.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Emotion ; 22(3): 511-525, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658505

RESUMO

How does facial muscle activity relate to moral judgments across cultures? To explore this question, we used facial electromyography (EMG) among residents of New Zealand (N = 30) and Hong Kong (N = 40), comparing findings to prior data from the United Kingdom. We recorded EMG involved in expressions of disgust (m.levator labii), anger (m.corrugator supercilii), amusement (m.zygomaticus major), and surprise (m.medial frontalis) while participants thought about 90 scenarios that varied in valence and relevance to the harm, fairness, ingroup, authority, and purity moral dimensions. Overall, levator and corrugator activity were associated with more negative judgments in all samples, while only in Hong Kong a decrease in medial frontalis activity was associated with negativity. Both levator and corrugator were cross-culturally associated with negative judgments in purity scenarios. In contrast to prior findings, harm and fairness violations were associated with different levator and/or corrugator activity across samples. We discuss implications for the relationship between spontaneous facial muscle activity and moral versus negativity judgments across cultures. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Músculos Faciais , Julgamento , Eletromiografia , Expressão Facial , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Hong Kong , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Nova Zelândia
14.
Psychol Res ; 86(2): 386-403, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843012

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that null numerosity can be processed as a numerical entity that is represented together with non-null numerosities on the same magnitude system. The present study examined which conditions enable perceiving nonsymbolic (i.e., an empty set) and symbolic (i.e., 0) representations of null numerosity as a numerical entity, using distance and end effects. In Experiment 1, participants performed magnitude comparisons of notation homogeneous pairs (both numerosities appeared in nonsymbolic or symbolic format), as well as heterogeneous pairs (a nonsymbolic numerosity versus a symbolic one). Comparisons to 0 resulted in faster responses and an attenuated distance effect in all conditions, whereas comparisons to an empty set produced such effects only in the nonsymbolic and symbolic homogeneous conditions. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants performed same/different numerosity judgments with heterogeneous pairs. A distance effect emerged for "different" judgments of 0 and sets of 1 to 9 dots, but not for those with an empty set versus digits 1-9. These findings indicate that perceiving an empty set, but not 0, as a numerical entity is determined by notation homogeneity and task requirements.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia
15.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 86(2): ajpe8511, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301539

RESUMO

Objective. For pharmacy students to successfully meet competencies related to Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards 3 and 4, it is essential for pharmacy programs to assess student progression in the affective domain. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the validity of a situational judgment test (SJT) for evaluating student mastery of Standards 3 and 4.Methods. A multi-institutional faculty team developed an 18-item SJT that consisted of scenarios asking the respondent to rank the effectiveness of four response options mapped to Standards 3 and 4. The research team systematically reviewed the literature, created items, and deliberated until consensus was achieved. Subject matter experts (SMEs) reviewed and provided feedback on the instrument. Students from two institutions were recruited to participate in cognitive interviews about the finalized instrument. Cognitive interview data were analyzed to identify themes.Results. After edits were made to the instrument based on SME feedback, students (n=18) in the cognitive interviews identified item length as a concern and commented on item/response clarity and comprehensiveness. Data from the cognitive interviews were used to modify the SJT to reduce the length and clarify items. The result was two shorter versions of the instrument, both with similar mapping to all elements in Standards 3 and 4.Conclusion. Early steps in validating the SJT suggested that the instrument may be a promising tool to assess student progression in the affective domain. The SJT instrument is intended to provide evidence of student pharmacist development that occurs in the didactic, experiential, and co-curricular portions of pharmacy education. The instrument can serve as one part of a comprehensive assessment plan.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia , Farmácia , Estudantes de Farmácia , Acreditação , Currículo , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia
16.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(1): 146-154, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400815

RESUMO

A goal of computational psychiatry is to ground symptoms in basic mechanisms. Theory suggests that avoidance in anxiety disorders may reflect dysregulated mental simulation, a process for evaluating candidate actions. If so, these covert processes should have observable consequences: choices reflecting increased and biased deliberation. In two online general population samples, we examined how self-report symptoms of social anxiety disorder predict choices in a socially framed reinforcement learning task, the patent race, in which the pattern of choices reflects the content of deliberation. Using a computational model to assess learning strategy, we found that self-report social anxiety was indeed associated with increased deliberative evaluation. This effect was stronger for a particular subset of feedback ('upward counterfactual') in one of the experiments, broadly matching the biased content of rumination in social anxiety disorder, and robust to controlling for other psychiatric symptoms. These results suggest a grounding of symptoms of social anxiety disorder in more basic neuro-computational mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(5): 808-817, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344248

RESUMO

The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect reflects the phenomenon that low digits are responded to faster with the left hand and high digits with the right. Recently, a particular variant of the SNARC effect known as the attentional SNARC (which reflects that attention can be shifted in a similar manner) has had notable replicability issues. However, a potentially useful method for measuring it was revealed by Casarotti et al. using a temporal order judgement (TOJ) task. Accordingly, the present study evaluated whether Casarotti et al.'s results were reproducible by presenting a low (1) or high (9) digit prior to a TOJ task where participants had to indicate which of two peripherally presented targets appeared first (Experiment 1) or second (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, it was revealed that the findings of Casarotti et al.'s were indeed observable upon replication. In Experiment 2, when attention and response dimensions were put in opposition, the SNARC effect corresponded to the side of response rather than attention. Taken together, the present study confirms the robustness of the attentional SNARC in TOJ tasks, but that it is not likely due to shifts in attention.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Percepção Espacial , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Mãos , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia
18.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1507(1): 133-145, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480374

RESUMO

Hedonic evaluation of sensory objects varies from person to person. While this variability has been linked to differences in experience, little is known about why stimuli lead to different evaluations in different people. We used linear mixed-effects models to determine the extent to which the openness, contour, and ceiling height of interior spaces influenced the beauty and pleasantness ratings of 18 participants. Then, by analyzing structural brain images acquired for the same group of participants, we asked if any regional gray matter volume (rGMV) covaried with these differences in the extent to which the three features influence beauty and pleasantness ratings. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed that the influence of openness on pleasantness ratings correlated with rGMV in the anterior prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area (BA)-10), and the influence of openness on beauty ratings correlated with rGMV in the temporal pole (BA38) and cluster, including the posterior cingulate cortex (BA31) and paracentral lobule (BA5/6). There were no significant correlations involving contour or ceiling height. Our results suggest that regional variance in gray matter volume may play a role in the computation of hedonic valuation and account for differences in the way people weigh certain attributes of interior architectural spaces.


Assuntos
Arquitetura/métodos , Beleza , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Julgamento , Prazer , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia , Humanos , Individualidade , Julgamento/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(3): 482-492, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: With age, decision makers rely more on heuristic and affect-based processing. However, age differences have not been quantified with respect to the affect heuristic, which derives judgments based on positive and negative feelings toward stimuli and concepts. This study examined whether reliance on the affect heuristic is associated with age, whether these patterns vary by task type, and which covariates account for age effects. METHOD: In a preregistered study, an adult life-span sample (N = 195, 21-90 years, Mage = 52.95, 50% female, 71% non-Hispanic White) completed a battery of cognitive, personality, and socioemotional covariates as well as 3 established affect heuristic tasks: (a) a risk-benefit task, (b) a dread-inference task, and (c) an affect-impact task. Reliance on affect was indexed through (a) a negative relationship between perceived food risks and benefits, (b) a positive relationship between feelings of dread and statistical inferences about mortality risks, and (c) a positive relationship between affective responses and impact judgments when evaluating catastrophes. RESULTS: For all 3 tasks, usage of the affect heuristic was documented at the group and the individual levels. Contrary to hypotheses, age was not associated with affect heuristic use for any of the tasks. Affect heuristic indices did not correlate across tasks and showed no consistent associations with the covariates. DISCUSSION: Results suggest that the use of affect-based heuristics is context- or stimulus-dependent rather than a stable, age-associated trait. Further research is needed to validate the present results across additional domains, tasks, and stimulus types.


Assuntos
Heurística , Julgamento , Afeto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Personalidade , Medição de Risco
20.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 17(1): 131-152, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264152

RESUMO

Observed variability and complexity of judgments of "right" and "wrong" cannot be readily accounted for within extant approaches to understanding moral judgment. In response to this challenge, we present a novel perspective on categorization in moral judgment. Moral judgment as categorization (MJAC) incorporates principles of category formation research while addressing key challenges of existing approaches to moral judgment. People develop skills in making context-relevant categorizations. They learn that various objects (events, behaviors, people, etc.) can be categorized as morally right or wrong. Repetition and rehearsal result in reliable, habitualized categorizations. According to this skill-formation account of moral categorization, the learning and the habitualization of the forming of moral categories occur within goal-directed activity that is sensitive to various contextual influences. By allowing for the complexity of moral judgments, MJAC offers greater explanatory power than existing approaches while also providing opportunities for a diverse range of new research questions.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Aprendizagem
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