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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347502

RESUMO

Self-agency, the sense that one is the author or owner of one's behaviors, is impaired in multiple psychological and neurological disorders, including functional movement disorders, Parkinson's Disease, alien hand syndrome, schizophrenia, and dystonia. Existing assessments of self-agency, many of which focus on agency of movement, can be prohibitively time-consuming and often yield ambiguous results. Here, we introduce a short online motion tracking task that quantifies movement agency through both first-order perceptual and second-order metacognitive judgments. The task assesses the degree to which a participant can distinguish between a motion stimulus whose trajectory is influenced by the participant's cursor movements and a motion stimulus whose trajectory is random. We demonstrate the task's reliability in healthy participants and discuss how its efficiency, reliability, and ease of online implementation make it a promising new tool for both diagnosing and understanding disorders of agency.


Assuntos
Julgamento/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970725

RESUMO

Black people are still considered to be one of the most stigmatized groups and have to face multiple prejudices that undermine their well-being. Assumptions and beliefs about other racial groups are quite pervasive and have been shown to impact basic social tasks such as face processing. For example, individuals with high racial prejudice conceptualize other-race faces as less trustworthy and more criminal. However, it is unknown if implicit racial bias could modulate even low-level perceptual mechanisms such as spatial frequency (SF) extraction when judging the level of trustworthiness of other-race faces. The present study showed that although similar facial features are used to judge the trustworthiness of White and Black faces, own-race faces are processed in lower SF (i.e. coarse information such as the contour of the face and blurred shapes as opposed to high SF representing fine-grained information such as eyelashes or fine wrinkles). This pattern was modulated by implicit race biases: higher implicit biases are associated with a significantly higher reliance on low SF with White than with Black faces.


Assuntos
Julgamento/ética , Racismo/ética , Percepção Social , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Atitude , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Racismo/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Defining Issues Test (DIT) aimed to measure one's moral judgment development in terms of moral reasoning. The Neo-Kohlbergian approach, which is an elaboration of Kohlbergian theory, focuses on the continuous development of postconventional moral reasoning, which constitutes the theoretical basis of the DIT. However, very few studies have directly tested the internal structure of the DIT, which would indicate its construct validity. OBJECTIVES: Using the DIT-2, a later revision of the DIT, we examined whether a bi-factor model or 3-factor CFA model showed a better model fit. The Neo-Kohlbergian theory of moral judgment development, which constitutes the theoretical basis for the DIT-2, proposes that moral judgment development occurs continuously and that it can be better explained with a soft-stage model. Given these assertions, we assumed that the bi-factor model, which considers the Schema-General Moral Judgment (SGMJ), might be more consistent with Neo-Kohlbergian theory. METHODS: We analyzed a large dataset collected from undergraduate students. We performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) via weighted least squares. A 3-factor CFA based on the DIT-2 manual and a bi-factor model were compared for model fit. The three factors in the 3-factor CFA were labeled as moral development schemas in Neo-Kohlbergian theory (i.e., personal interests, maintaining norms, and postconventional schemas). The bi-factor model included the SGMJ in addition to the three factors. RESULTS: In general, the bi-factor model showed a better model fit compared with the 3-factor CFA model although both models reported acceptable model fit indices. CONCLUSION: We found that the DIT-2 scale is a valid measure of the internal structure of moral reasoning development using both CFA and bi-factor models. In addition, we conclude that the soft-stage model, posited by the Neo-Kohlbergian approach to moral judgment development, can be better supported with the bi-factor model that was tested in the present study.


Assuntos
Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0226122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853238

RESUMO

Essential for successful interaction with the environment is the human capacity to resolve events in time. Typical event timing paradigms are judgements of simultaneity (SJ) and of temporal order (TOJ). It remains unclear whether SJ and TOJ are based on the same underlying mechanism and whether there are fixed thresholds for resolution. The current study employed four visual event timing task versions: horizontal and vertical SJ and TOJ. Binary responses were analysed using multilevel binary regression modelling. Modulatory effects of potential explanatory variables on event timing perception were investigated: (1) Individual factors (sex and age), (2) temporal factors (SOA, trial number, order of experiment, order of stimuli orientation, time of day) and (3) spatial factors (left or right stimulus first, top or bottom stimulus first, horizontal vs. vertical orientation). The current study directly compares for the first time, performance on SJ and TOJ tasks using the same paradigm and presents evidence that a variety of factors and their interactions selectively modulate event timing functions in humans, explaining the variance found in previous studies. We conclude that SJ and TOJ are partially independent functions, because they are modulated differently by individual and contextual variables.


Assuntos
Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Orientação , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234026, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525897

RESUMO

Social cognition is dependent on the ability to extract information from human stimuli. Of those, patterns of biological motion (BM) and in particular walking patterns of other humans, are prime examples. Although most often tested in isolation, BM outside the laboratory is often associated with multisensory cues (i.e. we often hear and see someone walking) and there is evidence that vision-based judgments of BM stimuli are systematically influenced by motor signals. Furthermore, cross-modal visuo-tactile mechanisms have been shown to influence perception of bodily stimuli. Based on these observations, we here investigated if somatosensory inputs would affect visual BM perception. In two experiments, we asked healthy participants to perform a speed discrimination task on two point light walkers (PLW) presented one after the other. In the first experiment, we quantified somatosensory-visual interactions by presenting PLW together with tactile stimuli either on the participants' forearms or feet soles. In the second experiment, we assessed the specificity of these interactions by presenting tactile stimuli either synchronously or asynchronously with upright or inverted PLW. Our results confirm that somatosensory input in the form of tactile foot stimulation influences visual BM perception. When presented with a seen walker's footsteps, additional tactile cues enhanced sensitivity on a speed discrimination task, but only if the tactile stimuli were presented on the relevant body-part (under the feet) and when the tactile stimuli were presented synchronously with the seen footsteps of the PLW, whether upright or inverted. Based on these findings we discuss potential mechanisms of somatosensory-visual interactions in BM perception.


Assuntos
Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Estimulação Física/métodos , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479503

RESUMO

This paper reports the results of an experiment involving text-messaging and emojis in laboratory trust games executed on mobile devices. Decomposing chat logs, I find that trust increases dramatically with the introduction of emojis to one-shot games, while reciprocation increases only modestly. Skin tones embedded in emojis impact sharing and resulting gains-to the benefit of some and detriment to others. Both light and dark skin players trust less on receipt of a dark skin tone emoji-suggestive of statistical discrimination. In this way, computer-mediated communication leads to reduced gains for dark-skinned persons. These results highlight the complex social judgment that motivates trust in an anonymous counterpart.


Assuntos
Racismo/psicologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/ética , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Telefone Celular , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Julgamento/ética , Julgamento/fisiologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Pigmentação da Pele , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234500, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542051

RESUMO

The reduced importance of intent when judging purity (vs. harm) violations is some of the strongest evidence for distinct moral modules or systems: moral pluralism. However, research has indicated that some supposed differences between purity and harm moral domains are due to the relative weirdness of purity vignettes. This weirdness might lead to a failure to attend to or correctly process relevant mental state information. Such attentional failures could offer an alternative explanation (to separate moral systems) for the reduced exculpatory value of innocent intentions for purity violations. We tested if the different role of intent in each domain was moderated by individual differences in attentional efficiency, as measured by the Attention Network Task. If attentional efficiency explains the reduced exculpatory value of innocent intentions in purity (vs. harm) violations, then we would expect those high (vs. low) in attentional efficiency not to show the reduced exculpatory effect of innocent intentions in the purity (vs. harm) domain. Consistent with moral pluralism, results revealed no such moderation. Findings are discussed in relation to various ways of testing domain-general and domain-specific accounts of the mental state × domain effect, so that we might better understand the architecture of our moral minds.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Diversidade Cultural , Julgamento/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Intenção , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 208: 103088, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497741

RESUMO

People find positive attribute frames (e.g., 75% lean) more persuasive than negative ones (e.g., 25% fat). In three pre-registered experiments, we tested whether this effect would be magnified by using verbal quantifiers instead of numerical ones (e.g., 'high % lean' vs. '75% lean'). This moderating effect of quantifier format was predicted based on previous empirical work and two non-exclusive accounts of framing effects. First, verbal quantifiers are presumed to be a more intuitive format than numerical quantifiers, so might predispose people more to judgement biases such as the framing effect. Second, verbal quantifiers draw a greater focus to the attributes they describe. This could provide a linguistic signal that the positive frame is better than the negative one. In three experiments, we manipulated the attribute frame (positive or negative) and the quantifier format (verbal or numerical) between-subjects, and quantity pairs (e.g., 5% fat and 95% lean or 25% fat and 75% lean) within-subjects. We also tested if participants focused more on the attributes in the frame, by measuring whether participants selected causal sentence completions about the beef that focused on why it had fat meat or lean meat. Results showed a robust framing effect, which was partially mediated by the focus of the sentence completions. However, the verbal format did not increase the magnitude of the framing effect. These results suggest that a focus on the attribute contributes to the framing effect, but contrary to past work, this focus is not different between verbal and numerical quantifiers.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Idioma , Cognição , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353076

RESUMO

According to a socio-functional perspective on emotions, displaying shame with averted gaze and a slumped posture following a norm violation signals that the person is ready to conform to the group's moral standards, which in turn protects the person from social isolation and punishment. Although the assumption is intuitive, direct empirical evidence for it remains surprisingly limited and the mediating social-psychological mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, three experimental studies were conducted to investigate the social function of nonverbal displays of shame in the context of everyday norm violations. In Study 1, participants evaluated ten different expressions of emotion in regard to their affective valence, arousal, dominance, as well as social meaning in the context of norm violations. Displays of shame and sadness were seen as the most similar expressions with respect to the three affective dimensions and were perceived to communicate the perpetrator's understanding of the group's moral standards most effectively. In Study 2, participants read vignettes concerning norm violations and afterward saw a photograph of the perpetrator displaying nonverbal shame, sadness or a neutral expression. Perpetrators' displays of shame and sadness increased perceived moral sense and amplified the observers' willingness to cooperate with the perpetrators. However, neither display weakened the observer's willingness to punish the perpetrator. In Study 3, the perpetrator was shown to display shame, sadness, anger or a neutral expression after getting caught at mild or severe norm violation. The results replicated previous findings but revealed also that the social effects of shame and sadness displays on punitive and cooperative intentions were mediated by different social appraisals. For example, display of shame uniquely reduced punitive intentions by increasing the perpetrator's perceived moral sense, whereas expressions of both shame and sadness evoked empathy in the observers, which in turn reduced the punitive intentions. These results give support to the assumption that nonverbal shame displays serve a unique social function in preventing moral punishment and social exclusion. However, this support is only partial as the social functions of displaying shame are largely parallel to those of expressing sadness in the situation.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Punição , Vergonha , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5821, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242057

RESUMO

Object memories activated by borders serve as priors for figure assignment: figures are more likely to be perceived on the side of a border where a well-known object is sketched. Do object memories also affect the appearance of object borders? Memories represent past experience with objects; memories of well-known objects include many with sharp borders because they are often fixated. We investigated whether object memories affect appearance by testing whether blurry borders appear sharper when they are contours of well-known objects versus matched novel objects. Participants viewed blurry versions of one familiar and one novel stimulus simultaneously for 180 ms; then made comparative (Exp. 1) or equality judgments regarding perceived blur (Exps. 2-4). For equivalent levels of blur, the borders of well-known objects appeared sharper than those of novel objects. These results extend evidence for the influence of past experience to object appearance, consistent with dynamic interactive models of perception.


Assuntos
Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 206: 103041, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268258

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to explore the processing features of the multi-social categories and their mechanisms of interaction. Adopting the Inhibition Paradigm in experiment 1, this study investigated whether the race and gender information obtained from images of face would influence the judgment of name category under the different perceptual load levels. The results of two sub-experiments showed that facial features contained strong, intuitive clues for race category. When the perceptual load level was low, it was automatically processed whether it was related to the task or not; when the perceptual load level was high, the automated process did not occur. The gender category utilized top-down flexible processing, which could be affected easily by the intent of the task. It was not processed when it was irrelevant to the task. Experiment 2 further proved that the different levels of difficulty would not have impact on the results of experiment 1. In summary, this study suggests that the race category is an automatic process from the bottom to up, which affects the processing of irrelevant primitive social categories; and that gender processing is regulated by the task intention, exhibiting top-down processing characteristics without affecting the processing of irrelevant primary social categories. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is an asymmetry in the interaction of the primary social categories.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Intenção , Julgamento/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130232

RESUMO

Category-based induction involves the generalization of a novel property (conclusion property) to a new category (conclusion category), based on the knowledge that a category exemplar (premise category) has the respective novel property. Previous studies have shown that conclusion specificity (i.e., specific [S] or generic categories [G]) influences category-based induction. However, the timing of brain activity underlying this effect is not well known, especially with controlling the similarities of premise and conclusion categories between S and G arguments. In this study, the event-related potential (ERP) responses to category-based induction between S and G arguments were compared under both congruent (+, premise and conclusion categories are related) and incongruent (-, premise and conclusion categories are unrelated) arguments; additionally, the similarities of premise and conclusion categories between S and G arguments were controlled. The results showed that replicating this effect, S+ arguments have increased "strong" response rates compared to G+ arguments, suggesting that category-based induction is contingent on factors beyond matched similarities. Moreover, S arguments have more liberal inductive decision thresholds than G arguments, which suggest that conclusion specificity affects the inductive decision reflected by inductive decision thresholds. Furthermore, G+ arguments elicit greater P3a amplitudes than S+ arguments, which suggest greater attention resources allocation to the review of decisions for G+ arguments than that for S+ arguments. Taken together, the conclusion specificity effect during semantic category-based induction can be revealed by "strong" response rates, inductive decision thresholds, and P3a component after controlling the premise-conclusion similarity, providing evidence that category-based induction rely on more than simple similarity judgment and conclusion specificity would affect category-based induction.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Generalização Psicológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Conhecimento , Masculino , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0225617, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040474

RESUMO

Two fundamental goals of decision making are to select actions that maximize rewards while minimizing costs and to have strong confidence in the accuracy of a judgment. Neural signatures of these two forms of value: the subjective value (SV) of choice alternatives and the value of the judgment (confidence), have both been observed in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, the relationship between these dual value signals and their relative time courses are unknown. Twenty-eight men and women underwent fMRI while performing a two-phase approach-avoidance (Ap-Av) task with mixed-outcomes of monetary rewards paired with painful shock stimuli. Neural responses were measured during offer valuation (offer phase) and choice valuation (commit phase) and analyzed with respect to observed decision outcomes, model-estimated SV and confidence. During the offer phase, vmPFC tracked SV and the decision but not confidence. During the commit phase, vmPFC tracked confidence, computed as the quadratic extension of SV, but not the offer valuation nor the decision. In fact, vmPFC responses from the commit phase were selective for confidence even for reject decisions wherein confidence and SV are inversely related. Conversely, activation of the cognitive control network, including within lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) was associated with ambivalence, during both the offer and commit phases. Taken together, our results reveal complementary representations in vmPFC during value-based decision making that temporally dissociate such that offer valuation (SV) emerges before decision valuation (confidence).


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Punição , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1898, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024891

RESUMO

The factors that drive amygdalar responses to emotionally significant stimuli are still a matter of debate - particularly the proneness of the amygdala to respond to negatively-valenced stimuli has been discussed controversially. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether the amygdala responds in a modality-general fashion or whether modality-specific idiosyncrasies exist. Therefore, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study systematically investigated amygdalar responding to stimulus valence and arousal of emotional expressions across visual and auditory modalities. During scanning, participants performed a gender judgment task while prosodic and facial emotional expressions were presented. The stimuli varied in stimulus valence and arousal by including neutral, happy and angry expressions of high and low emotional intensity. Results demonstrate amygdalar activation as a function of stimulus arousal and accordingly associated emotional intensity regardless of stimulus valence. Furthermore, arousal-driven amygdalar responding did not depend on the visual and auditory modalities of emotional expressions. Thus, the current results are consistent with the notion that the amygdala codes general stimulus relevance across visual and auditory modalities irrespective of valence. In addition, whole brain analyses revealed that effects in visual and auditory areas were driven mainly by high intense emotional facial and vocal stimuli, respectively, suggesting modality-specific representations of emotional expressions in auditory and visual cortices.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Auditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1868, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024898

RESUMO

Estimating invested effort is a core dimension for evaluating own and others' actions, and views on the relationship between effort and rewards are deeply ingrained in various societal attitudes. Internal representations of effort, however, are inherently noisy, e.g. due to the variability of sensorimotor and visceral responses to physical exertion. The uncertainty in effort judgments is further aggravated when there is no direct access to the internal representations of exertion - such as when estimating the effort of another person. Bayesian cue integration suggests that this uncertainty can be resolved by incorporating additional cues that are predictive of effort, e.g. received rewards. We hypothesized that judgments about the effort spent on a task will be influenced by the magnitude of received rewards. Additionally, we surmised that such influence might further depend on individual beliefs regarding the relationship between hard work and prosperity, as exemplified by a conservative work ethic. To test these predictions, participants performed an effortful task interleaved with a partner and were informed about the obtained reward before rating either their own or the partner's effort. We show that higher rewards led to higher estimations of exerted effort in self-judgments, and this effect was even more pronounced for other-judgments. In both types of judgment, computational modelling revealed that reward information and sensorimotor markers of exertion were combined in a Bayes-optimal manner in order to reduce uncertainty. Remarkably, the extent to which rewards influenced effort judgments was associated with conservative world-views, indicating links between this phenomenon and general beliefs about the relationship between effort and earnings in society.


Assuntos
Julgamento/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa
17.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(2): 385-391, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043220

RESUMO

Across two experiments (N=799) we demonstrate that people's use of quantitative information (e.g., base-rates) when making a judgment varies as the causal link of qualitative information (e.g., stereotypes) changes. That is, when a clear causal link for stereotypes is provided, people make judgments that are far more in line with them. When the causal link is heavily diminished, people readily incorporate non-causal base-rates into their judgments instead. We suggest that people use and integrate all of the information that is provided to them to make judgements, but heavily prioritize information that is causal in nature. Further, people are sensitive to the underlying causal structures in their environment and adapt their decision making as such.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos
18.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 204: 103014, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004925

RESUMO

A series of effects characterises the processing of symbolic numbers (i.e., distance effect, size effect, SNARC effect, size congruency effect). The combination of these effects supports the view that numbers are represented on a compressed and spatially oriented mental number line (MNL) as well as the presence of an interaction between numerical and other magnitude representations. However, when individuals process the order of digits, response times are faster when the distance between digits is small (e.g., 1-2-3) compared to large (e.g., 1-3-5; i.e., reversed distance effect), suggesting that the processing of magnitude and order may be distinct. Here, we investigated whether the effects related to the MNL also emerge in the processing of symbolic number ordering. In Experiment 1, participants judged whether three digits were presented in order while spatial distance, numerical distance, numerical size, and the side of presentation were manipulated. Participants were faster in determining the ascending order of small triplets compared to large ones (i.e., size effect) and faster when the numerical distance between digits was small (i.e., reversed distance effect). In Experiment 2, we explored the size effect across all possible consecutive triplets between 1 and 9 and the effect that physical size has on order processing. Participants showed faster reactions times only for the triplet 1-2-3 compared to the other triplets, and the effect of physical magnitude was negligible. Symbolic order processing lacks the signatures of the MNL and suggests the presence of a familiarity effect related to well-known consecutive triplets in the long-term memory.


Assuntos
Julgamento/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 203: 103002, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004640

RESUMO

How accurate are individuals in judging the originality of their own ideas? Most metacognitive research has focused on well-defined tasks, such as learning, memory, and problem solving, providing limited insight into ill-defined tasks. The present study introduces a novel metacognitive self-judgment of originality, defined as assessments of the uniqueness of an idea in a given context. In three experiments, we examined the reliability, potential biases, and factors affecting originality judgments. Using an ideation task, designed to assess the ability to generate multiple divergent ideas, we show that people accurately acknowledge the serial order effect-judging later ideas as more original than earlier ideas. However, they systematically underestimate their ideas' originality. We employed a manipulation for affecting actual originality level, which did not affect originality judgments, and another one designed to affect originality judgments, which did not affect actual originality performance. This double dissociation between judgments and performance calls for future research to expose additional factors underlying originality judgments.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criatividade , Julgamento/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoavaliação , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092079

RESUMO

Human adults are faster to respond to small/large numerals with their left/right hand when they judge the parity of numerals, which is known as the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect. It has been proposed that the size of the SNARC effect depends on response latencies. The current study introduced a perceptual orientation task, where participants were asked to judge the orientation of a digit or a frame surrounding the digit. The present study first confirmed the SNARC effect with native Chinese speakers (Experiment 1) using a parity task, and then examined whether the emergence and size of the SNARC effect depended on the response latencies (Experiments 2, 3, and 4) using a perceptual orientation judgment task. Our results suggested that (a) the automatic processing of response-related numerical-spatial information occurred with Chinese-speaking participants in the parity task; (b) the SNARC effect was also found when the task did not require semantic access; and (c) the size of the effect depended on the processing speed of the task-relevant dimension. Finally, we proposed an underlying mechanism to explain the SNARC effect in the perceptual orientation judgment task.


Assuntos
Julgamento/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Adulto Jovem
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