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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 231: 115728, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888838

RESUMO

A water-soluble acidic polysaccharide, XB-PS3, was isolated from the twigs of Juniperus pingii var. Wilsonii with a molecular weight of 86.04 kDa. By means of monosaccharide composition analysis, methylation, 2D NMR spectroscopy and UPLC-MS analysis, we concluded that XB-PS3 had a backbone composed of →2,4)-α-Manp-(1→ and →4)-α-GalpA-(1→ (60 % esterified), with an araban branch attached to O-2 of →2,4)-α-Manp-(1→. The possible repeating units were further validated by oligosaccharide analysis and partial acid hydrolysis. XB-PS3 exhibited potent anticomplement activity with CH50 value of 117.23 ± 18.74 µg/mL and interacted with C3, C4, C5 and C9 in the complement activation cascade. However, the anticomplement activity was significantly weakened when the galacturonic acids were reduced (CH50: 268.55 ± 16.82 µg/mL) or the branches were removed by partial hydrolysis (CH50: 197.76 ± 21.81 µg/mL), indicating the important role of uronic acids and branch structure in the polysaccharide's anticomplement activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento/química , Juniperus/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Ácidos/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Complemento C3/antagonistas & inibidores , Complemento C3/química , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento/farmacologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrólise , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ácidos Urônicos/química , Água/química
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(11-12): 993-1003, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755019

RESUMO

Terpenes, volatile plant secondary compounds produced by woody plants, have historically been thought to act as feeding deterrents for mammalian herbivores. However, three species of woodrats, Neotoma stephensi, N. lepida, and N. albigula, regularly consume juniper, which is high in terpenes, and N. stephensi and N. lepida are considered juniper specialists. By investigating the terpene profiles in Juniperus monosperma and J. osteosperma, which are browsed or avoided by woodrats in the field, and recording the caching and consumption of juniper foliage by woodrats in the lab, we have evidence that terpenes may serve as feeding and/or foraging cues. The obligate specialist N. stephensi chose to forage on trees higher in p-cymene and preferred to consume juniper rather than caching it in a laboratory setting. These observations provide evidence that terpenes serve as a feeding cue and that the obligate specialist's physiological mechanism for metabolizing the terpenes present in juniper may negate the need for caching. The facultative specialist N. lepida chose to forage on trees lower in four terpenes and cached more juniper than the obligate specialist N. stephensi, providing evidence that terpenes serve as a feeding deterrent for N. lepida and that this woodrat species relies on behavioral mechanisms to minimize terpene intake. The generalist N. albigula foraged on trees with higher terpenes levels but consumed the least amount of juniper in the lab and preferred to cache juniper rather than consume it, evidence that terpenes act as foraging but not feeding cues in the generalist. Our findings suggest that volatile plant secondary compounds can act as feeding and/or foraging cues and not just feeding deterrents in mammalian herbivores.


Assuntos
Juniperus/química , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cimenos/química , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Coelhos , Roedores/metabolismo , Sigmodontinae/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 434-443, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279190

RESUMO

How leaf traits vary with environmental and climatic variables in cold and arid environments is an essential issue in environmental ecology. Here, we analyzed the variations in leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and leaf dry matter content (LDMC) in Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) growing in 14 environmentally different plots on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that the N and P concentrations, N:P ratio and LDMC of Qilian juniper were 10.89 mg.g-1, 1.04 mg.g-1, 10.80 and 483.06 mg.g-1, respectively. The spatial coefficients of the variations in leaf N and P stoichiometry were significantly higher than the seasonal ones, and the correlations of leaf N and P concentrations with spatial variables were stronger than their correlations with the season. During the growing season, only the leaf N concentration and N:P ratio significantly increased. Soil nutrients were highly positively significantly correlated with leaf P concentrations but negatively correlated with the N:P ratio and LDMC. However, leaf N concentrations showed no significant correlations with soil nutrients. We suggest that the effects of temperature on the N concentration and LDMC were stronger than the effects of drought, while those on the P concentration and N:P ratio were weaker. Drought reduced leaf N and P concentrations and increased the N:P ratio and LDMC. In the arid region, with an increasing mean annual temperature (MAT), leaf N concentration significantly decreased, and LDMC significantly increased. In the semi-arid region, as MAT increased, leaf N and P concentrations significantly increased and LDMC and the N:P ratio significantly decreased. These opposite results supported the growth rate hypothesis that plant N and P concentrations increase while the N:P ratio and LDMC decrease as the growth rate increases.


Assuntos
Clima Desértico , Juniperus/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , China , Temperatura Baixa , Juniperus/química , Juniperus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(5): 1171-1191, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315419

RESUMO

Melanoma, which has a high metastatic capacity and death rate, is a common skin cancer in Western countries. The purpose of this study was to address whether Juniperus communis (JCo) extract is effective in the suppression of melanoma and to elucidate the anticancer mechanisms involved in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor capacities of JCo extract on tumor suppression and toxicity were evaluated and the results demonstrated that the tumor burden was reduced via mediation of cell cycle, reduction of autocrine signaling, and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, JCo extract significantly prolonged the survival rate of the test subjects with only low pathological and physiological toxicity. Additionally, JCo extract also reduced cancer stem cell-related angiogenic and metastatic proteins in the process of tumor elimination. Based on these results, this study suggests that JCo extract suppresses tumor growth and induces apoptosis, and JCo extract may be useful for the prevention of melanoma tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Juniperus/química , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Melanoma/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
5.
Phytother Res ; 33(8): 2075-2082, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157484

RESUMO

Three biflavonoids [cupressuflavone (1), amentoflavone (2), and sumaflavone (3)], four diterpenoids [13-epi-cupressic acid (4), imbricatholic acid (5), 3-hydroxy-sandaracopimaric acid (6), and dehydroabietic acid (7)], and one lignan [ß-peltatin methyl ether (8)] were isolated from the cytotoxic fractions of the extracts of the leaves of the Libyan Juniperus phoenicea L. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic means. Cytotoxicity of compounds 1-6 were assessed against the human lung cancer cell line A549 using the MTT assay. Compounds 1 and 3 showed cytotoxicity against the A549 cells (IC50  = 65 and 77 µM, respectively), whereas compound 2 did not show any activity. Diterpenes 4-6 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against the A549 cells with the IC50 values of 159, 263, and 223 µM, respectively. The cytotoxicity of each compound was compared with the anticancer drug, etoposide (IC50  = 61 µM). Cupressuflavone (1) was evaluated also for cytotoxicity against both the human PC3 cancer cell line and the normal prostate cell line (PNT2), and this compound revealed a high degree of cytotoxic selectivity towards the prostate cancer cells (PC3), with IC50 value of 19.9 µM, without any evidence of cytotoxicity towards the normal prostate cell line (PNT2).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Biflavonoides/química , Diterpenos/química , Juniperus/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Folhas de Planta/química , Humanos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234551

RESUMO

Experiments conducted in vitro and in vivo, as well as some preclinical trials for cancer therapeutics, support the antineoplastic properties of lectins. A screening of antitumoral activity on HT29 colon cancer cells, based on polypeptide characterization and specific lectin binding to HT29 cells membrane receptors, was performed in order to assess the bioactivities present in four Mediterranean plant species: Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. badia, Arbutus unedo and Corema album. Total leaf proteins from each species were evaluated with respect to cell viability and inhibitory activities on HT29 cells (cell migration, matrix metalloproteinase -MMP proteolytic activities). A discussion is presented on a possible mechanism justifying the specific binding of lectins to HT29 cell receptors. All species revealed the presence of proteins with affinity to HT29 cell glycosylated receptors, possibly explaining the differential antitumor activity exhibited by the two most promising species, Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. badia and Arbutus unedo.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sobrevivência Celular , Ericaceae/química , Células HT29 , Humanos , Juniperus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Lectinas de Plantas/uso terapêutico
7.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2850-2864, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100114

RESUMO

The majority of U.S. lambs are born during late winter or early spring, which can create downstream variability in carcass quality if commercial lamb harvest is to be relatively constant throughout the year. Flavor is an important quality determining characteristic of sheep meat and is influenced, in part, by animal age at harvest. However, management practices to mitigate the risk of objectionable flavors in meat from old crop lambs or yearlings are not well known. Yearling (16.8 ± 0.14 mo) Rambouillet wethers were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups, which consisted of feeding a 20% ground sorghum-sudangrass hay diet for 40 d (JUN0; n = 10), a 20% ground juniper diet for 40 d (JUN40; n = 10), or a 20% ground hay diet for 20 d followed by a 20% ground juniper diet for 20 d (JUN20; n = 10). Wethers were harvested on day 41 and a whole bone-in loin and a boneless inside leg roast were fabricated from one side each of carcass. After grilling (loin chop) or convection air roasting (leg roast), trained sensory panel evaluation and measurement of aroma volatiles by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were performed. Treatment diet did not affect (P ≥ 0.17) wether feedlot performance, dressing percentage, or loin eye area. However, wethers fed JUN0 tended (P = 0.06) to have greater back fat depth than wethers fed JUN20 or JUN40. No trained sensory panel trait of loin chop samples was affected (P > 0.10) by treatment. Leg roasts from JUN0 and JUN20 wethers had greater (P = 0.01) lamb identification sensory score than JUN40. Benzaldehyde, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) and decanal and nonenal concentrations were less (P < 0.05) in loin chops from JUN0 compared with JUN40 wethers. Additionally, the terpenes cedr-8-ene, gamma muurolene, and widdrene tended to be greater (P < 0.07) in loin chops from JUN20 and JUN40 than JUN0 wethers. The 2-pentyl-furan concentrations were greatest (P = 0.03) in leg roasts from JUN40 wethers. Like the loin chops, cedr-8-ene, gamma-muurolene, toluene, and widdrene were greater (P < 0.05) in leg roasts from wethers fed either of the juniper diets compared with JUN0. Yearling wethers can be finished on a feedlot diet containing 20% juniper for up to 40 d prior to harvest with no impact on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, nor negative impact on sensory attributes or volatile compounds of either grilled loin chops or roasted legs.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Carne Vermelha/normas , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Juniperus/anatomia & histologia , Juniperus/química , Masculino , Odorantes , Sorghum , Paladar
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21964-21971, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144176

RESUMO

The magnetic properties of particulate matter (PM) deposited on the needles of Juniperus formosana along an urban street in Lanzhou city were measured to evaluate the variations of PM concentration in different seasons by varying distance from the road. The magnetism of PM deposited in this context was significantly higher in winter than in summer, which may reflect changes of atmospheric particle concentrations. Needle samples which were collected from the road-facing side exhibiting significantly stronger magnetism compared with those which were collected from the opposite side of the road, indicating the distance from pollution source to the needles as a factor controls the amount of PM. The results of this study show that the needles of Juniperus formosana are effective traps for PM and can therefore be used to monitor pollution fluxes in different seasons in an important urban context in NW China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Juniperus/química , Magnetismo , Material Particulado/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Cidades , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
9.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091760

RESUMO

As a hyperproliferative disorder, cancer has continued to be a major public health challenge. In the present study, a polysaccharide JC-PS1 was isolated and purified from Juniperus convallium. JC-PS1 is a heteropolysaccharide composed of Ara, Gal, GalA and Rha with the average molecular weight of 280 kDa. Based on the methylation and 2D NMR analysis, JC-PS1 was elucidated as a backbone of →5)-α-Araf-(1→ and →3,5)-α-Araf-(1→, and three kinds of branches attached to the O-3 position of →3,5)-α-Araf-(1→, including ß-GalpA-(1→3)-ß-Galp-(1→, α-Araf-(1→3)-α-Rhap-(1→ and α-Araf-(1→3)-ß-Galp-(1→. Accordingly, the atomic force microscopy of JC-PS1 showed a linear filamentous structure with small proportion of branches. Furthermore, JC-PS1 exhibited significant anti-proliferation activities against PANC-1, A431, MDA-MB-231, U118MG and H1975 cells with the IC50 values of 296.8, 477.9, 657.4, 686.7 and 862.1 µg/mL, respectively. This indicated that JC-PS1 could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Galactanos/química , Galactanos/farmacologia , Juniperus/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Modelos Moleculares , Peso Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 132: 1244-1251, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965075

RESUMO

A water-soluble acidic polysaccharide containing 3-O-methyl galactose, named YB-PS4, was isolated from the twigs and leaves of Juniperus tibetica Kom. Its structure was characterized by monosaccharide composition analysis, methylation, and NMR spectroscopy. It was concluded that YB-PS4 had a backbone composed of→2,4)-α-Rhap-(1→, →3,5)-α-Araf-(1→, →2,4)-α-Galp-(1 → and →4)-α-GalpA-(1→, with branches of →2)-α-Rhap-(1→,→3)-α-Araf-(1 → and →2)-3-O-Me-α-Galp-(1→. The possible repetitive units were speculated and further analyzed by oligosaccharide analysis. YB-PS4 showed inhibitory effects on complement activation through the classical pathway (CH50 = 94.23 ±â€¯8.90 µg/mL) and alternative pathway (AP50 = 194.76 ±â€¯9.20 µg/mL). Preliminary mechanism study indicated that it interacted with C1q, C2, C3, C4 and C5. These studies pointed a way to understand the active constituents of J. tibetica and provided scientific bases for YB-PS4 as a complement inhibitor.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Galactose/química , Juniperus/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sequência de Carboidratos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metilação , Monossacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
11.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010260

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Juniperus oblonga led to the isolationof one previously undescribed labdane diterpenoid, (4R,5S,9S,10R)-13-des-ethyl-13-oxolabda-8(17),11E-dien-19-oic acid (1), together with nine known diterpenoids (2-3, 6-12), two lignans (4, 5),and a coumarin (13). The structures of all the compounds were elucidated on the basis ofspectrometric data, primarily one-dimensional (1D)- and two-dimensional (2D)-NMR and massspectrometry. Electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations determined the absoluteconfiguration of 1. In addition, the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activityagainst three human tumor cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7, and HeLa). 6,12-Dihydroxyabieta-5,8,11,13-tetraen-7-one (6) showed moderate cytotoxicity against all three cell lines with IC50 values rangingfrom 24.41 µM to 58.39 µM and trilobinone (10) showed weaker activity with IC50 values rangingfrom 56.93 µM to 79.98 µM. None of the isolated diterpenoids have been previously reported fromJuniperus oblonga, and five compounds are here reported from the genus Juniperus for the first time.


Assuntos
Abietanos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Juniperus/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dicroísmo Circular , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células MCF-7 , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027321

RESUMO

Juniper (Juniperus communis L.) is a northern coniferous plant generally used as a spice and for nutritional purposes in foods and drinks. It was previously reported that juniper extract (JE) affects p53 activity, cellular stress, and gene expression induced cell death in human neuroblastoma cells. Therefore, the effects of juniper on p53 and Akt signaling was examined further in A549 lung, 22RV1 and DU145 prostate, and HepG2 liver cancer cells using Western blot, confocal microscopy, and MTT analysis. We found that juniper simultaneously decreased cell viability, activated the p53 pathway, and inactivated the PI3K/Akt pathway. The p53 activation was associated with increased nuclear p53 level. Akt was dephosphorylated, and its inactivation was associated with increased levels of PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 phosphatases. Parallel increases of PARP suggest that JE decreased cell viability by activating cell death. In adtion, JE potentiated the effects of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil anticancer drugs. Thus, JE can activate cell death in different cancer cell lines through p53 and Akt pathways.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citostáticos/farmacologia , Juniperus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Células A549 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
13.
Phytochem Anal ; 30(6): 609-616, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020743

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Juniperus communis L. is a wood species used in folk medicine since it has a variety of wood extractives with a wide range of pharmacological properties. The morphological features of juniper wood structure leads to the necessity for the application of activation, which facilitates extraction of wood extractives. The methods of thermochemical activation can be used to improve the existing schemes of extraction. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to develop methods that increase the selectivity and efficiency of the extraction of pharmacological biologically active substances from the Juniperus communis wood. METHODOLOGY: The thermochemical activation of the juniper wood matrix involves treatment by steam explosion and the use of supercritical fluid extraction methods. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of the obtained extracts. RESULTS: It is shown that the supercritical fluid extraction by a binary solvent facilitates the extraction of the maximum amount of sesquiterpene and diterpene alcohols, terpene oxides and ketones. Extracts obtained during the two-stage process with the traditional extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus at the first stage and the supercritical fluid extraction at the second, contain squalene as the main component. The two-stage treatment with steam explosion at the first stage facilitates the extraction of the maximum amount of diterpene alcohols having the widest range of biological activity. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrates the prospects of application of the methods of thermochemical activation of plant raw materials for the extraction of the wide spectrum of terpene components.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Juniperus/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Madeira , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Solventes/química , Terpenos/química
14.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(5): 703-710, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the possible synergistic antimycobacterial interactions of Juniperus communis and Helichrysum italicum essential oils (EO). METHODS: Antimycobacterial potential was tested against Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare using broth and water dilution method and checkerboard synergy method. Antiadhesion and antibiofilm effect of EOs was evaluated on biotic (HeLa cells) and abiotic surface (polystyrene). To evaluate the possible mechanisms of action, cellular leakage of proteins and DNA was tested and structural changes were visualized with a transmission electron microscope. RESULTS: MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimal effective concentration (MEC) were 1.6 mg ml-1 for J. communis EO and 3.2 mg ml-1 for H. italicum EO against both mycobacteria. All combinations of EOs in checkerboard synergy method produced fractional inhibitory concentration index values ranging from 0.501 to 1.5, corresponding to synergistic, additive or indifferent effects. Mycobacterium avium showed a greater tendency to create biofilm but these EOs at subinhibitory concentrations (sMIC) effectively blocked the adhesion and the establishment of biofilm. The exposure of both mycobacteria to MICs and sMICs lead to significant morphological changes: acquired a swollen form, ghost-like cell, disorganized cytoplasm detached from the cell wall. OD value of supernatant for both mycobacteria exposed to EOs have confirmed that there is a leakage of cellular material. CONCLUSION: The leakage of the cellular material is noticeably higher in sMIC, which is probably due to cell wall damage. sMIC of both EOs have an additive or synergistic effect, reducing MICs, limiting adhesion and preventing the formation of biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Helichrysum/química , Juniperus/química , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células HeLa , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Vegetais/química
15.
Molecules ; 24(5)2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862073

RESUMO

The chemical profile and antioxidant capacity of Juniperus virginiana, J. excelsa, and J. sabina essential oil (EO) fractions as a function of time was the subject of this study. The hypothesis was that, capturing EO in sequential timeframes during hydrodistillation would generate fractions containing unique compositions and antioxidant capacity. In J. virginiana, the highest limonene (43%) was found in the 0⁻5 min oil fraction, with safrole (37%) being highest in the 10⁻20 and 20⁻40 min fractions, and elemol (34%) being highest in the 160⁻240 min fraction. In J. excelsa, α-pinene (34-36%) was the highest in the 0⁻5 min fraction and in the control (non-stop 0⁻240 min distillation) oil, limonene (39%) was the highest in the 0⁻10 min fractions and cedrol (50-53%) was the highest in the 40⁻240 min fractions. In J. sabina, sabinene (80%) was highest in the 0⁻3 min fraction. The highest antioxidant capacity of J. virginiana was demonstrated by the 5⁻10 min fraction; the one in J. sabina by the 3⁻10 min fraction; and, the one in J. excelsa, by the control. The kinetics regression models that were developed can predict EO composition of the three juniper species eluted at different timeframes. Various industries could benefit from the results from this study.


Assuntos
Destilação , Juniperus/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Destilação/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
16.
J Infect Public Health ; 12(5): 615-618, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium spp. are responsible for several diseases, particularly in immunocompromised populations. The spreading of the resistance to antimycobacterial drugs is a significant problem to the public health and requires to find out a new and innovative alternative for the treatment of drug resistant mycobacterial strains. In this study, the antimycobacterial activity of Micromeria barbata, Eucalyptus globulus and Juniperus excelsa essential oils extracted from Lebanese plants was investigated against selected Mycobacterium spp. strains. METHODS: Several dilutions of the three aforementioned essential oils were studied for antimycobacterial activity against four Mycobacterium spp. strains: Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. tuberculosis (ATCC® 27294™), multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis (CMUL 157), Mycobacterium kansasii Hauduroy (ATCC® 12478™) and Mycobacterium gordonae Bojalil et al. (ATCC® 14470™). RESULTS: Even with high dilutions, all tested essential oils showed a high antimycobacterial activity against targeted strains. Our data showed that M. barbata, E. globulus and J. excelsa essential oils totally inhibit the mycobacterial growth whatever the tested strains for the dilution 1/250, 1/100 and 1/250, respectively. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study regarding the antimycobacterial activity of essential oils in Lebanon. Our data show promising results, and encourage to investigate more on these medicinal plants, especially M. barbata.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Eucalyptus/química , Juniperus/química , Lamiaceae/química , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleo de Eucalipto/farmacologia , Líbano , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química
17.
Molecules ; 24(3)2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704127

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the antioxidant properties of aqueous and methanol extracts of needles and berries of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus (Joo) species, various antioxidant capacity assessment tests (free radical scavenging assays (DPPH• and ABTS•+ tests), ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and reducing power assay (FRAP) were conducted. In all of the tests, the extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Furthermore, in-vitro cytotoxic activity assays of the methanolic extracts showed potent cytotoxic effects against two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7), with no cytotoxicity towards normal cells (PBMCs). Reactive oxygen species generation was presumed to be a potential reason for the observed cytotoxic effects. According to all the above, and considering its appropriate composition of mineral elements and phenolic compounds, Joo could offer a beneficial and natural source of bioactive compounds that can be either used on the preventive side as it could potentially be used in the clinic without toxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Juniperus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Minerais/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Ensaio Tumoral de Célula-Tronco
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 129: 246-253, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708019

RESUMO

Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii has been traditionally used in Tibetan medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In the present study, J. pingii var. wilsonii polysaccharides (JPWP), with high content of d­galacturonic acid, showed potent anti-complementary activity in vitro and significantly attenuated acute lung injury (ALI) induced by H1N1 influenza virus in vivo through reducing the inflammatory responses, alleviating oxidative stress and inhibiting the activation of complement. Thus, anti-complementary activity-guided fractionation of JPWP led to the isolation of an acidic homogeneous polysaccharide, JPWP-PS, whose structure was further elucidated by acid hydrolysis, PMP derivation, methylation and NMR analysis. JPWP-PS had potent anti-complementary activity with the CH50 value of 0.073 ±â€¯0.009 mg/mL, and was characterized by the residues of T-Araf-(1→, →3)-Araf-(1→, →3,5)-Araf-(1→, →3)-Galp-(1→ and →4)-GalpA-(1→.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Juniperus/química , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/complicações , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Análise Espectral
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 509(4): 931-936, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648554

RESUMO

Organic anion transporters (OATs in humans, Oats in rodents) play an important role in the distribution and excretion of numerous endogenous metabolic products and exogenous organic anions, including a host of widely prescribed drugs. Their ligand recognition is also important for drug therapy and development. In this study, the n-butanol and dichloromethane soluble fractions of Juniperus oblonga were found to inhibit OAT3 in vitro and three biflavonoids were found to be responsible for this activity. One of these compounds, amentoflavone exhibited stronger inhibition than probenecid, a known strong inhibitor of OAT3. Biological characterization of amentoflavone in vivo also showed inhibition of Oat3. Preliminary observations of structure-activity relationships suggest that the biflavonoids are more potent inhibitors of this transporter than their corresponding monomer, and that methylation of even a single hydroxyl group results in a substantial decrease in activity. This greater potency of the biflavonoids may indicate the need for a more in-depth investigation of the distribution of biflavonoids in plants used as foodstuffs and herbal medicines, due to their potential for causing interactions with OAT3 substrate drugs.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Juniperus/química , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Biflavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Dimerização , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Probenecid/farmacologia
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(22): 3215-3222, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726702

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract from the roots of Spiraea salicifolia L. (Rosaceae) led to the isolation of one new neolignan glycoside, (7S,8R)-3,5-dimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolignan-3',4,9,9'-tetraol 9-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), along with two known neolignan glycosides, (7S,8R)-3-methoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolignan-3',4,9,9'-tetraol 9-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) and (7R,8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9'-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (3). The structural characterisations of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data and comparison with the literatures reported on the chemical constituents from Juniperus communis var. depressa. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the Spiraea genus. Furthermore, the isolated compounds were subjected to assay inhibitory activity on pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and all the compounds showed anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Spiraea/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Juniperus/química , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Lignanas/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Células RAW 264.7
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