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1.
Geospat Health ; 17(1)2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532018

RESUMO

Maternal address information captured on birth records is increasingly used to estimate residential environmental exposures during pregnancy. However, there has been limited assessment of the geocoding precision of birth records, particularly since the adoption of the 2003 standard birth certificate in 2015. To address this gap, this study evaluated the geocoding precision of live and stillbirth records of Kentucky residents over ten years, from 2008 through 2017. This study summarized the demographic characteristics of imprecisely geocoded records and, using a bivariate logistic regression, identified covariates associated with poor geocoding precision among three population density designations-metro, non-metro, and rural. We found that in metro areas, after adjusting for area deprivation, education, and the race, age and education of both parents, records for Black mothers had 48% lower odds of imprecise geocoding (aOR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.56), while Black women in rural areas had 96% higher odds of imprecise geocoding (aOr=1.96, 95% CI: 1.68, 2.28). This study also found that over the study period, rural and non-metro areas began with a high proportion of imprecisely geocoded records (38% in rural areas, 19% in non-metro), but both experienced an 8% decline in imprecisely geocoded records over the study period (aOr=0.92, 95% CI: 0.92, 0.94). This study shows that, while geocoding precision has improved in Kentucky, further work is needed to improve geocoding in rural areas and address racial and ethnic disparities.


Assuntos
Declaração de Nascimento , Mapeamento Geográfico , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Gravidez , População Rural
2.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(2): 1114-1122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574898

RESUMO

Many Appalachian counties in Kentucky are known for poor health and limited resources, however, by harnessing the power of relationships in the eight counties of the Kentucky River Area Development District, a team developed a public health improvement consortium to maximize power of the local collective.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Região dos Apalaches/epidemiologia , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia
3.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 47, 2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) exacerbated risks for adverse health consequences among people who inject drugs by reducing access to sterile injection equipment, HIV testing, and syringe services programs (SSPs). Several decades of research demonstrate the public health benefits of SSP implementation; however, existing evidence primarily reflects studies conducted in metropolitan areas and before the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore how the COVID-19 pandemic affected SSP operations in rural Kentucky counties. METHODS: In late 2020, we conducted eighteen in-depth, semi-structured interviews with persons (10 women, 8 men) involved in SSP implementation in rural Kentucky counties. The interview guide broadly explored the barriers and facilitators to SSP implementation in rural communities; participants were also asked to describe how COVID-19 affected SSP operations. RESULTS: Participants emphasized the need to continue providing SSP-related services throughout the pandemic. COVID-19 mitigation strategies (e.g., masking, social distancing, pre-packing sterile injection equipment) limited relationship building between staff and clients and, more broadly, the pandemic adversely affected overall program expansion, momentum building, and coalition building. However, participants offered multiple examples of innovative solutions to the myriad of obstacles the pandemic presented. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted SSP operations throughout rural Kentucky. Despite challenges, participants reported that providing SSP services remained paramount. Diverse adaptative strategies were employed to ensure continuation of essential SSP services, demonstrating the commitment and ingenuity of program staff. Given that SSPs are essential for preventing adverse injection drug use-associated health consequences, further resources should be invested in SSP operations to ensure service delivery is not negatively affected by co-occurring crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Feminino , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Seringas
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 120: 196-200, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the stool specimen collection and Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) testing frequency from inpatients and long-term care facility (LTCF) residents with new-onset diarrhea. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in all wards of 9 adult hospitals (3532 beds) and 14 LTCFs (1205 beds) in Louisville, Kentucky to identify new-onset diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in the past 24 h and not present in the preceding 24 h) among Louisville adults via electronic medical record review, nurse interviews, and patient interviews during a 1-2 week observation period in 2018-2019. RESULTS: Among Louisville-resident inpatients, 167 patients with 9731 inpatient-days had new-onset diarrhea (1.7/100 inpatient-days). Stool specimens were collected from 32% (53/167); 12 (23%) specimens were laboratory-confirmed for C. difficile infection (CDI) (12.3 cases/10,000 inpatient-days). Among LTCF residents, 63 with 10,402 LTCF resident-days had new-onset diarrhea (0.6/100 LTCF resident-days). Stool specimens were collected from 32% (20/63); 9 (45%) specimens were laboratory-confirmed for CDI (8.6 cases/10,000 LTCF resident-days). CONCLUSIONS: New-onset diarrhea was common among inpatients and LTCF residents. Only one-third of patients with new-onset diarrhea had a stool specimen collected and tested for C. difficile-indicative of a potential CDI underdiagnosis-although, further studies are needed to confirm the extent of CDI underdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile , Infecções por Clostridium , Adulto , Clostridioides , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Assistência de Longa Duração , Manejo de Espécimes
5.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 41(4): 863-872, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35112747

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ensuring adequate harm reduction infrastructure in rural areas is imperative, as drug-related epidemics expand into them. Here, we explore the capacity for sustainment of syringe service programs (SSP) in Appalachian Kentucky. METHODS: We interviewed all staff (n = 16) of all SSPs (n = 7) in two Kentucky health districts in 2018-2019 using semi-structured one-on-one qualitative interviews; local departments of health (DOH) operated the SSPs. Interview domains encompassed: (i) SSP establishment; (ii) day-to-day operations, participation and health impacts; (iii) perceived prospects for sustainment; and (iv) perceived influences on #i-#iii. We analysed verbatim transcripts using thematic analytic methods; Schell's 'capacity for sustainment' constructs were treated as sensitising concepts during the analysis. RESULTS: Most community members, law enforcement and DOH staff opposed SSPs before they opened, because of stigma and concerns about enabling and needlestick injuries; DOH staff also opposed SSPs because they believed they lacked the capacity to operate them. Training, technical assistance, visible evidence of the programs' public health impact and contact with SSP participants transformed DOH staff into program champions. As champions, SSP staff developed programs that had strong capacity for sustainment, as defined by Schell (e.g. visible public health impact, stable funding, political support). Staff reported that the SSPs had high prospects for sustainment. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: As in SSPs that opened in cities decades ago, staff in emerging SSPs in these rural areas appear to have become crucial champions for these controversial programs, and may serve as vital resources for expanding harm reduction programming more broadly in these underserved areas.


Assuntos
Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Seringas , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
6.
Ann Epidemiol ; 68: 37-44, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031444

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the time-varying reproduction number, Rt, for COVID-19 in Arkansas and Kentucky and investigate the impact of policies and preventative measures on the variability in Rt. METHODS: Arkansas and Kentucky county-level COVID-19 cumulative case count data (March 6-November 7, 2020) were obtained. Rt was estimated using the R package 'EpiEstim', by county, region (Delta, non-Delta, Appalachian, non-Appalachian), and policy measures. RESULTS: The Rt was initially high, falling below 1 in May or June depending on the region, before stabilizing around 1 in the later months. The median Rt for Arkansas and Kentucky at the end of the study were 1.15 (95% credible interval [CrI], 1.13, 1.18) and 1.10 (95% CrI, 1.08, 1.12), respectively, and remained above 1 for the non-Appalachian region. Rt decreased when facial coverings were mandated, changing by -10.64% (95% CrI, -10.60%, -10.70%) in Arkansas and -5.93% (95% CrI, -4.31%, -7.65%) in Kentucky. The trends in Rt estimates were mostly associated with the implementation and relaxation of social distancing measures. CONCLUSIONS: Arkansas and Kentucky maintained a median Rt above 1 during the entire study period. Changes in Rt estimates allow quantitative estimates of potential impact of policies such as facemask mandate.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Arkansas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Reprodução
7.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(4): 673-677, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081759

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Determine associations of strength of local smoke-free laws and urban/rural location with cigarette and smokeless tobacco use among high school students in grades 10 and 12. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis from the 2004-2018 biennial Kentucky Incentives for Prevention Survey. SETTING: Public high schools in Kentucky. SAMPLE: N = 353502 10th/12th graders. MEASURES: County-level smoke-free law status from the Kentucky Center for Smoke-free Policy; Rural Urban Continuum Codes; self-reported last 30-day alcohol, marijuana, cigarette, and smokeless tobacco use. ANALYSIS: Generalized estimating equations modeling assessed the association of law status and urban/rural location with tobacco use across cohorts, controlling for demographics and other substance use. RESULTS: Students in counties with a comprehensive smoke-free law were 23% less likely to smoke cigarettes and 16% less likely to use smokeless, compared to those in counties without a law. Students in counties with moderate/weak laws did not differ in likelihood of use for either product, compared to those in counties without a law. Students in urban counties were 14% less likely to smoke, but there was no difference in likelihood of smokeless use by urban/rural location. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive smoke-free laws are associated with a lower likelihood of youth cigarette and smokeless use. Rural youth may be at increased risk of cigarette smoking relative to youth in urban areas.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , População Rural , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
8.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(3): 342-344, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742748

RESUMO

A cluster of Burkholderia cepacia complex cases from January to October 2020 among outpatients undergoing urologic procedures within a Kentucky hospital's operating rooms was investigated. This investigation included a laboratory look-back, chart reviews, exposure tracing, staff interviews, and direct observation of infection prevention and control practices. A significant protocol breach in a laboratory procedure led to contamination of surgical specimens submitted for culture with nonsterile saline. Pseudo-outbreaks often highlight gaps in infection control processes. Healthcare facilities can make substantial improvements in patient care quality and safety as they respond to identified gaps and improve systems and protocols.


Assuntos
Infecções por Burkholderia , Complexo Burkholderia cepacia , Infecção Hospitalar , Infecções por Burkholderia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Burkholderia/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Hospitais , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia
9.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 43(4): 233-239, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Kentucky ranks among the highest in the nation for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence in children aged 4 to 17 years. In 2011, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a clinical practice guideline based on the DSM-IV. A guideline revision based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) was released in October 2019. In this study, we assess and describe pediatric providers' ADHD practices using the 2011 guideline and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, survey-based descriptive study. Kentucky Chapter of the AAP (KY AAP) members were anonymously surveyed. The results were examined for trends in routine practice. RESULTS: Fifty-eight general pediatricians and pediatric residents responded to the survey, yielding a 38% (58/154) response rate. Among respondents performing routine diagnosis of ADHD (N = 51), 73% (37/51) used DSM-5 criteria. Most providers usually or always initially assessed for coexisting behavioral conditions (96%; 49/51), developmental conditions (78%; 39/51), and adverse childhood experiences (73%; 37/51). Among respondents performing routine management of ADHD (N = 55), only 11% (6/55) of respondents indicated that they titrated stimulant medications every 3 to 7 days. After initiation of medication, 78% of providers scheduled a follow-up visit within 2 to 4 weeks. During subsequent visits, only half indicated discussing behavioral interventions, screening for coexisting conditions, and reviewing follow-up teacher-rated ADHD scales. CONCLUSION: Pediatricians in the KY AAP adhere to the DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing ADHD. Pediatric providers' practices would benefit from education in improvements in pharmacotherapy titration, surveillance of coexisting conditions associated with ADHD, discussion of psychosocial interventions, and school support strategies.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Pediatria , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Rural Health ; 38(1): 93-99, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666274

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rural areas of the United States have experienced outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among people who use drugs (PWUD). Pharmacy-based interventions may play a crucial role in prevention and entry into care, especially when traditional health care access is limited. The willingness of rural PWUD to use pharmacies for HIV/HCV-related services remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the factors associated with the perceived likelihood of participating in free pharmacy-based HIV and HCV testing among PWUD living in rural Kentucky. METHODS: Baseline data from the CARE2HOPE study in five Appalachian counties in eastern Kentucky were used. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and completed interviewer-administered surveys. Guided by the Andersen and Newman Framework of Health Services Utilization, we examined distributions and correlates of items regarding willingness to participate in free pharmacy-based HIV/HCV testing using logistic regression. Analyses included individuals who reported being HIV (N = 304) or HCV (N = 185) negative. FINDINGS: Seventy-five percent of PWUD reported being "very likely" to participate in free pharmacy-based HIV testing and 80% for HCV testing. Two factors were associated with being less willing to participate in free HIV testing: PWUD who previously tested for HIV (OR: 0.47, CI: 0.25-0.88) and PWUD who obtained a high school diploma or equivalent compared to those who completed less (OR: 0.50, CI: 0.26-0.99). CONCLUSION: Free pharmacy-based HIV and HCV testing was invariably acceptable among most of the rural PWUD in our sample, suggesting that pharmacies might be acceptable testing venues for this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Farmácias , Farmácia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Teste de HIV , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
11.
J Rural Health ; 38(2): 382-390, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women who receive an abnormal Pap result may experience negative psychological factors. The purpose of this study is to assess the baseline occurrence of negative psychological factors and evaluate the relationships between psychological factors and demographic characteristics among Appalachian women who received abnormal Pap results. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from Appalachia Kentucky women (N = 521) ages ≥18 enrolled in an intervention. Data included sociodemographics, Beck depression and anxiety inventories, fatalism, and personal control measures. Multiple variable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between demographics and psychological factors. FINDINGS: Participants were predominantly White (96.2%), with mean age 28.93 ± 11.03 years, and the majority (77%) had yearly income below $20,000. Depression was reported by 34.6% (n = 173); 10% (n = 50) experienced moderate or severe anxiety; 20.6% (n = 107) had fatalistic beliefs; and 55.1% (n = 289) believed they lacked personal control over cancer. Women with lower income had higher occurrence of depression (P = .003). Women with moderate to severe anxiety were significantly older than those with low to moderate depression (34.44 vs 28.34, P < .001). Controlling for other variables, as age increased, the odds of fatalistic beliefs increased, OR (95%) = 1.042 (1.022, 1.062). When education level increased, the odds of fatalistic beliefs decreased, OR (95%) = 0.873 (0.800, 0.952). CONCLUSIONS: Given the high occurrence of depression, anxiety, and fatalistic beliefs among this population, health care providers should assess for underlying mental health diagnoses and psychological distress during each patient encounter and provide recommendations to address them.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adolescente , Adulto , Região dos Apalaches/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 11(5): 592-609, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) prevalence was decreasing in Kentucky before 2007, but has since increased. This study examines the impact of policies on cigarette and SLT use by applying the SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model. METHODS: Using data from the large-scale Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) and information on state-specific tobacco policies, Kentucky SimSmoke is updated and extended to incorporate exclusive SLT and dual cigarette and SLT use. The model is validated using survey data through 2017. The model was used to estimate the impact on smoking and SLT prevalence and attributable deaths of policies implemented between 1993 and 2018 and the impact of stronger future policies implemented in 2018 and maintained through 2060. RESULTS: SimSmoke generally reflects trends in exclusive cigarette use from the TUS-CPS and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), but underestimated the increase in SLT prevalence in recent years. SimSmoke projects that policies implemented between 1993 and 2018 reduced male and female cigarette use by 23.7% and 23.0%, and male and female SLT use by 4.9% by 2018, averting 9018 tobacco-attributable deaths by 2018, increasing to 89 547 by 2060. The largest reductions in cigarette and SLT use were attributed to cigarette price increases. Strengthening tobacco control policies could reduce smoking prevalence by 41% and 40%, and reduce SLT prevalence by 33% and 25% for males and females by 2060. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that cigarette-oriented policies were effective in reducing SLT use but have been less successful in recent years. Future use rates can be further reduced through more restrictive statewide policies, which also target non-combustible nicotine products.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Feminino , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Política Pública , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
13.
J Rural Health ; 38(1): 14-27, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210370

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine differences in exceptional survival (ES)-survival of 5 years or more past diagnosis-between stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients residing in the Appalachian versus non-Appalachian regions of Kentucky. METHODS: This was a population-based, retrospective case-control study of Kentucky patients, diagnosed with stage IV NSCLC between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011. The data were drawn from the Kentucky Cancer Registry. FINDINGS: Findings from the multivariable logistic regression revealed no significant differences in the odds of ES between patients who resided in Appalachian versus non-Appalachian Kentucky. Being female and undergoing surgery only as the first course of treatment were associated with higher odds of ES. Increasing age, unspecified histology, having poorly differentiated or undifferentiated carcinomas, and receiving radiation therapy only as the first course of treatment were associated with decreased odds of ES. CONCLUSION: Differences in the odds of ES among stage IV NSCLC patients were not related to residence in Appalachian versus non-Appalachian Kentucky. ES was associated with other nongenetic and treatment factors that warrant further investigations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Região dos Apalaches/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 114: 21-28, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As vaccine supply and access remain limited in many parts of the world, understanding the duration of protection from reinfection after natural infection is important. METHODS: Distinct individuals testing positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2 between March 6, 2020, and August 31, 2020, in Kentucky, USA, were identified using the Kentucky National Electronic Disease Surveillance System. Individuals were followed for occurrence of a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 from 91 days after their initial test result through December 31, 2020. Protection from reinfection provided by a prior infection was calculated and additional analyses evaluated impact of age, sex, symptom status, long-term care facility connection, testing occurrence and frequency, and time from initial infection. RESULTS: The protective effect from prior infection was 80.3% (95% CI, 78.2%-82.2%) for those aged 20-59 years and 67.4% (95% CI, 62.8%-71.4%) for those aged ≥60 years. At 30-day time periods through 270 days (with limited exceptions), protection was estimated to be >75% for those aged 20-59 years and >65% for those aged ≥60 years. Factors associated with repeat positive testing included a connection to a long-term care facility, duration of potential exposure, and absence of symptoms during initial infection. CONCLUSIONS: Natural infection provides substantial and persistent immunologic protection for a period of several months for most individuals, although subpopulations may be at greater risk of repeat positive testing and potential poor outcomes associated with reinfection. These subgroups include individuals aged ≥60 years, residents and staff of long-term care facilities, and those who have mild or asymptomatic illness with initial infection. Continued emphasis on vaccination and infection prevention and control strategies remains critically important in reducing the risk of reinfection and associated severe outcomes for these groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Casas de Saúde
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 53: 286.e5-286.e7, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620530

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) a pandemic in March 2020. Theoretically, homeless patients could have disproportionately worse outcomes from COVID-19, but little research has corroborated this claim. This study aimed to examine the demographics and incidence of COVID-19 in homeless vs non-homeless emergency department (ED) patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of all patients seen in the University of Louisville Hospital Emergency Department (ULH ED) from March 2019 to December 2020, excluding January and February 2020. Data was collected from the Kentucky Homeless Management Information System (HMIS) and ULH electronic health records. RESULTS: A total of 51,532 unique patients had 87,869 visits during the study period. There was a 18.1% decrease in homeless patient visits over the time period, which was similar to the decrease in non-homeless patient visits (19.2%). In the total population, 9471 individuals had known COVID-19 testing results, with a total of 610 positive (6.4% positivity rate). Of the 712 homeless ED patients, 39 tested positive (5.5% positivity rate). After adjusting for age, gender identity, race, and insurance, there was no statistically significant difference in test positivity between homeless and non-homeless patients, OR 1.23 (0.88, 1.73). Homeless patients were less likely to be admitted to either the intensive care unit (ICU) or hospital (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: OR 0.51, 0.60) as they were more likely to be discharged (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.52, 1.79). CONCLUSION: Previous literature has indicated that higher disease burden, lack of access to social distancing, and poor hygiene would increase the risk of homeless individuals contracting COVID-19 and experiencing serious morbidity. However, this study found that homelessness was not an independent risk factor for COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Rural Health ; 38(1): 5-13, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633045

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Large-scale genomic sequencing studies are driving oncology drug development. However, rural populations, like those residing in Appalachian Kentucky, are underrepresented in these efforts. In this study, we determined the frequency of participation, reasons for nonparticipation, and factors predicting the decision to participate in the Total Cancer Care (TCC) prospective genomic cohort study. METHODS: A total of 1,188 patients were invited to enroll in the TCC prospective cohort from December 2018 to May 2019. Declining patients were queried for their rationale for nonparticipation and their patient data were obtained from the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between characteristics and study participation. The association of study participation with survival was modeled with Cox proportional-hazards regression. RESULTS: 90.9% (1,081) patients consented to participate. In multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with participation were age, gender, treatment status, and race. Though overall more women participated in the study, men were more likely to participate than women when invited (OR 1.57). Younger, Caucasian individuals who had received chemotherapy, but not surgery, were also more likely to participate. Patients in the Kentucky Appalachian cohort were primarily rural, had less educational attainment, and lower socioeconomic status. Kentucky Appalachian patients were no less likely to enroll in TCC than non-Appalachian patients. Consented individuals had higher overall survival compared to those who declined. CONCLUSION: Though minorities, those with low socioeconomic status, and rural populations are underrepresented in genomic studies, they were no less likely to participate when given the opportunity, and participation was associated with better clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Região dos Apalaches , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 13(2): 101885, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923426

RESUMO

Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States and is becoming more prevalent each year. It is transmitted to humans and animals through the bites of Ixodes scapularis ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States, I. pacificus in the western U.S, and I. ricinus in Europe and Asia. In Kentucky, where Lyme disease is non-endemic, the number of reported human cases in 2010 totaled five. In 2019, that number had increased by over 300%. Identifying the distribution of I. scapularis populations infected with B. burgdorferi is important data for effective prevention strategies and an important first step in monitoring disease spread. In collaboration with the Kentucky Department for Public Health, we performed surveillance for I. scapularis throughout the state of Kentucky using both active and passive surveillance methods. Diagnostic testing for the identification of B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) was also conducted. We identified 457 I. scapularis ticks from March 2019 to December 2020 from 32 counties in Kentucky. B. burgdorferi was detected in I. scapularis populations collected from 14 different counties. These results add to the little data that exists in Kentucky on I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi distribution.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Borrelia burgdorferi/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Conduta Expectante
18.
Trials ; 22(1): 948, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite high morbidity and mortality among people who use drugs (PWUD) in rural America, most research is conducted within urban areas. Our objective was to describe influencing factors, motivations, and barriers to research participation and retention among rural PWUD. METHODS: We recruited 255 eligible participants from community outreach and community-based, epidemiologic research cohorts from April to July 2019 to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Eligible participants reported opioid or injection drug use to get high within 30 days and resided in high-needs rural counties in Oregon, Kentucky, and Ohio. We aggregated response rankings to identify salient influences, motivations, and barriers. We estimated prevalence ratios to assess for gender, preferred drug use, and geographic differences using log-binomial models. RESULTS: Most participants were male (55%) and preferred methamphetamine (36%) over heroin (35%). Participants reported confidentiality, amount of financial compensation, and time required as primary influential factors for research participation. Primary motivations for participation include financial compensation, free HIV/HCV testing, and contribution to research. Changed or false participant contact information and transportation are principal barriers to retention. Respondents who prefer methamphetamines over heroin reported being influenced by the purpose and use of their information (PR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26). Females and Oregonians (versus Appalachians) reported knowing and wanting to help the research team as participation motivation (PR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.26 and PR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.51, 2.99). CONCLUSIONS: Beyond financial compensation, researchers should emphasize confidentiality, offer testing and linkage with care, use several contact methods, aid transportation, and accommodate demographic differences to improve research participation and retention among rural PWUD.


Assuntos
Motivação , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ohio
19.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1_suppl): 72S-79S, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Traditional public health surveillance of nonfatal opioid overdose relies on emergency department (ED) billing data, which can be delayed substantially. We compared the timeliness of 2 new data sources for rapid drug overdose surveillance-emergency medical services (EMS) and syndromic surveillance-with ED billing data. METHODS: We used data on nonfatal opioid overdoses in Kentucky captured in EMS, syndromic surveillance, and ED billing systems during 2018-2019. We evaluated the time-series relationships between EMS and ED billing data and syndromic surveillance and ED billing data by calculating cross-correlation functions, controlling for influences of autocorrelations. A case example demonstrates the usefulness of EMS and syndromic surveillance data to monitor rapid changes in opioid overdose encounters in Kentucky during the COVID-19 epidemic. RESULTS: EMS and syndromic surveillance data showed moderate-to-strong correlation with ED billing data on a lag of 0 (r = 0.694; 95% CI, 0.579-0.782; t = 9.73; df = 101; P < .001; and r = 0.656; 95% CI, 0.530-0.754; t = 8.73; df = 101; P < .001; respectively) at the week-aggregated level. After the COVID-19 emergency declaration, EMS and syndromic surveillance time series had steep increases in April and May 2020, followed by declines from June through September 2020. The ED billing data were available for analysis 3 months after the end of a calendar quarter but closely followed the trends identified by the EMS and syndromic surveillance data. CONCLUSION: Data from EMS and syndromic surveillance systems can be reliably used to monitor nonfatal opioid overdose trends in Kentucky in near-real time to inform timely public health response.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Emergências/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/tendências , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27399, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731112

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has intensified globally since its origin in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Many medical groups across the United States have experienced extraordinary clinical and financial pressures due to COVID-19 as a result of a decline in elective inpatient and outpatient surgical procedures and most nonurgent elective physician visits. The current study reports how our medical group in a metropolitan community in Kentucky rebooted our ambulatory and inpatient services following the guidance of our state's phased reopening. Particular attention focused on the transition between the initial COVID-19 surge and post-COVID-19 surge and how our medical group responded to meet community needs. Ten strategies were incorporated in our medical group, including heightened communication; ambulatory telehealth; safe and clean outpatient environment; marketing; physician, other medical provider, and staff compensation; high quality patient experience; schedule optimization; rescheduling tactics; data management; and primary care versus specialty approaches. These methods are applicable to both the current rebooting stage as well as to a potential resurgence of COVID-19 in the future.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , SARS-CoV-2
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