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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(5): 850-856, 2022 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656957

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Measles is among the most contagious and vaccine-preventable respiratory diseases. The aim of this research was to describe the socio-demographic profile, clinical manifestations and laboratory parameters of measles patients hospitalized at Kosovska Mitrovica Clinical Centre during the 2017-2019 outbreak. METHODOLOGY: The prospective study included all patients that had contracted measles (107) who were hospitalized at Kosovska Mitrovica Clinical Centre during the outbreak. All complications that led to hospitalization were analyzed and the frequencies of complications with respect to patient age and vaccination status were recorded. RESULTS: More than half (51%) of the patients were unvaccinated. Patients' age varied statistically significantly with respect to vaccination status. Pneumonia was noted in 65% of the patients from the younger age group, compared to 32% of adults, and this difference was statistically significant. Hepatitis was a significantly more frequent complication in adults, affecting 36% of measles patients in this age group, compared to only 7% of those aged below 18 years. In the unvaccinated group, 71% pneumonia frequency was noted, compared to 11% and 35% in the vaccinated and unknown vaccination status groups, respectively. The differences in frequencies based on vaccination status were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Most hospitalized patients were unvaccinated. Complications showed a significant difference with respect to the age and vaccination status of patients. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out continuous health promotion activities to raise awareness among the entire population of the importance and need for vaccination of children against measles, but also adults who have not been previously vaccinated.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Sarampo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Humanos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/complicações , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Sérvia/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 647, 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking, physical inactivity, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and obesity are common in Kosovo. Their prevention is a priority to relieve the health system of from costly non-communicable disease treatments. The Accessible Quality Healthcare project is implementing a primary healthcare intervention that entails nurse-guided motivational counselling to facilitate change in the domains of smoking, diet, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity for at-risk patients. This study quantitatively assesses the uptake of motivational counselling and the distribution of health behaviours and stages of health behaviour change of the participants according to the intervention, as well as qualitatively describes experiences and perceived benefits of motivational counselling. METHODS: Study participants (n = 907) were recruited consecutively in 2019 from patients visiting the Main Family Medical Centres in 12 municipalities participating in the Kosovo Non-Communicable Disease Cohort study as part of the Accessible Quality Healthcare project. For the quantitative study, we used baseline and first follow-up data on smoking status, physical inactivity, obesity, fruit and vegetable as well as alcohol consumption, uptake of counselling, and stages for behavioural change. For the qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with a subset of 26 cohort participants who had undergone motivational counselling. RESULTS: Motivational counselling was obtained by only 22% of the eligible participants in the intervention municipalities. Unhealthy behaviours are high even in persons who underwent counselling (of whom 13% are smokers; 86% physically inactive; 93% with inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption; and 61% are obese); only the rate of smoking was lower in those who obtained counselling. Among smokers, over 80% were still in the pre-contemplation phase of behaviour change. More advanced stages of behaviour change were observed among the highly prevalent group of inactive persons and participants with poor dietary habits, among the 5 intervention municipalities. According to the qualitative study results, the participants who obtained motivational counselling were very satisfied with the services but requested additional services such as group physical activity sessions and specialized services for smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: More tailored and additional primary health care approaches in accordance with patients' views need to be considered for the motivational counselling intervention to reach patients and efficiently facilitate lifestyle behaviour change.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Dieta/normas , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Frutas , Humanos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Verduras
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 794309, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35480592

RESUMO

Objectives: Kosovo has the lowest life expectancy in the Balkans. Primary healthcare (PHC) plays an essential role in non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention. We described primary, secondary and tertiary prevention indicators in Kosovo and assessed their association with depressive symptoms. Methods: PHC users (n = 977) from the Kosovo NCD cohort baseline study were included. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Depressive Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Cross-sectional associations between depressive symptoms and prevention indicators were quantified with mixed logistic regression models. Results: Poor nutrition (85%), physical inactivity (70%), obesity (53%), and smoking (21%) were common NCD risk factors. Many cases of hypertension (19%), diabetes (16%) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (45%) remained undetected by a PHC professional. Uncontrolled hypertension (28%), diabetes (79%), and COPD (76%) were also common. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with physical inactivity (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.05 per 1-point increase in DASS-21) and undetected COPD (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.00-1.15), but inversely with undetected diabetes (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-1.00). Conclusions: Continued attention and tailored modifications to primary, secondary and tertiary prevention in Kosovo are needed to narrow the Balkan health gap.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Terciária
4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(1): 173-178, 2022 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192535

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infections with hepatitis C are on the rise. The statistics on the general population of Kosovo infected with hepatitis C is lacking. The study tends to detect sero-prevalence in the following risk groups: haemodialysis patients; patients of surgical units, internal medicine units, and mental health units; HIV-diagnosed patients, health professionals, and women in the prenatal period. A number of institutions, providers of medical care to these groups' patients, have been targeted. METHODOLOGY: A total of 378 samples were collected from various institutions, with 347 of them being tested for anti-HCV and 31 being tested for RT-PCR assays. RESULTS: From the total of 387 samples, 72 samples (19.05%) resulted positive. The highest number was recorded in haemodialysis centres. In other groups, a low prevalence was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The study can conclude that high prevalence of HCV infection still remains a major health problem, especially in haemodialysis centres. In the future, it is planned to expand the study in the future to include other risk categories or the entire population.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C , Humanos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Diálise Renal
5.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 61(2): 569-586, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498749

RESUMO

Territorial ownership claims are central to many interethnic conflicts and can constitute an obstacle to conflict resolution and reconciliation. However, people in conflict areas might also have a perception that the territory simultaneously belongs to one's ingroup and the rival outgroup. We expected such perceptions of shared ownership to be related to higher reconciliation intentions. We examined this expectation in relation to the territory of Kosovo among random national samples of Albanians and Serbs from Kosovo, and Serbs from Serbia (Study 1, total N = 995). In general, participants perceived low levels of shared ownership, however, shared ownership perceptions were positively related to reconciliation intentions in Kosovo. In Study 2 (total N = 375), we experimentally manipulated shared ownership (vs. ingroup ownership) and found that shared ownership elicited stronger reconciliation intentions. It is concluded that fostering a sense of shared ownership can be important for improving intergroup relations in post-conflict settings.


Assuntos
Intenção , Propriedade , Territorialidade , Albânia/etnologia , Humanos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Kosovo/etnologia , Sérvia/etnologia
6.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res ; 27: e934194, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND In the Republic of Kosovo, full vaccination status in children under age 2 years includes: 1 dose of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine; 3 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-HB-IPV-Hib) vaccine; 3 doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV); and 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) is a method used to assess the performance of health quality indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS A national cross-sectional study with children aged between 12 and 24 months from Kosovo was performed between 2018 and 2020. The vaccination status of children was assessed with lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) using randomized samples. RESULTS Among 430 children, more than 90% had completed the full immunization schedule. Delays in children's immunizations were observed. Most vaccinations showed short delays of less than 1 month, followed by delays of up to 3 months. The main reason for vaccination delay was the COVID-19 pandemic, following by child's illness at the scheduled time of vaccination or the parents were too busy to take the child to the vaccination site. Meanwhile, child age was the only parameter that showed difference among non-vaccinated and fully vaccinated (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS LQAS analysis showed that between 2018 and 2020 lack of full immunization was due to delay caused by the parent not taking the child to the vaccination site, which may be prevented by improving information given to parents and the use of vaccination reminders.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Amostragem para Garantia da Qualidade de Lotes , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16786, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408255

RESUMO

Prospective study, Level of evidence II. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of scoliosis among children aged 8-15 years old and to identify the impact of schoolbag weight in developing adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). AIS is a common disease whose prevalence varies between countries and gender, with an increased rate among females compared to males. Screening children in primary school settings for idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is an important public health issue and is crucial for early detection, prevention of further deformity, and healthy child growth. Our sample was composed of 1619 pupils from the municipality of Prishtina, surveyed from March to April 2019. Measurements were made with a scoliometer on the basis of the Adams test process. Three measurements were taken for each of the participants. Additionally, all the pupils were subjected to bare-foot height and weight measurements with and without school bags. The mean ± standard deviation age of pupils was 11.67 ± 2.00 years old and 49% were females. The prevalence of the angle of trunk rotation (ATR) ≥ 5 ° was 26.1%, females had 1.49 higher odds (95%CI 1.19-1.86) to develop an ATR of ≥ 5° compared to males. The highest rate of ATR of ≥ 5° was seen among the ninth-grade students (31.3%). 56.5% of 4th grade students carry a schoolbag weighing over 12.5% of body weight. Relatively high prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis was found in primary schools in Prishtina. The highest prevalence was found in students attending the ninth grade, while females gender dominated.


Assuntos
Cifose/epidemiologia , Escoliose/epidemiologia , Tronco/fisiopatologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Cifose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Tronco/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Vet Ital ; 57(1): 13-17, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313094

RESUMO

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel Orthobunyavirus, emerged in European domestic ruminants in 2011 causing abortions and malformations in newborns and none or mild clinical symptoms in adult animals. Here, a total of 364 bovine, ovine and caprine serum samples were collected in Kosovo and Albania between May 2014 and August 2016 and analyzed for the presence of anti­SBV antibodies. Sera were tested using an enzyme­linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and 48 ELISA­positive samples were subsequently analyzed by serum neutralization test (SNT). The overall percentage of ELISA positive results was 17.9%; 23.1% (53/229) was the prevalence observed in Kosovo (cattle 45.5%, sheep 19.2% and goat 6.8%), while 8.9% (12/135) was that observed in Albania (cattle 11.1%, sheep 0% and goat 20.0%). SNT confirmed the presence of neutralizing antibodies against SBV in all samples tested. This is the first study reporting SBV circulation in domestic ruminants in Kosovo and Albania, with indication that this virus has been present in Kosovo and Albania at least since 2014 without being detected.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Albânia/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Orthobunyavirus/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
9.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 28(4): 223-228, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A number of instruments are used to identify potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in the elderly. In this study we identify PIMs in elderly patients and aim to compare three different instruments used to assess PIMs. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we compared medications of elderly patients against three commonly used instruments: Beers' list, PRISCUS and STOPP/START, at the point of hospital admission and discharge in the nephrology clinic of Kosovo's largest hospital. Readmission risk was evaluated using the LACE Index and correlations with the number of PIMs and PIMs criteria were analysed. RESULTS: Of 184 patients admitted to the nephrology clinic, 84 met study inclusion criteria. Patients had a median of three drugs at admission and four at discharge. Hospital readmission risk was high with median LACE Index being 11 (63% of patients). A higher number of PIMs was associated at the point of discharge compared with admission for all three tools (Beers' list: 29% vs 38 %, P=0.04; STOPP/STRART: 20% vs 23%, P<0.001; PRISCUS list: 12% vs 21%, P<0.001). The number of drugs at admission predicted the number of PIMs at discharge only when using Beers' criteria (P=0.006). At discharge, each increase in medication was associated with an increase in PIMs based on Beers' [0.134; (P=0.007)] and STOPP/START criteria [0.130; (P=0.005)]. Nitrofurantoin was the main PIM identified with Beers' and PRISCUS list in comparison to proton- pump-inhibitors being the most prevalent agents identified with STOPP/START criteria. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences when using Beers' criteria, STOPP/START criteria and PRISCUS list during identification of PIMs in elderly patients with high readmission risk. These differences should be considered when identifying PIMs in hospital settings.


Assuntos
Prescrição Inadequada , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Idoso , Hospitalização , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 794, 2021 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nutritional status of children and adolescents living in three Serbian enclaves in Kosovo and Metohija. METHODS: We conducted an observational cross-sectional, population-based study, enrolling children and adolescents who underwent a pediatric screening performed in the three Serbian enclaves of Gracanica, Gornje Kusce and Velika Hoca in Kosovo and Metohija. Children and adolescents (5-19 years) of all ethnic groups were evaluated in one of the three free outpatient medical facilities in rural villages in Kosovo. Body weight and height were measured, height-for-age z- scores (HAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) indicators were analyzed. The anthropometric indicators HAZ and BAZ distributions were compared between sex and ages using Fisher's exact test. A two-sample Z-test for proportions was used to detect differences in individual categories of height- and BMI-for-age categories across sexes and age classes. RESULTS: Three hundred twenty-eight children and adolescents (184 females, 56.1% and 144 males, 43.9%) aged between 5 and 19 years were enrolled in the study. 241/328 participants showed a normal linear growth; with significantly more girls (78.3%) than boys (67.4%) being in the normal category. Similarly, a significant difference in BAZ distribution between sexes was noted, with more females being in the normal BMI category compared to males (63.0% vs 50.0%, respectively). Underweight and severe underweight subjects showed a prevalence of 1.5 and 0.6%, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevalence was 19.5 and 9.1%, respectively, which was comparable to World Health Organization overweight and obesity prevalence data for Serbia. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of undernutrition and severe undernutrition in children and adolescents living in three Serbian enclaves in Kosovo and Metohija is small. By contrast, a tendency to an increase in overweight and obesity, especially in the male population, was noted.


Assuntos
Homens , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sobrepeso , Prevalência , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25799, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, the virus that caused the global COVID-19 pandemic, has severely impacted Central Asia; in spring 2020, high numbers of cases and deaths were reported in this region. The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic is currently breaching the borders of Central Asia. Public health surveillance is necessary to inform policy and guide leaders; however, existing surveillance explains past transmissions while obscuring shifts in the pandemic, increases in infection rates, and the persistence of the transmission of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to provide enhanced surveillance metrics for SARS-CoV-2 transmission that account for weekly shifts in the pandemic, including speed, acceleration, jerk, and persistence, to better understand the risk of explosive growth in each country and which countries are managing the pandemic successfully. METHODS: Using a longitudinal trend analysis study design, we extracted 60 days of COVID-19-related data from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in the Central Asia region as a function of the prior number of cases, level of testing, and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: COVID-19 transmission rates were tracked for the weeks of September 30 to October 6 and October 7-13, 2020, in Central Asia. The region averaged 11,730 new cases per day for the first week and 14,514 for the second week. Infection rates increased across the region from 4.74 per 100,000 persons to 5.66. Russia and Turkey had the highest 7-day moving averages in the region, with 9836 and 1469, respectively, for the week of October 6 and 12,501 and 1603, respectively, for the week of October 13. Russia has the fourth highest speed in the region and continues to have positive acceleration, driving the negative trend for the entire region as the largest country by population. Armenia is experiencing explosive growth of COVID-19; its infection rate of 13.73 for the week of October 6 quickly jumped to 25.19, the highest in the region, the following week. The region overall is experiencing increases in its 7-day moving average of new cases, infection, rate, and speed, with continued positive acceleration and no sign of a reversal in sight. CONCLUSIONS: The rapidly evolving COVID-19 pandemic requires novel dynamic surveillance metrics in addition to static metrics to effectively analyze the pandemic trajectory and control spread. Policy makers need to know the magnitude of transmission rates, how quickly they are accelerating, and how previous cases are impacting current caseload due to a lag effect. These metrics applied to Central Asia suggest that the region is trending negatively, primarily due to minimal restrictions in Russia.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Pessoal Administrativo , Armênia/epidemiologia , Ásia Central/epidemiologia , Azerbaijão/epidemiologia , Benchmarking , Chipre/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Insegurança Alimentar , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Gibraltar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Sistema de Registros , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquia/epidemiologia , Insegurança Hídrica
12.
J Biosoc Sci ; 53(1): 1-19, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987058

RESUMO

Although studies on HIV knowledge have previously been conducted in central Serbia and southern Kosovo, none has included the Serbian population residing in the northern part of the Kosovo province. The aim of this study was to assess HIV-related knowledge and to estimate factors contributing to a higher HIV-related knowledge level among Serbian university students in the Kosovo province. A cross-sectional study including 1017 first- and fourth-year students enrolled at the University of Pristina temporarily seated in Kosovska Mitrovica was carried out during the academic year 2013-2014. The students completed a 31-item questionnaire comprising demographic data, HIV transmission knowledge and attitude towards HIV testing. Data were statistically analysed. Students demonstrated good knowledge of HIV (average 32.8 ± 3.3 out of a maximum 42). Only 5% of the students reported having been tested for HIV. Factors associated with being more knowledgeable about HIV were studying health-related disciplines (ß = -0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.13, 0.00), using the internet as a source of information about HIV (ß = -1.09; 95% CI -1.65, -0.52), having a positive attitude towards HIV testing (ß = -0.43; 95% CI -0.59, -0.26), having a low self-perceived risk for HIV infection (ß = 0.41; 95% CI 0.23, 0.56) and the position that one would keep the same level of contact with an HIV-positive person after learning their HIV status (ß = 0.38; 95% CI 0.21, 0.55). Setting up specialized classes on this topic at high schools and universities could help to increase the awareness of HIV infection and promote HIV testing and a positive attitude towards HIV-positive persons.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Teste de HIV , HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(2): 116-120, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090084

RESUMO

This study was conducted to assess the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Kosovo by serological testing of apparently healthy local horses and free-range chicken, and it attempted to detect viral nucleic acid in birds and mosquitoes. Between January 2018 and June 2019, 260 equine serum samples were collected, additionally 580 adult mosquitoes (53 pools) were grouped in for genera, including Culex spp. (226 individuals; 26 pools), Aedes spp. (136 individuals; 16 pools), Anopheles spp. (184 individuals; 7 pools), and Culiseta spp. (34 individuals; 4 pools). Fifty domestic birds and 51 wild birds were collected from different regions of Kosovo. Equine and domestic bird serum samples were tested by flavivirus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while mosquitoes and bird viscera were tested for WNV RNA by RT-qPCR. All ELISA-positive results were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and eight by virus neutralization test. WNV antibodies were present in 27 out of 260 equine sera (10.38%) and one out of 50 samples in domestic birds by ELISA and PRNT. Eight of 27 positive equine serum samples with high titer neutralized WNV, but not Usutu virus. No WNV RNA was detected in birds or mosquitoes. The occurrence of WNV antibodies in local equines from all regions of Kosovo indicates that the virus is circulating within the country. Public health authorities should therefore plan a risk assessment and disease control program.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Aves , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética
14.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 256: 215-220, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248376

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Postpartum depression affects 10 up to 15 % of women of childbearing age in industrialized countries and presents significant public health problem which leads to short and long-term consequences for mother, child and her family. However, social determinants, including poverty, gender stereotypes, domestic violence, gender discrimination and cultural differences make this medical issue more problematic in less developed countries. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of postpartum depression at the Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology in Pristina, Kosovo (a tertiary referral center). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted from June 2019 to October 2019 at the Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology in Pristina, Kosovo. A total of 247 delivery women were screened for postpartum depression at 6 weeks following delivery using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Socio-demographic, obstetric and psychologic factors were tested as predictors of PPD using bivariate or multivariate logistic regression analysis (Logit model). Odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated for each risk factor. The p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of PPD at the Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology in Kosovo teaching hospital was 21 % at 6 weeks following childbirth. The bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified four predictor variables for postpartum depression: pregnancy complications (OR 1.057; 95 % CI; 1.002-1.114 and P = 0.040); fear of childbirth (OR 1.121; 95 % CI; 1.057-1.190 and P = 0.00016); prenatal depression or anxiety (OR 1.088; 95 % CI; 1.032-1.147 and P = 0.0018); poor marital relation (OR 1.085, 95 % CI; 1.002-1.174 and P = 0.044). No statistically significant association was found between the postpartum depression (PPD) and maternal age, education, employment, family type, smoking, previous abortion, parity, household income, social support, child gender, birthweight, and breast feeding. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of postpartum depression in our setting and its known adverse effects on woman, infant and her family implies an urgent need for evidence-based interventions. Such interventions are needed to promote knowledge of perinatal mental illness and improve maternal mental health in particular in less developed countries. Future efforts should address early identification of high-risk women, assessment of risk factor during the antenatal period, early postpartum depression screening and timely therapeutic approaches, to improve social and psychological functioning of the woman.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Ginecologia , Obstetrícia , Criança , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(5): 1348-1355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532704

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to evaluate the frequency of infections from central venous temporary catheters and the type of a microorganism caused, from January 2017 up to December 2019. This study was performed on patients who were on hemodialysis (HD) through the central temporary venous catheter, right and left femoral vein, right jugular vein, and right subclavian vein.The patients in the HD center in Pristina, Kosovo, were used as a clinical sample. In this study, 1902 patients with temporarily central venous catheters (CVCs) were involved, while the control group consisted of 642 patients. Both groups were matched for age and gender. In all patients and the subjects of the control group, following data were obtained: Anamnesis, medical examination, as well as biochemical and hematological laboratory tests, CVC swab and antibiogram and hemoculture. Data analysis was performed using the descriptive statistical methods and the Chi-square test comparing the laboratory results of a HD patients treated through the central temporary venous catheter. Based on the results of this research, higher incidence of infections occurred with femoral vein access, compared to other CVCs accesses. The most common microorganisms responsible were Staphylococus epidermidis, while the 2019 had the highest incidence of infection.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Veias Jugulares , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos
16.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3863-3868, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974769

RESUMO

Canine vector-borne pathogens are a group of widespread microorganisms and nematodes transmitted by arthropods that do not only impact dog health but may also pose a health risk to humans as many of them are zoonotic. As no data exist on the presence of canine vector-borne pathogens in Kosovo, we here present a first study on the seroprevalence of selected vector-borne pathogens, the dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and the bacteria Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The study was carried out from July to October 2019 in all regions of Kosovo and included 149 clinically healthy dogs (84 owned, 40 sheltered and 25 free-ranging). Blood samples collected from each individual were tested using a commercially available rapid multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In total, 37.6% of the examined dogs were seropositive for one or more of the target pathogens. Most frequently, antibodies were found against Anaplasma spp. (24.8% of the dogs tested), followed by antigen detection of D. immitis (14.8%) and antibodies of B. burgdorferi s.l. (1.3%). The lowest antibody prevalence (0.7%) showed E. canis where only one dog was found positive. This preliminary study demonstrates the circulation of several zoonotic vector-borne pathogens in natural cycles involving dogs in Kosovo. It should trigger studies on infection prevalences in humans and initiate vector surveillance programmes in order to manage and control transmission and the diseases associated with the pathogens.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Anaplasma , Anaplasmose/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Borrelia burgdorferi , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/sangue , Vetores de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Ehrlichia , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/sangue , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 29(9): 1037-1045, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant worldwide social and life-threatening epidemiological problem. Because this disease requires multiple drug treatment and prolonged therapy for several months, followed by a high probability of adverse effects (AEs), we assessed AE monitoring for anti-TB drugs in the Health Care System of Kosova. METHODS: This survey was a cross-sectional analysis performed at the primary, secondary and tertiary health care levels in Kosova. We included 930 registered tuberculosis patients within three levels of this health system in our study. Furthermore, we interviewed 62 physicians and 71 nurses at TB health facilities. Data were collected from official TB registers and personal contact with patients for 12 months. RESULTS: The representative age group was 19 to 29 years (30.49%), followed by a group of patients aged >60 years (23.23%). Among 930 patients treated with TB drugs, the total incidence of adverse AEs was 29.03%. Female TB patients had a higher rate of AEs than did male patients (33.56% vs 28.84%, respectively). The highest incidence of registered AEs was recorded in the gastrointestinal system (270, 80.83%), followed by the central nervous system (CNS, 7.50%) and was lower in other organ systems. The reporting of anti-TB drug effects by medical staff (TB medical doctor and TB medical nurse) at different levels of TB medical settings occurred among 62.90% of medical doctors and 81.69% of nurses. Only 53.23% of medical doctors and 46.48% of nurses completed pharmacovigilance training. CONCLUSION: The pharmacovigilance approach in Health System of Kosova is not comprehensible and not systematic. The relatively low incidence of AEs among TB patients is due under reporting of these by medical staff. The knowledge, attitudes, and adherence of medical staff reveal low awareness for pharmacovigilance activities, and this concern should be addressed to reinforce this important issue for the safe treatment of TB patients.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Farmacoepidemiologia/organização & administração , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacoepidemiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacovigilância , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Prev Vet Med ; 181: 105050, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554289

RESUMO

The European Union supported programmes for rabies control in Kosovo between 2010 and 2015, including spring and autumn biannual oral vaccination campaigns targeting foxes. Throughout the programmes foxes were obtained to provide samples for monitoring the campaigns. This paper explores the seasonal pattern of bait uptake and seropositivity in the fox population. Bait uptake varied by season and by the phase of the project supporting the programme (the main differences between phases being the number of baits distributed and flight line separation). Seropositivity varied by season and by titre of the vaccine used in the preceding campaign. The analyses also suggested a negative effect of higher daytime temperature on bait uptake, and possible association between geographic location of sampling and concordance between bait uptake and seropositivity, but the dataset was too unbalanced to support robust conclusions on these detailed aspects. Descriptive summaries of the data and the multilevel analyses showed that the proportion of sampled foxes that were positive for bait uptake and the proportion seropositive were both high through winter, following the autumn campaigns, and declined through spring and summer, with a low point in samples collected during the time when juvenile foxes are typically dispersing from their birth dens. The percentage of foxes positive for bait uptake was below 30 % (first project phase) and 40 % (second project phase) from mid-July to mid-October following a spring campaign, compared with around 70 % (first project phase) and 80 % (second project phase) in the periods between autumn and the following spring campaigns. As could be expected, the percent of samples that were seropositive followed a similar seasonal pattern, with some additional variation associated with the titre of vaccine used. This seasonal pattern is likely because the population sampled in the late summer months includes increasing numbers of young foxes that could not have been effectively exposed to the spring vaccination campaign, and would have lost any possible maternal immunity by late summer. The main finding of high levels of bait uptake and seroprevalence through winter, following the autumn campaigns, declining through summer despite the implementation of spring campaigns, supports advice that countries lacking financial resources to support biannual campaigns should focus resources on once per year vaccination in late autumn or early winter. This pattern also indicates that a fox population may rapidly become naïve after cessation of vaccination programmes, therefore strongly coordinated regional programmes and good surveillance will be needed.


Assuntos
Raposas , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232063, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the Kosovo War (1998-99) approximately 31,000 rounds with Depleted Uranium (DU) were fired on 85 targets in Kosovo. The number of haematological malignancies (HM) increased after the war and the concern was the use of DU during the war. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence rates of HM in Kosovo throughout a 20-year that includes pre- and post- war period (1995-2015); and to examine if there is any association between the use of DU rounds and incidence rates of HM in different regions of Kosovo. METHODS: In this retrospective register-based study, 1,798 new patients diagnosed with leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Multiple myeloma were analysed over a 20 year period. Incidence rates were calculated focusing on specific time periods, regions and age-groups. In addition, the correlation between the use of DU in different regions and their incidence of HM was analysed. RESULTS: The average annual crude rate of all HM in Kosovo was 5.02 cases per 100,000 persons. Incidence rates of HM in first post-war period (2000-2003) increased by 0.37 cases/100,000 persons (9.51%) compared to the pre-war period (1995-1998) whereas in the last post-war period (2012-2015), incidence of HM increased by 3.19/100,000 persons (82%). Gjakova and Peja, the first and third most exposed regions to DU ordnance ranked first and second in difference in HM. Prishtina, Gjilan and Ferizaj, regions with the least number of rounds/km2, were characterized by a decline of incidence rates. CONCLUSIONS: After the war, the increase in incidence rate of HM was higher in two regions with most DU rounds/km2 expended Despite these findings, this study warrants further investigation and does not lead us to a conclusive finding on the existence of a causal relationship between the use of DU during the war and the rise in incidence of HM in Kosovo.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Urânio , Guerra , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Guerra/história , Adulto Jovem
20.
Turk J Pediatr ; 62(2): 215-223, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Identification of the manifestations, assessment and follow up of children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by transthoracic echocardiography may be important for clinical management and our understanding of pathogenesis. METHODS: We present a comprehensive analysis of 43 children seen in Kosovo, 23 were male, aged between 4 months and 9 years at first presentation (median of 2 years and 3 months). RESULTS: Cardiac failure, seen in almost half of them, was the most common presenting feature. At admission, the chest x-ray revealed an increased cardiothoracic ratio, to a mean of 72% in 6 infants and to 65% in 37 older children. Measured by transthoracic echocardiography, 28 children had asymmetric hypertrophy of left ventricle while 15 had concentric hypertrophy. Left ventricular ejection fraction was depressed in 21 children. Patients with cardiac failure received various combinations of diuretics, B-blockers, ACE inhibitors and anticoagulant therapy (aspirin). Death occurred in 8 children, in 4 of them shortly after admission, the other 4 left Kosovo and continued examination and treatment abroad Kosovo; their death has been confirmed by family members. The remaining 32 were followed- up for a mean 42 months, with a range from 5 to 115 months. Surgical intervention was not performed to any of them, despite the clinical and echocardiography indications due to a limitation of resources. Recovery was noted in 14 children but still requiring anti-heart failure medications. Slightly over two-fifths died. Of those with asymmetric form, 45% died, half of those presenting in infancy, and 89% of those who presented at admission with signs of cardiac failure. CONCLUSION: The results of our study show that similar to many centers, the etiology of HCM is often uncertain. In the absence of etiology, treatment aimed at the cause is either impossible or, at best, empirical.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Turismo Médico , Adolescente , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
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