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1.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 61, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral and maxillofacial surgery specialty has grown rapidly in Kuwait in recent years. However, the general public and healthcare professionals remain unaware of its expanding scope of practice. The aim of the study is to assess public and professional (dental and medical) perception of the oral and maxillofacial surgical specialty in Kuwait. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study evaluating responses of dental professionals, medical professionals, and general public in Kuwait toward the oral and maxillofacial surgical specialty using a previously validated survey instrument with 100 participants in each group. Participants were asked to choose the most appropriate specialist to treat certain procedures across 4 disciplines: reconstruction, trauma, pathology, and cosmetic. Statistical comparison was conducted between dentists and medical doctors using Fisher's exact test with a p-value of < 0.05. RESULTS: Disparities were noted each group's responses. Oral and maxillofacial surgery was preferred overall for most clinical scenarios in trauma (p < 0.001), pathology (p < 0.001), and reconstructive surgery (p < 0.001). Plastic surgery was preferred for cosmetic surgeries (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates the need to increase awareness especially towards cosmetic surgery procedures, and conduct health campaigns regarding oral and maxillofacial surgery among healthcare professionals, especially medical doctors, and the general public.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cirurgia Bucal , Cirurgia Plástica , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Kuweit , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111973, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484991

RESUMO

The growing use of plastic and their indiscriminate disposal into the environment has resulted in the accumulation of huge quantities of microplastic (MP) in the marine environment. Several studies have investigated the pathways of MPs reaching marine environments and a few have begun looking at their inventories in sediment profiles. Recent estimates suggest between 70 and 90% of the MP particles are accumulated into sediment profiles. This paper reviews MPs in sediment cores, and the methods used for chronological reconstruction to provide evidence to link the plastic usage and MP inventories over time. In one example, a 210Pb dated sediment core from Kuwait Bay revealed 0.1 MPs g-1 of sediment deposited in approximately 1951 and 0.5 MPs g-1 in sediment from 2009 indicating a progressively increasing presence in recent sediments. The review also highlights the issue of very large spatio-temporal variation in MP concentrations, indicating the limitation of a snapshot study especially when dealing with the surface sediments; and it demonstrates the relevance of using sediment cores for a better assessment of MP input and inventories in the marine environment. It is proposed that MP sediment data should be reported as N m-2 year-1 or g m-2 year-1, and cores preferably dated using 210Pb, and supported by at least one other stratigraphic marker to enhance the usefulness of these datasets, since 210Pb can reliably date sediments as old as 100 years, a time-span which extends well beyond the time plastic production began. The anomalies in data processing and reporting in terms of number per kg of sediment or per cm2/m2 should be addressed essentially by adopting a standardized protocol.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Kuweit , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111915, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360724

RESUMO

The tropical waters of the Northern Arabian Gulf have a long history of maritime resource richness. High levels of biodiversity result from the complex matrix of coastal habitats, coral reefs and sea grass beds that characterise the region. Insight into the ongoing health of such habitats and the broader Kuwait maritime environment can be gauged by the status of indicator species found within these habitats. Here we review information on the occurrence, distribution and threats to key marine habitats and associated indicator species to provide an updated assessment of the state of the Kuwait's marine biodiversity. Critical evaluation of historic data highlights knowledge gaps needed inform the focus of future monitoring and conservation efforts. This assessment is designed to evaluate performance against environmental policy commitments, while providing a solid foundation for the design of comprehensive marine ecosystem management strategies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Recifes de Corais , Kuweit
4.
BMJ Open Qual ; 9(4)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented challenge to healthcare systems and nations across the world. Particularly challenging are the lack of agreed-upon management guidelines and variations in practice. Our hospital is a large, secondary-care government hospital in Kuwait, which has increased its capacity by approximately 28% to manage the care of patients with COVID-19. The surge in capacity has necessitated the redeployment of staff who are not well-trained to manage such conditions. There was a great need to develop a tool to help redeployed staff in decision-making for patients with COVID-19, a tool which could also be used for training. METHODS: Based on the best available clinical knowledge and best practices, an eight member multidisciplinary group of clinical and quality experts undertook the development of a clinical algorithm-based toolkit to guide training and practice for the management of patients with COVID-19. The team followed Horabin and Lewis' seven-step approach in developing the algorithms and a five-step method in writing them. Moreover, we applied Rosenfeld et al's five points to each algorithm. RESULTS: A set of seven clinical algorithms and one illustrative layout diagram were developed. The algorithms were augmented with documentation forms, data-collection online forms and spreadsheets and an indicators' reference sheet to guide implementation and performance measurement. The final version underwent several revisions and amendments prior to approval. CONCLUSIONS: A large volume of published literature on the topic of COVID-19 pandemic was translated into a user-friendly, algorithm-based toolkit for the management of patients with COVID-19. This toolkit can be used for training and decision-making to improve the quality of care provided to patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242768, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216801

RESUMO

This is a retrospective single-center study of 417 consecutive patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to Jaber Al-Ahmad Hospital in Kuwait between February 24, 2020 and May 24, 2020. In total, 39.3% of patients were asymptomatic, 41% were symptomatic with mild/moderate symptoms, 19.7% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Most common symptoms in cohort patients were fever (34.3%) and dry cough (32.6%) while shortness in breath was reported in (75.6%) of ICU admissions. Reported complications requiring ICU admission included Sepsis (68.3%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (95.1%) and heart failure (63.4%). ICU patients were more likely to have comorbidities, in comparison to non-ICU patients, including diabetes (35.4% vs 20.3%) and hypertension (40.2% vs 26.9%). Mortality rate of cohort was 14.4% and mean age of death was 54.20 years (± 11.09) and 90% of death cases were males. Chest high-resolution computed tomography for ICU cases reveled multifocal large patchy areas of ground glass opacification mixed with dense consolidation. Cases admitted to ICU showed abnormal levels of markers associated with infection, inflammation, abnormal blood clotting, heart problems and kidney problems. Mean hospital stay for asymptomatic cases was 20.69 days ±8.57 and for mild/moderate cases was 21.4 days ±8.28. Mean stay in ICU to outcome for survivors was 11.95 days ±8.96 and for death cases 13.15 days ±10.02. In this single-center case series of 417 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Kuwait 39.3% were asymptomatic cases, 41% showed mild/moderate symptoms and 18.7% were admitted to ICU with a mortality rate of 14.4%.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Obes ; 10(6): e12414, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079448

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is straining the healthcare system, particularly for patients with severe outcomes requiring admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU). This study investigated the potential associations of obesity and diabetes with COVID-19 severe outcomes, assessed as ICU admittance. Medical history, demographic and patient characteristics of a retrospective cohort (1158 patients) hospitalized with COVID-19 were analysed at a single centre in Kuwait. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to explore the associations between different variables and ICU admittance. Of 1158 hospitalized patients, 271 had diabetes, 236 had hypertension and 104 required admittance into the ICU. From patients with available measurements, 157 had body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 . Univariate analysis showed that overweight, obesity class I and morbid obesity were associated with ICU admittance. Patients with diabetes were more likely to be admitted to the ICU. Two models for multivariate regression analysis assessed either BMI or diabetes on ICU outcomes. In the BMI model, class I and morbid obesities were associated with ICU admittance. In the diabetes model, diabetes was associated with increased ICU admittance, whereas hypertension had a protective effect on ICU admittance. In our cohort, overweight, obesity and diabetes in patients with COVID-19 were associated with ICU admittance, increasing the risk of poor outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Obesidade/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 977-985, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In February 2020 the first cases of COVID-19 were identified in Kuwait. Inevitably as many countries worldwide, the general public were negatively affected by the pandemic. Unemployment, uncertainty, distress, increasing deaths, lockdown measures all of which are potential burdens on mental health. AIM: To assess the impact of COVID19 outbreak on mental health in Kuwait, and to explore the potential influencing risk factors. METHODS: We conducted an online questionnaire-based study in Kuwait between 25th May 2020 to 30th May 2020. Questions were based on demographics, lifestyle during outbreak, depression and anxiety assessment. Total PHQ9 and GAD7 scores were calculated for each responder. RESULTS: We had 4132 responders. Most were females (69.31%), married (59.37%), between the age of 21-30 (23.84%) and non-smokers (81.46%). Only (7.96%) had a positive past psychiatric history, (32.04%) had a past history of a chronic medical disease. During the outbreak most of the responders lost their jobs (39.21%) and only (12.83%) were attending work regularly, only (6.82%) worked in the healthcare sector. 59.27% report increased social media use compared to before the lockdown. When asked about their daily time spent following COVID19-related news, most (37.8%) spend more than 2 hours and (7.74%) spend more than 4 hours. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was (30.13%) and the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was (25.28%). LIMITATIONS: In the cross-sectional nature of the study. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a burden on mental health. Psychological support and mental health awareness should be implemented and made accessible to all individuals during pandemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
8.
Zootaxa ; 4803(2): zootaxa.4803.2.2, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056017

RESUMO

Seventeen species of shrimp-like decapod crustaceans (infraorders Caridea, Axiidea and Gebiidea) and two species of porcelain crabs (infraorder Anomura) are recorded for the first time from Kuwait, some of them also representing new records for the Arabian Gulf. The new records from Kuwait are: (1) Alpheus edamensis De Man, 1888; (2) Alpheus edwardsii (Audouin, 1826); (3) Alpheus macrodactylus Ortmann, 1890; (4) Alpheus maindroni Coutière, 1898; (5) Arete indicus Coutière, 1903; (6) Athanas parvus De Man, 1910; (7) Synalpheus gracilirostris De Man, 1910 [all Alpheidae]; (8) Latreutes mucronatus (Stimpson, 1860) [Hippolytidae]; (9) Thor paschalis (Heller, 1862) [Thoridae] (10) Periclimenella pettithouarsii (Audouin, 1826); (11) Anchistus custos (Forskål, 1775); (12) Urocaridella pulchella Yokes Galil, 2006 [all Palaemonidae]; (13) Chlorocurtis jactans (Nobili, 1904) [Chlorotocellidae]; (14) Upogebia carinicauda (Stimpson, 1860); (15) Upogebia octoceras Nobili, 1904 [Upogebiidae]; (16) Balsscallichirus masoomi (Tirmizi, 1970), (17) Michaelcallianassa indica Sakai, 2002 [Callianassidae]; (18) Raphidopus persicus Ng, Safaie Naser, 2012 and Polyonyx obesulus Miers, 1884 [Porcellanidae]. Most of these taxa have been previously recorded from other parts of the Arabian Gulf, mainly from the coasts of Iran and the United Arab Emirates, except for A. maindroni and U. pulchella, which are recorded from the Arabian Gulf for the first time. Most species are shown in colour photographs, some for the first time. In addition, the presence of Synalpheus quinquedens Tattersall, 1921 (Alpheidae), previously known from Kuwait based only on a questionable record in a popular field guide, is confirmed based on a single collected and preserved specimen.


Assuntos
Anomuros , Decápodes , Animais , Kuweit
9.
Zootaxa ; 4851(1): zootaxa.4851.1.10, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056745

RESUMO

The status of the common intertidal snapping shrimp, Alpheus inopinatus Holthuis Gottlieb, 1958, is discussed based on newly collected material from Kuwait. Alpheus inopinatus was previously confused with morphologically very similar species in the Alpheus lobidens De Haan, 1849 species complex, formerly identified as A. crassimanus Heller, 1862 and herein tentatively referred to as A. cf. lobidens. The material herein examined strongly supports the validity of A. inopinatus based on several morphological characters, as well as differences in the colour pattern, compared to other members of the A. lobidens complex.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Kuweit
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 61, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus pandemic has transformed and continues to transform and affect the daily lives of communities worldwide, particularly due to the lockdown restrictions. Therefore, this study was designed to understand the changes in dietary and lifestyle behaviours that are major determinants of health during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online questionnaire using a convenience sample of 415 adults living in Kuwait (age range 18-73 years). RESULTS: The rate of skipping breakfast remained consistent, with a slight increase during the pandemic. Lunch remained the main reported meal before and during COVID-19. Compared to before COVID-19, people were much more likely have a late-night snack or meal during COVID-19 (OR = 3.57 (95% CI 1.79-7.26), p < 0.001). Moreover, there was a drastic decrease in the frequency of fast-food consumption during COVID-19, up to 82% reported not consuming fast food (p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the percentage of participants who had their main meal freshly made (OR = 59.18 (95% CI 6.55-1400.76), p = 0.001). Regarding food group patterns, no significant differences were found before and during the pandemic in terms of the weekly frequency of consumption, except in the case of fish and seafood. There were no remarkable changes in beverage consumption habits among participants before and during the pandemic, except for Americano coffee and fresh juice. Furthermore, there was a great reduction in physical activity and an increase in the amount of screen time and sedentary behaviours. A notable increase was detected in day-time sleep and a decrease in night-time sleep among participants. CONCLUSION: In general, this study indicates some changes in daily life, including changes in some eating practices, physical activity and sleeping habits during the pandemic. It is important that the government considers the need for nutrition education programmes and campaigns, particularly during this critical period of the pandemic in Kuwait.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Zootaxa ; 4780(1): zootaxa.4780.1.3, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055756

RESUMO

The alpheid genus Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955 is reported from Kuwait for the first time, with two species. One species, Salmoneus ikaros sp. nov., is described based on a single specimen from Failaka Island, extracted from the burrow of the callianassid ghost-shrimp Balsscallichirus masoomi (Tirmizi, 1970), together with the host. The new species is characterised by its peculiar eyes, which together with other characters separate it from all previously described species of Salmoneus. The second species, Salmoneus gracilipes Miya, 1972, is reported from Kuwait based on three specimens from two different localities and different habitats. Two specimens were found under coral rocks at a depth of about 7 m off Kubbar Island, whereas the third specimen was extracted from the burrow of the echiuran worm, Listriolobus cf. brevirostris Chen Yeh, 1958, at the type locality of S. ikaros sp. nov. at Failaka Island. Material identified as S. gracilipes from across its wide distribution range appears to be morphologically heterogeneous, possibly containing more than one species, and thus will need further studies.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Kuweit
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992809

RESUMO

This study is an overview of the current and future trajectory, as well as the impact of the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in the world and selected countries including the state of Kuwait. The selected countries were divided into two groups: Group A (China, Switzerland, and Ireland) and Group B (USA, Brazil, and India) based on their outbreak containment of this virus. Then, the actual data for each country were fitted to a regression model utilizing the excel solver software to assess the current and future trajectory of novel COVID-19 and its impact. In addition, the data were fitted using the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) Model. The Group A trajectory showed an "S" shape trend that suited a logistic function with r2 > 0.97, which is an indication of the outbreak control. The SIR models for the countries in this group showed that they passed the expected 99% end of pandemic dates. Group B, however, exhibited a continuous increase of the total COVID-19 new cases, that best suited an exponential growth model with r2 > 0.97, which meant that the outbreak is still uncontrolled. The SIR models for the countries in this group showed that they are still relatively far away from reaching the expected 97% end of pandemic dates. The maximum death percentage varied from 3.3% (India) to 7.2% with USA recording the highest death percentage, which is virtually equal to the maximum death percentage of the world (7.3%). The power of the exponential model determines the severity of the country's trajectory that ranged from 11 to 19 with the USA and Brazil having the highest values. The maximum impact of this COVID-19 pandemic occurred during the uncontrolled stage (2), which mainly depended on the deceptive stage (1). Further, some novel potential containment strategies are discussed. Results from both models showed that the Group A countries contained the outbreak, whereas the Group B countries still have not reached this stage yet. Early measures and containment strategies are imperative in suppressing the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , China , Humanos , Índia , Irlanda , Kuweit , Pandemias , Suíça , Estados Unidos
13.
Soc Work Public Health ; 35(7): 546-556, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970542

RESUMO

With the COVID-19 pandemic threatening millions of lives around the world with no clear promises for treatment or vaccine yet, motivating the public to change their behaviors to prevent the spread of the disease becomes crucial and moral imperative. The current study investigated the associations between self-reported intentions to perform protective behaviors against COVID-19, the seven constructs of the Protection Motivation Theory PMT, trust in government, and sociodemographic factors within the general population in Kuwait. A cross-sectional design was adapted to explore the associations between study factors in a nonprobability voluntary response sample of 679 participants who completed an online public survey. Results indicate that the scores of trust in government and the severity, vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy subconstructs of the PMT were positively related to protective behavior intention, whereas intrinsic and extrinsic reward and response cost subconstructs were negatively associated with protective behavior intention. The results were discussed considering previous literature and future applications.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Motivação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Confiança , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Governo , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1384, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, many have flagged racial and ethnic differences in health outcomes in western countries as an urgent global public health priority. Kuwait has a unique demographic profile with two-thirds of the population consisting of non-nationals, most of which are migrant workers. We aimed to explore whether there is a significant difference in health outcomes between non-Kuwaiti and Kuwaiti patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: We used a prospective COVID-19 registry of all patients (symptomatic and asymptomatic) in Kuwait who tested positive from February 24th to April 20th, 2020, collected from Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah Hospital, the officially-designated COVID-19 healthcare facility in the country. We ran separate logistic regression models comparing non-Kuwaitis to Kuwaitis for death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pneumonia. RESULTS: The first 1123 COVID-19 positive patients in Kuwait were all recruited in the study. About 26% were Kuwaitis and 73% were non-Kuwaiti. With adjustments made to age, gender, smoking and selected co-morbidities, non-Kuwaitis had two-fold increase in the odds of death or being admitted to the intensive care unit compared to Kuwaitis (OR: 2.14, 95% CI 1.12-4.32). Non-Kuwaitis had also higher odds of ARDS (OR:2.44, 95% CI 1.23-5.09) and pneumonia (OR: 2.24, 95% CI 1.27-4.12). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report on COVID-19 outcomes between Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti patients. The current pandemic may have amplified the differences of health outcomes among marginalized subpopulations. A number of socioeconomic and environmental factors could explain this health disparity. More research is needed to advance the understanding of policymakers in Kuwait in order to make urgent public health interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238614, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936826

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and associated with severe respiratory illness emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. The virus has been able to spread promptly across all continents in the world. The current pandemic has posed a great threat to public health concern and safety. Currently, there are no specific treatments or licensed vaccines available for COVID-19. We isolated SARS-CoV-2 from the nasopharyngeal sample of a patient in Turkey with confirmed COVID-19. We determined that the Vero E6 and MA-104 cell lines are suitable for supporting SARS-CoV-2 that supports viral replication, development of cytopathic effect (CPE) and subsequent cell death. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole genome sequences showed that the hCoV-19/Turkey/ERAGEM-001/2020 strain clustered with the strains primarily from Australia, Canada, England, Iran and Kuwait and that the cases in the nearby clusters were reported to have travel history to Iran and to share the common unique nucleotide substitutions.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias , Cultura de Vírus/métodos , Animais , Austrália , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Canadá , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Inglaterra , Genoma Viral , Células HeLa , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Kuweit , Macaca mulatta , Nasofaringe/virologia , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Viagem , Turquia/epidemiologia , Células Vero , Replicação Viral
17.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 115, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the declaration COVID-19 as a pandemic, healthcare systems around the world have faced a huge challenge in managing patients with chronic diseases. Patients with migraine were specifically vulnerable to inadequate medical care. We aimed to investigate the "real-world" impact of COVID-19 pandemic on migraine patients, and to identify risk factors for poor outcome. METHODS: We administered an online, self-reported survey that included demographic, migraine-related, COVID-19-specific and overall psychosocial variables between July 15 and July 30, 2020. We recruited a sample of patients with migraine from headache clinic registry and via social media to complete an anonymous survey. Outcomes included demographic variables, change in migraine frequency and severity during the lockdown period, communication with treating physician, compliance to migraine treatment, difficulty in getting medications, medication overuse, symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, sleep and eating habits disturbance, screen time exposure, work during pandemic, use of traditional medicine, effect of Botox injection cancellation, and overall worries and concerns during pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 1018 patients completed the survey. Of the respondents, 859 (84.3%) were females; 733 (71.9%) were aged 20 to 40 years, 630 (61.8%) were married, and 466 (45.7%) reported working during the pandemic. In comparison to pre-pandemic period, 607 respondents (59.6%) reported increase in migraine frequency, 163 (16%) reported decrease in frequency, and 105 (10.3%) transformed to chronic migraine. Severity was reported to increase by 653 (64.1%) respondents. The majority of respondents; 626 (61.5%) did not communicate with their neurologists, 477 (46.9%) reported compliance to treatment, and 597 (58.7%) reported overuse of analgesics. Botox injections cancellation had a negative impact on 150 respondents (66.1%) from those receiving it. Forty-one respondents (4%) were infected with COVID-19; 26 (63.4%) reported worsening of their headaches amid infection period. Sleep disturbance was reported by 794 (78.1%) of respondents, and 809 (79.5%) reported having symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: COVID-19 pandemic had an overall negative impact on patients with migraine. Several risk factors for poor outcome were identified. Long-term strategies should be validated and implemented to deliver quality care for patients with migraine, with emphasis on psychosocial well-being.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Comunicação , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/psicologia , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Relações Médico-Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236713, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750089

RESUMO

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common isolates from blood culture in neonates resulting in high mortality and morbidity. This study investigated CoNS obtained from blood cultures of neonates for antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, and possible association with inflammatory response (C-reactive protein). A total of 93 CoNS isolates were collected from 76 blood cultures of neonates at the Maternity hospital in Kuwait in a six-month period and investigated for susceptibility to antibiotics, carriage of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and virulence-associated genes. The 93 CoNS isolates consisted of S. epidermidis (76; 81.7%), S. capitis (12; 12.9%), S. hominis (2; 2.1%), S. warneri (2; 2.1%) and S. haemolyticus (1; 1.0%). Eighty-six (92.4%) of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (MR-CoNS) while 49 (52.7%) expressed multi-antibiotic resistance. The methicillin-resistant isolates (MR-CoNS) carried SCCmec III, SCCmec IVa and four combinations of SCCmec types including SCCmec types I+IVa (one S. warneri and 25 S. epidermidis isolates), types I+III (one S. epidermidis isolate), types III+IVa (six S. epidermidis isolates) and types I+III+IVa (one S. epidermidis isolate). The most common virulence-related genes were icaC, seb, arc detected in 69.7%, 60.5%, 40.8% of the isolates respectively. Two isolates were positive for tst1. No association between C-reactive protein and antibiotic resistance or virulence factors was established. This study revealed that S. epidermidis carrying different SCCmec genetic elements, was the dominant CoNS species isolated from neonatal blood cultures with 90.3% and 36.6% of the isolates positive for genes for biofilm and ACME production respectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Biofilmes , Coagulase/metabolismo , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Kuweit , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
19.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 170, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of the alpha thalassemia trait is approximately 40% in the Kuwaiti population, but there has been no comprehensive study of the prevalent alleles. This is a report of patients who were referred for molecular diagnosis over a 20-year period. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of the α-globin genotypes obtained in the Hemoglobin Research Laboratory of the Department of Pediatrics, Kuwait University from 1994 to 2015. Genotyping was performed by a combination of PCR, allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization and reverse dot blot hybridization (Vienna Lab Strip Assay). RESULTS: Four hundred samples were characterized and analyzed from individuals aged < 1 month to 80 years, with a median of 6 years from 283 unrelated families. Most (90.8%) were Kuwaiti nationals. The commonest genotype was homozygosity for the polyadenylation-1 mutation (αPA-1α/α PA-1α) in 33.3% of the samples, followed by heterozygosity (αα/α PA-1α) for the same mutation in 32.3%. PA-1 was therefore the most frequent allele (0.59). The frequency of the α0 (--MED) allele was 0.017. Rare alleles that were found in very low frequencies included α0 (--FIL) in a Filipino child, Hb Constant Spring, Hb Adana, and Hb Icaria. CONCLUSION: There is a wide variety of alpha thalassemia alleles among Kuwaitis, but nondeletional PA-1 is by far the most common cause of the moderate to severe HbH (ß4 tetramer) disease phenotype. The α0 (-MED) allele is also encountered, which has implications for premarital counseling, especially for the possibility of having babies with alpha thalassemia major (Barts hydrops fetalis).


Assuntos
alfa-Globinas/genética , Talassemia alfa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Kuweit , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Talassemia alfa/diagnóstico
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8232-8238, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global public health crisis with social, psychological and long-lasting economical damages. Weather-related dynamics have an impact on the pattern of human health and disease. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of heat and humidity on daily basis incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 pandemic in ten of the world's hottest countries compared to ten of the coldest ones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Worldwide, we selected 20 countries; 10 hottest countries with the highest temperatures and 10 coldest countries with the lowest temperature. The selection of the countries was based on the daily basis mean temperature from the date of appearance of the initial cases of COVID-19, Dec 29, 2019 to May 12, 2020. In the world's 10 hottest countries, the mean temperature was (26.31±1.51) and humidity (44.67±4.97). However, in the world's 10 coldest countries the mean temperature was (6.19±1.61) and humidity (57.26±2.35). The data on the global outbreak of COVID-19, daily new cases and deaths were recorded from World Health Organization, and daily information on temperature and humidity was obtained from metrological web "Time and Date". RESULTS: In countries with high temperatures and low humidity, the mean daily cases incidence were (407.12±24.33); cumulative cases (9094.34±708.29); and cumulative deaths (452.84±43.30) were significantly low compared to countries with low temperatures and high humidity: daily cases (1876.72±207.37); cumulative cases (44232.38±5875.11); and cumulative deaths (2008.29±310.13). Moreover, COVID-19 cases and deaths per million population were significantly low in countries with high temperatures (cases 711.23, and deaths 16.27) compared to countries with low temperatures (cases 1685.99; and deaths 86.40). Furthermore, in hottest countries, a 1% increase in humidity reduced number of cases and deaths by (ß = -5.40, p<0.001) and (ß = -0.187, p=0.004) respectively. A similar trend was seen with a 1°C increase in temperature, reducing the number of deaths by (ß = -1.35. p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed a significant decrease in incidence of daily cases and deaths in countries with high temperatures and low humidity (warmest countries), compared to those countries with low temperatures and high humidity (coldest countries). The findings could be of interest to the policymakers and the health officials on the epidemiological trends of COVID-19 pandemic and weather changes.


Assuntos
Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Áustria/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estônia/epidemiologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Kuweit/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Omã/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , República de Belarus/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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