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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078180

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers to determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and well-being, and to identify the factors associated with adverse psychological effects. This study was conducted 5 months into the COVID-19 pandemic. We used an online questionnaire to collect data from 378 healthcare workers. To examine the psychological impact, three standardized questionnaires were utilized. This includes the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), and the WHO Well-Being Scale (WHO-5) to measure depression, anxiety, and quality of life, respectively. More than half of the participants (52.9%) exhibited moderate or high levels of depression, and 40.5% reported moderate or high levels of anxiety. Unmarried HCWs reported more severe levels of depression; moderately severe depression (24.0% vs. 16.1%) and severe depression (12.4% vs. 6.8%). Unmarried HCWs also reported more severity of anxiety as well as lower overall wellbeing. Understanding how personal factors such as marital status can influence the degree of psychological distress can allow us to make better investments in supporting the mental health needs of HCWs in Kuwait. Governments and organizations must establish protective measures, such as continually assessing the mental health status of HCWs throughout the pandemic and providing support services for HCWs in need to minimize adverse consequences and ensure optimal health system operation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(Supplement_1): i77-i83, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats to global public health. Selection of resistant bacteria is driven by inappropriate use of antibiotics, amongst other factors. COVID-19 may have exacerbated AMR due to unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Country-level knowledge is needed to understand options for action. OBJECTIVES: To review AMR in Kuwait and initiatives underway addressing it. Identifying any areas where more information is required will provide a call to action to minimize any further rise in AMR within Kuwait and to improve patient outcomes. METHODS: National initiatives to address AMR, antibiotic use and prescribing, and availability of susceptibility data, particularly for the key community-acquired respiratory tract infection (CA-RTI) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, were identified. National and international antibiotic prescribing guidelines commonly used locally for specific CA-RTIs (community-acquired pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis) were also reviewed, plus local antibiotic availability. Insights from a clinician in Kuwait were sought to contextualize this information. CONCLUSIONS: In Kuwait there have been some initiatives addressing AMR such as annual campaigns for proper use of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is high but there appears to be a low understanding in the general public about their appropriate use. However, there is legislation in place prohibiting over-the-counter purchase of antibiotics. Only international guidelines for CA-RTIs are used. A more standardized inclusive approach in developing local guidelines, using up-to-date surveillance data of isolates from community-acquired infections in Kuwait, could make management guideline use more locally relevant for clinicians. This would pave the way for a higher level of appropriate antibiotic prescribing and improved adherence. This would, in turn, potentially limit AMR development and improve clinical patient outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Pneumonia , Infecções Respiratórias , Doença Aguda , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
3.
Zootaxa ; 5155(4): 493-516, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095571

RESUMO

The tropical Indo-west Pacific gobiid fish genus Aulopareia Bleeker is reviewed, with all recognised species redescribed herein, apart from one uncertain species. Additionally, a new species from Kuwait is described (A. vadosa n. sp.). Of the 10 nominal species names usually assigned to this genus, only three appear to be valid Aulopareia (A. koumansi, A. ocellata and A. unicolor). From descriptions and illustrations, Acentrogobius microps Chu and Wu appears to be an Aulopareia but no material was available for study. The species that has been variously named as Acentrogobius cyanomos, Aulopareia cyanomos or Aulopareia spilopterus is redescribed. The status of two other species that may be related is also discussed: Gobius cyanoclavis Cantor and Gobius phaiomelas Bleeker. Aulopareia has been noted as being related to Parachaeturichthys.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Peixes , Kuweit
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 336, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071437

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Cryptosporidium species are zoonotic protozoan parasites responsible for gastroenteritis in various animals and humans. The diagnosis of Cryptosporidium presents many challenges. This research attempted to match the diagnostic efficiency of the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique (mZN), immunochromatographic assays (IC), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Cryptosporidium in faecal samples of cattle in Kuwait. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was utilised to determine the predominant species infecting cattle in Kuwait and correlating the detected species with the results of different diagnostic tests used, the presence or absence of clinical signs, and the age group of the infected cattle. RESULTS: Of 400 analysed faecal samples, Cryptosporidium positive samples were 23%, 15.25%, and 14% using IC, ELISA, and mZN. IC had the highest sensitivity (74.07%), and mZN had the highest specificity (98.29%) using a composite reference standard (CRS) as a gold standard. The rapid IC test results in high false-positive results of cryptosporidiosis, whereas using mZN alone is insufficient to declare a negative faecal sample. Only 74.5% (35/47) of Cryptosporidium-positive samples by the three assays could be amplified by PCR. This study was the first to genotype Cryptosporidium in Kuwait. Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 26) was the dominant species detected from cattle samples, followed by C. andersoni (n = 6), C. bovis (n = 2), and C. raynae (n = 1). The findings showed a statistically relevant relationship between diarrhoea and the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in faecal samples of cattle (p-value = 0.0003). Pre-weaned calves were the most vulnerable age group to Cryptosporidium spp. infection (p-value = 0.0007). CONCLUSION: For screening of Cryptosporidium infection in faecal samples, antigen detection or PCR methods combined with one of the microscopy techniques should be used. Cryptosporidium parvum was the prepoderant Cryptosporidium spp. recovered from cattle samples in Kuwait followed by C. andersoni. Cryptosporidium parvum is a significant risk factor for diarrhoea in pre-weaned calves. However, further study is needed as many other causes of diarrhoea in calves must be ruled out before a diagnosis of Cryptosporidium diarrhoea can be made.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/veterinária , Genótipo , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Oocistos
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(7): 1378-1383, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences of new nursing graduates during their internship in a tertiary care setting. METHODS: The qualitative phenomenological descriptive study was conducted from September2020 to May2021 at three private hospitals of Peshawar, Pakistan, namely the Kuwait Teaching Hospital, the Mercy Teaching Hospital and the Prime Teaching Hospital. New nursing graduates of either gender were enrolled. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews using an interview guide and probing questions. Data was analysed using the 6-step Braun and Clarke method. RESULTS: Of the 11 subjects, 6(54.5%) were males and 5(45.5%) were females. Data led to the generation of four main themes; challenges, coping strategies, improved knowledge, and need for improvement in internship programme. The participants said certain types of individuals and organisational challenges affected them both personally and socially in their daily routines. Coping strategies varied among the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: New nursing graduates faced both individual and organisational challenges which is a matter of concern. Policies and their proper implementation should be planned to counter such challenges.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Internato e Residência , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit , Masculino , Paquistão , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 22 Suppl 2: S248, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36163836

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: AML is a heterogeneous disease. Different mutational profiles have been described and correlate with variable outcomes. Genetic abnormalities are not well-described in our region. Our aim is to describe the molecular aberrations observed in the first cohort of patients. We recently introduced DNA based Oncomine Myeloid Gene Panel, testing 55 genes. METHODS: We collected clinical, cytogenetic and molecular data prospectively since we introduced the test in late 2020. We also reviewed medical charts to collect baseline clinical data. We included patients aged 16 yrs and above with AML or MDS-EB II treated at Kuwait Cancer Center. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were included in the study with median age of 51 yrs. Almost one third of the patients were Kuwaitis (36%). We have 53 patients with AML (92%), 3 patients with MDS-EB II (5%), and 1 patient with chronic myeloid leukemia in myeloid blast crisis (CML-MBC). Most of the patients had at least one mutation (91%) detected by the panel. The most common mutations were FLT3 (ITD & D835), detected 26.3%, followed by NPM-1, detected in 21%. We have noticed an increased PTPN11 mutation, detected in 17.5% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: This is an important study showing extensive molecular abnormalities in AML patients in the region. This will facilitate more understanding of the disease biology.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mieloma Múltiplo , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Humanos , Kuweit , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética
7.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 22 Suppl 2: S297, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36163928

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: CML is one of the successful stories in oncology. Treatment of CML has evolved and goals of therapy have changed over the years. Treatment free remission (TFR) is becoming an attractive goal in CML patients (pts) especially in younger population. AIM: To evaluate the trend of TFR in CML treated pts in Kuwait. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of CML pts treated in Kuwait Cancer Control Center (KCCC) who had a trial of TFR. Data were collected from the charts and electronic medical records. Pts who stopped tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) due to intolerance or pregnancy were included if they were in deep molecular remission (DMR) (3MR4.0) regardless of the duration of therapy. RESULTS: A total of 42 pts was eligible for TFR. Most of our pts were treated with imatinib (93%). All patients achieved optimal milestones, however pts who stopped treatment in DMR due to intolerance or pregnancy were included. Most of our pts were young with a median age of 38 yrs and had a low risk Sokal/ELTS score. Our cohort of pts had a long duration of TKI exposure (103 mons) and DMR (70 mons). At a median follow up of 50 mons, TFR rate was 74%. As shown in table 2, 10 pts (24%) lost TFR and were able to regain DMR upon re-starting TKI. All of them were treated with imatinib. CONCLUSIONS: Successful TFR rates are high among pts treated in Kuwait. This is largely due to a longer duration of therapy and higher percentage of pts with low risk Sokal/ELTS score.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Adulto , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 36(7): 670-682, 2022 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005747

RESUMO

This paper describes the phonological system of a monolingual Kuwaiti Arabic-speaking 9-year-old girl with Down Syndrome (DS) as part of a special crosslinguistic issue presenting individual profiles of children with protracted phonological development within the framework of constraints-based nonlinear phonology. Her responses to a 100-word speech test were audio-recorded and transcribed narrowly by two native speakers. Analyses showed low accuracy for word shapes (CV sequences), primarily because of expected deletion patterns in initial weak syllables and clusters, but also reflecting inaccuracies in segment length. Vowel match was also relatively low. For consonants, she unexpectedly showed lower accuracy for stops than typically later-developing liquids and fricatives. This case study provides researchers and speech-language pathologists with broader information about expected and unexpected patterns in children with DS and protracted phonological development in general.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Fonética , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit , Idioma , Medida da Produção da Fala
9.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014846

RESUMO

Low vitamin D levels among older people represent a significant health problem worldwide. This study aimed to examine the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in older people (aged ≥ 65) in the Kuwaiti population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in seven primary healthcare centers across Kuwait (November 2020 to June 2021). The participants (n = 237) had their serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (analyzed using LC-MS) classified as sufficiency 75 nmol/L (30 ng/mL) or deficiency < 75 nmol/L (below 30 ng/mL). The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with participants in geriatric clinics. Binomial logistic regression analysis was applied to assess factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was found to be present in two thirds of the participants (n = 150, 63%), with a higher prevalence of deficiency in participants who did not receive vitamin D supplements, compared to those who did (84% vs. 16%, p = 0.001). The results from the binary logistic regression showed that a low duration of sun exposure (OR = 0.24, 95% C.I. [0.08-0.7], p = 0.011), dark skin pigmentation (OR = 4.46, 95% [1.35-20.49], p = 0.026), and lower caloric intake (OR = 0.9, 95% C.I. [0.85-0.96], p = 0.001) were risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, a significant inverse relationship was found between vitamin D levels and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (OR = 1.16, 95% C.I. [1.04-1.31], p = 0.016). These findings support the recommendation that vitamin D supplementation and adequate sunlight exposure are necessary for raising low vitamin D levels in older people in Kuwait.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Estações do Ano , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way dentistry has been practiced the world over. This study sought to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the patterns of attendance for dental treatment in a large hospital in Kuwait through comparisons with data from the year prior to the pandemic. METHODS: A total of 176,690 appointment records from 34,250 patients presenting to the AlJahra specialist hospital in Kuwait for dental treatment from April 2019 to March 2021 were analyzed. The types of procedures and the departments in which they presented were analyzed, and the patterns of attendance before and during the pandemic were compared. RESULTS: While there was a significant reduction in the number of orthodontic, endodontic, and periodontal procedures, there were no impacts on oral surgery, restorative procedures, or pediatric dentistry. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a return in the number of patients obtaining dental treatment; however, there has been a definite shift in the use of certain dental procedures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Assistência Odontológica , Hospitais , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272838, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972921

RESUMO

Signed languages such as American Sign Language (ASL) rely on visuospatial information that combines hand and bodily movements, facial expressions, and fingerspelling. Signers communicate in a wide array of sub-optimal environments, such as in dim lighting or from a distance. While fingerspelling is a common and essential part of signed languages, the perception of fingerspelling in difficult visual environments is not well understood. The movement and spatial patterns of ASL are well-suited to representation by dynamic Point Light Display (PLD) stimuli in which human movement is shown as an array of moving dots affixed to joints on the body. We created PLD videos of fingerspelled location names. The location names were either Real (e.g., KUWAIT) or Pseudo-names (e.g., CLARTAND), and the PLDs showed either a High or a Low number of markers. In an online study, Deaf and Hearing ASL users (total N = 283) watched 27 PLD stimulus videos that varied by Word Type and Number of Markers. Participants watched the videos and typed the names they saw, along with how confident they were in their response. We predicted that when signers see ASL fingerspelling PLDs, language experience in ASL will be positively correlated with accuracy and self-rated confidence scores. We also predicted that Real location names would be understood better than Pseudo names. Our findings supported those predictions. We also discovered a significant interaction between Age and Word Type, which suggests that as people age, they use outside world knowledge to inform their fingerspelling success. Finally, we examined the accuracy and confidence in fingerspelling perception in early ASL users. Studying the relationship between language experience with PLD fingerspelling perception allows us to explore how hearing status, ASL fluency levels, and age of language acquisition affect the core abilities of understanding fingerspelling.


Assuntos
Surdez , Nomes , Logro , Humanos , Kuweit , Idioma , Línguas de Sinais
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011435

RESUMO

Impression management (IM) concerns can lead to significant psychological consequences, potentially engendering unethical behavior. Therefore, adopting the stressor-strain-outcome framework, this study explores the effects of IM concerns on unethical behavior through wellbeing, and whether IM on social media (i.e., Instagram) triggers fatigue and results in unethical behavior at work. The findings of two empirical studies (n = 480 and n = 299) in different settings (Kuwait and the UK) suggest that women experience higher effects from IM concerns compared with men in Kuwait, while no gender differences are found in the UK. The results also confirm that impression management on social media platforms triggers fatigue, in turn increasing unethical behavior at work. This study contributes to the IM literature by capturing the effect of Instagram activities on workplace behavior.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Fadiga , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Local de Trabalho
13.
Chemosphere ; 307(Pt 3): 135734, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926745

RESUMO

Kuwait Group aquifers and Dammam Formation are the two prominent aquifers, the wells tapping Dammam Formation and Dual completion wells are used for groundwater production. The current study investigates the spatiotemporal evolution of hydrochemical characteristics of the Shagaya water field utilizing long-term (1975-2019) hydrochemical data from 116 water wells. The Shagaya water well field has been differentiated into A to F sub-Fields. Mann-Kendall and Sen's Slope method along with spatial interpolation of change in TDS with time identified a significant decrease in TDS with time in the major portions of the Shagaya B, C, D, and E Fields. The study infers that 82% of wells extracting water from the Dammam Formation and 42% of Dual completion wells show a decrease in TDS concentration. The most plausible explanation for this phenomenon was the inflow of better-quality water from the up gradient parts of the Kuwait Group and the Dammam Formation aquifers due to the fall in the potentiometric head with high volume production in the well field. The results of ionic ratios (Na/Cl, Ca/Mg, Ca/SO4, Ca + Mg/SO4+HCO3), isotopes (34S, 87Sr/86Sr), relationships between 2H and 18O, and Ne/He and 3He/4He ratios identified that salinization was due to the result of rock-water interaction, ion exchange, mixing between groundwater of Kuwait Group and Dammam Formation and with groundwater from deeper parts of the aquifer. The long-term analysis of the data shows a notable variation of chemistry in a few locations and thus the study helps to manage, sustain groundwater resources, and protection of host aquifers.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/análise , Isótopos/análise , Kuweit , Sorbitol/análogos & derivados , Tiramina/análogos & derivados , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Clin Interv Aging ; 17: 1025-1036, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822127

RESUMO

Background: Potentially inappropriate medications are major health concerns for patients aged ≥65 years. To investigate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications, Beer's criteria can be used. We estimated the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications prescription among patients aged ≥65 years admitted to Kuwait's largest hospital and identified the predictors of prescribing a potentially inappropriate medication. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted retrospectively using inpatient records from the medical department at the Hospital in Kuwait from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019. The latest version of Beer's criteria was used to identify potentially inappropriate medications in patients' medical records. Data were analyzed descriptively to estimate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications and to describe participant characteristics. The predictors of potentially inappropriate medications prescribing were determined using binary logistic regression. Results: A total of 423 medical records of patients were collected. The mean age of the patients admitted was 76 ± 7 years, and 222 of them (52.5%) were women. Upon hospital admission, potentially inappropriate medication was prevalent in 58.4% of patients. The most prevalent potentially inappropriate medications identified were proton pump inhibitors (27.3%), diuretics (21.5%), antipsychotic agents (9%), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (5%), and methyldopa (4%). Polypharmacy, Alzheimer's disease, depression, irritable bowel syndrome, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease were predictors of potentially inappropriate medications prescription. Conclusion: A high prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication prescription was observed among patients aged ≥65 years admitted to a hospital in Kuwait. The most likely predictor of potentially inappropriate medication prescription was polypharmacy.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269204, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental factors can influence the epidemiological dynamics of COVID-19. To estimate the true impact of these factors on COVID-19, climate and disease data should be monitored and analyzed over an extended period of time. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are particularly lacking in such studies. This ecological study investigates the association between climate parameters and COVID-19 cases and deaths in the GCC. METHODS: Data on temperature, wind-speed and humidity and COVID-19 cases and deaths from the six countries of the GCC were collected between 29/1/2020 and 30/3/2021. Using Spearman's correlation coefficient, we examined associations between climate parameters and COVID-19 cases and deaths by month, over four different time periods. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted to identify distinct clusters of data using climate parameters and linear regression analysis to determine which climate parameters predicted COVID-19 new cases and deaths. RESULTS: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) had the highest cumulative number of COVID-19 cases while Bahrain had the highest prevalence rate per 100,000. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) reported the highest cumulative number of deaths while Oman recorded the highest death rate per 100,000. All GCC countries, except the UAE, reported a positive correlation between temperature and cases and deaths. Wind speed was positively correlated with cases in Qatar, but negatively correlated with cases in the UAE and deaths in KSA. Humidity was positively correlated with cases and deaths in Oman, negatively correlated in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and KSA but there was no correlation in the UAE. The most significant predictors in cluster analysis were temperature and humidity, while in the regression analysis, temperature, humidity and wind speed predicted new COVID-19 cases and deaths. CONCLUSION: This study provides comprehensive epidemiological information on COVID-19 and climate parameters and preliminary evidence that climate may play a key role in the transmission of the COVID-19 virus. This study will assist decision makers in translating findings into specific guidelines and policies for the prevention and elimination of COVID-19 transmission and infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Clima , Humanos , Umidade , Incidência , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Omã/epidemiologia , Catar/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(6): 407-417, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815872

RESUMO

Background: There is a paucity of data on the secular trends of stunting and overweight among children aged < 5 years in oil-rich countries in the Middle East. Aims: To examine the secular trends of stunting, underweight and overweight in children aged < 5 years in Kuwait between 2007 and 2019. Methods: We used large individual data records (n=48 108) from the Kuwait Nutritional Surveillance System (KNSS) to calculate height/length-for-age z score (HAZ), weight-for-age z score and body mass index (BMI)-for-age z score using World Health Organization growth references. Stunting and underweight were defined as < -2 standard deviation (SD) and overweight (including obesity) as ≥ +2 SD. Trends of stunting, underweight and overweight were investigated using logistic regression models. Results: The prevalence of stunting, underweight and overweight was 5.15%, 2.33% and 10.78%, respectively. Stunting increased during the study period, among children aged < 2 years. There was no increasing trend in overweight during the study period. These findings were corroborated by the distribution of HAZ and BMI-for-age z scores. Current prevalence of combined stunting and overweight was 1.53% in boys and 1.98% in girls. Conclusion: Current prevalence of stunting and underweight is low in Kuwait indicating that undernutrition is no longer a major public health issue. There is a tendency for stunting to increase in children aged < 2 years, highlighting the need to investigate early causes of stunting such as maternal and pregnancy-related factors.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Magreza , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Magreza/epidemiologia
17.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(7)2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819900

RESUMO

Introduction. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen responsible for community- and nosocomial-acquired infections. The presence of an accessory genome determines the bacterial pathogenicity and the host immune response, and thus indicates multidrug-resistant strains or more virulent groups. Little is known about the virulence genes in K. pneumoniae in Kuwait.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. The diversity of virulence genes and capsule loci in K. pneumoniae isolates warrants further genomic studies to better understand their transmission within the hospitals in Kuwait.Aim. We aimed to investigate the virulence genes harboured by K. pneumoniae isolated from rectal swabs of intensive care unit (ICU) patients in two Kuwaiti teaching hospitals.Methodology. Six isolates from patients in the ICUs of Al Razi and Mubarak hospitals, designated RZH144, RZH132 RZH108 and RZH173, and MKH381 and MKH347, respectively, were subjected to whole-genome sequencing (WGS) assays. RZH144 and RZH132 were non-carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (NCKP) isolates negative for genes encoding carbapenemase production by PCR assays, and the remaining four were carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CPKP) isolates. Isolates were characterized by phenotypic, PCR and WGS methods. Susceptibility testing was performed by E test and clonality by multilocus sequence typing. Analysis of the isolates' assembled contigs was carried out using Kleborate (https://pathogen.watch).Results. An NCPE RZH132 K. pneumoniae isolate belonged to ST231-wzi104 and harboured gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of the siderophore aerobactin (iuc5) on 62-3LV. The capsular locus variants were KL51 and O locus O1v2. Another NCPKP RZH144 isolate was confirmed as ST43-wzi412 and harboured KL61 and O1v1. The four CPKP isolates harboured two virulence loci - ybt14 and iuc5 - encoding the siderophores yersiniabactin and aerobactin, respectively. They belonged to ST231-wzi104 and harboured yersiniabactin on ICEKp5. The sequence type of ybt was YbST145-1LV. Strain RZ108 was devoid of virulence loci. Its sequence type was ST15-wzi151 and harboured KL48 and O1V1. ST231 clonal lineage isolates shared common virulence plasmid variants.Conclusion. The CPKP ST231 had the highest virulence score and contained iuc5, which was found for the first time in ST231-CPKP isolates in Kuwait.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Virulência/genética
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e056371, 2022 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Subsequent protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in paediatrics is not well reported in the literature. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 PCR repositivity in children. DESIGN: This is a population-level retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients were identified through multiple national-level electronic COVID-19 databases that cover all primary, secondary and tertiary centres in Kuwait. PARTICIPANTS: The study included children 12 years and younger between 28 February 2020 and 6 March 2021. SARS-CoV-2 reinfection was defined as having two or more positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests done on a respiratory sample, at least 45 days apart. Clinical data were obtained from the Pediatric COVID-19 Registry in Kuwait. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary measure is to estimate SARS-CoV-2 PCR repositivity rate. The secondary objective was to establish average duration between first and subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Descriptive statistics were used to present clinical data for each infection episode. Also, incidence-sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate 60-day and 90-day PCR repositivity intervals. RESULTS: Thirty paediatric patients with COVID-19 had SARS-CoV-2 reinfection at an incidence of 1.02 (95% CI 0.71 to 1.45) infection per 100 000 person-days and a median time to reinfection of 83 (IQR 62-128.75) days. The incidence of reinfection decreased to 0.78 (95% CI 0.52 to 1.17) and 0.47 (95% CI 0.28 to 0.79) per person-day when the minimum interval between PCR repositivity was increased to 60 and 90 days, respectively. The mean age of reinfected subjects was 8.5 (IQR 3.7-10.3) years and the majority (70%) were girls. Most children (55.2%) had asymptomatic reinfection. Fever was the most common presentation in symptomatic patients. One immunocompromised experienced two reinfection episodes. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is uncommon in children. Previous confirmed COVID-19 in children seems to result in a milder reinfection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reinfecção/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(6)2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the non-communicable disease (NCD) burden in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) has surged over the past decades, the costs and return on investment (ROI) of implementing cost-effective, WHO-recommended NCD interventions have not been established. METHODS: We performed an economic analysis to estimate the ROI from scaling up four sets of NCD interventions over 15 years. We estimated the direct costs of the four main NCDs (cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases) using a prevalence-based, bottom-up cost-of-illness approach. We estimated indirect costs based on productivity loss due to absenteeism, presenteeism and premature deaths. We costed the scaling up of interventions using the WHO Costing Tool and assessed the health impact of interventions using the OneHealth Tool. We calculated ROI by comparing productivity and social benefits with the total costs of implementing the interventions. RESULTS: The four main NCDs cost the GCC economy nearly US$50 billion in 2019, equal to 3.3% of its gross domestic product. The indirect costs are estimated at US$20 billion or 40% of the total burden. Implementing the four modelled intervention packages in the six GCC countries over 15 years will cost US$14 billion, with an ROI of US$4.9 for every US$1 invested and significant health and social benefits, including 290 000 averted premature deaths. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of these six investment cases, we recommend actions to scale up current WHO-recommended cost-effective interventions, strengthen whole-of-government action, drive the NCD legislative agenda, build out the evidence base, generate additional advocacy material, and increase regional collaboration and data-sharing to establish best practices and monitor impact.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Análise Custo-Benefício , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Kuweit , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Omã
20.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268495, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes imposes a large burden on countries' healthcare expenditures. In Kuwait, diabetes prevalence in adults is estimated at 22.0%%-double the worldwide prevalence (9.3%). There is little current data on pharmaceutical costs in Kuwait of managing diabetes and diabetes-related complications and comorbidities. OBJECTIVES: Estimate the utilization and cost of drugs for diabetes and diabetes-related complications and comorbidities in Kuwait for year 2018, as well determinants of costs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a multi-stage stratified sampling method. Patients were Kuwaiti citizens with diabetes, aged 18-80, recruited from all six governorates. Physicians collected demographic data, clinical data, and current drug prescription for each patient which was extrapolated for the full year of 2018. A prevalence-based approach and bottom-up costing were used. Data were described according to facility type (primary care vs. hospital). A generalized linear model with log function and normal distribution compared drug costs for patients with and without comorbidities/complications after adjustments for demographic and health confounders (gender, age group, disease duration, and obesity). RESULTS: Of 1182 diabetes patients, 64.0% had dyslipidemia and 57.7% had hypertension. Additionally, 40.7% had diabetes-related complications, most commonly neuropathy (19.7%). Of all diabetes patients, 85.9% used oral antidiabetics (alone or in combinations), 49.5% used insulin alone or in combinations, and 29.3% used both oral antidiabetics and insulin. The most frequently used oral drug was metformin (75.7%), followed by DPP4 inhibitors (40.2%) and SGLT2 inhibitors (23.8%). The most frequently used injectables were insulin glargine (36.6%), followed by GLP-1 receptor agonists (15.4%). Total annual drug cost for Kuwait's diabetic population for year 2018 was US$201 million (US$1,236.30 per patient for antidiabetics plus drugs for comorbidities/complications). CONCLUSIONS: Drug costs for treating diabetes and comorbidities/complications accounted for an estimated 22.8% of Kuwait's 2018 drug expenditures. Comorbidities and complications add 44.7% to the average drug cost per diabetes patient.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Custos de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Kuweit/epidemiologia
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