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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 16920-16927, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632010

RESUMO

Visual speech facilitates auditory speech perception, but the visual cues responsible for these benefits and the information they provide remain unclear. Low-level models emphasize basic temporal cues provided by mouth movements, but these impoverished signals may not fully account for the richness of auditory information provided by visual speech. High-level models posit interactions among abstract categorical (i.e., phonemes/visemes) or amodal (e.g., articulatory) speech representations, but require lossy remapping of speech signals onto abstracted representations. Because visible articulators shape the spectral content of speech, we hypothesized that the perceptual system might exploit natural correlations between midlevel visual (oral deformations) and auditory speech features (frequency modulations) to extract detailed spectrotemporal information from visual speech without employing high-level abstractions. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that the time-frequency dynamics of oral resonances (formants) could be predicted with unexpectedly high precision from the changing shape of the mouth during speech. When isolated from other speech cues, speech-based shape deformations improved perceptual sensitivity for corresponding frequency modulations, suggesting that listeners could exploit this cross-modal correspondence to facilitate perception. To test whether this type of correspondence could improve speech comprehension, we selectively degraded the spectral or temporal dimensions of auditory sentence spectrograms to assess how well visual speech facilitated comprehension under each degradation condition. Visual speech produced drastically larger enhancements during spectral degradation, suggesting a condition-specific facilitation effect driven by cross-modal recovery of auditory speech spectra. The perceptual system may therefore use audiovisual correlations rooted in oral acoustics to extract detailed spectrotemporal information from visual speech.


Assuntos
Acústica da Fala , Percepção da Fala , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Fonética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: How dental education influences students' dental and dentofacial esthetic perception has been studied for some time, given the importance of esthetics in dentistry. However, no study before has studied this question in a large sample of students from all grades of dental school. This study sought to fill that gap. The aim was to assess if students' dentofacial esthetic autoperception and heteroperception are associated with their actual stage of studies (grade) and if autoperception has any effect on heteroperception. METHODS: Between October 2018 and August 2019, a questionnaire was distributed to 919 dental students of all 5 grades of dental school at all four dental schools in Hungary. The questionnaire consisted of the following parts (see also the supplementary material): 1. Demographic data (3 items), Self-Esthetics I (11 multiple- choice items regarding the respondents' perception of their own dentofacial esthetics), Self-Esthetics II (6 Likert-type items regarding the respondents' perception of their own dentofacial esthetics), and Image rating (10 items, 5 images each, of which the respondents have to choose the one they find the most attractive). Both the self-esthetics and the photo rating items were aimed at the assessment of mini- and microesthetic features. RESULTS: The response rate was 93.7% (861 students). The self-perception of the respondents was highly favorable, regardless of grade or gender. Grade and heteroperception were significantly associated regarding maxillary midline shift (p < 0.01) and the relative visibility of the arches behind the lips (p < 0.01). Detailed analysis showed a characteristic pattern of preference changes across grades for both esthetic aspects. The third year of studies appeared to be a dividing line in both cases, after which a real preference order was established. Association between autoperception and heteroperception could not be verified for statistical reasons. CONCLUSION: Our findings corroborate the results of most previous studies regarding the effect of dental education on the dentofacial esthetic perception of students. We have shown that the effect can be demonstrated on the grade level, which we attribute to the specific curricular contents. We found no gender effect, which, in the light of the literature, suggests that the gender effect in dentofacial esthetic perception is highly culture dependent. The results allow no conclusion regarding the relation between autoperception and heteroperception.


Assuntos
Educação em Odontologia/normas , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Maxila/fisiologia , Faculdades de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Sorriso/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(1): 38-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The request for lip improvement treatments with injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) is increasing. However, as the patient's needs can be extremely different, it is unconceivable to use the same technique/product for clinical different lips to grant customized results. AIMS: To provide a specific treatment approach for clinically different lips based on the Author's clinical experience. PATIENTS/METHODS: Patients belonged to four clinical groups: young lips requiring volume enhancement or a reshaping intervention, and senescent lips requiring rejuvenation or a rebuild intervention. At first visit T0, subjects underwent a pretreatment evaluation and the investigator performed an individual treatment based upon patient's esthetic goals and lip's baseline features. Lip fullness was assessed by the investigator using a Medicis Lip Fullness Scale (MLFS) at first visit (T0) and at 2 weeks (T1). Subjects and investigator answered to the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS) at 2 weeks T1 and at 12 weeks (T2). A photographic evaluation was undertaken at T0 and T2. RESULTS: Only, in the two groups requiring volumization there was 1 grade of improvement in the MLFS (young lips-volume and senescent lips-rebuild). Nonetheless, the performed combination of techniques/products was overall very satisfactory: 80% of the subjects reported a much improved/very much improved outcome in the GAIS, and the same was reported by the investigator in 90% of the subjects. A weak positive correlation was found between MLFS responses and subject's GAIS at T1 in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: This customized treatment approach, consisting in choosing the right gel technology injected in minimum quantities with the right technique, ensures a harmonic result avoiding aberrations and standardizations.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas , Preenchedores Dérmicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Hialurônico/análogos & derivados , Lábio/efeitos dos fármacos , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Injeções , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rejuvenescimento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 146(4): 2522, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671993

RESUMO

A model is described in which the effects of articulatory movements to produce speech are generated by specifying relative acoustic events along a time axis. These events consist of directional changes of the vocal tract resonance frequencies that, when associated with a temporal event function, are transformed via acoustic sensitivity functions, into time-varying modulations of the vocal tract shape. Because the time course of the events may be considerably overlapped in time, coarticulatory effects are automatically generated. Production of sentence-level speech with the model is demonstrated with audio samples and vocal tract animations.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Medida da Produção da Fala , Fala/fisiologia , Acústica , Humanos , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Laringe/fisiologia , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Língua/fisiologia
5.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(10): 3679-3688, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577522

RESUMO

Purpose This study aimed to test whether (and how) somatosensory feedback signals from the vocal tract affect concurrent unimodal visual speech perception. Method Participants discriminated pairs of silent visual utterances of vowels under 3 experimental conditions: (a) normal (baseline) and while holding either (b) a bite block or (c) a lip tube in their mouths. To test the specificity of somatosensory-visual interactions during perception, we assessed discrimination of vowel contrasts optically distinguished based on their mandibular (English /ɛ/-/æ/) or labial (English /u/-French /u/) postures. In addition, we assessed perception of each contrast using dynamically articulating videos and static (single-frame) images of each gesture (at vowel midpoint). Results Engaging the jaw selectively facilitated perception of the dynamic gestures optically distinct in terms of jaw height, whereas engaging the lips selectively facilitated perception of the dynamic gestures optically distinct in terms of their degree of lip compression and protrusion. Thus, participants perceived visible speech movements in relation to the configuration and shape of their own vocal tract (and possibly their ability to produce covert vowel production-like movements). In contrast, engaging the articulators had no effect when the speaking faces did not move, suggesting that the somatosensory inputs affected perception of time-varying kinematic information rather than changes in target (movement end point) mouth shapes. Conclusions These findings suggest that orofacial somatosensory inputs associated with speech production prime premotor and somatosensory brain regions involved in the sensorimotor control of speech, thereby facilitating perception of concordant visible speech movements. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.9911846.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Gestos , Humanos , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Boca/fisiologia , Movimento , Fonética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes de Discriminação da Fala , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Neurophysiol ; 122(5): 2076-2084, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509469

RESUMO

Speech motor control and learning rely on both somatosensory and auditory inputs. Somatosensory inputs associated with speech production can also affect the process of auditory perception of speech, and the somatosensory-auditory interaction may play a fundamental role in auditory perception of speech. In this report, we show that the somatosensory system contributes to perceptual recalibration, separate from its role in motor function. Subjects participated in speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. Auditory perception of speech was assessed in phonemic identification tests before and after speech adaptation. To investigate a role of the somatosensory system in motor adaptation and subsequent perceptual change, we applied orofacial skin stretch in either a backward or forward direction during the auditory feedback alteration as a somatosensory modulation. We found that the somatosensory modulation did not affect the amount of adaptation at the end of training, although it changed the rate of adaptation. However, the perception following speech adaptation was altered depending on the direction of the somatosensory modulation. Somatosensory inflow rather than motor outflow thus drives changes to auditory perception of speech following speech adaptation, suggesting that somatosensory inputs play an important role in tuning of perceptual system.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This article reports that the somatosensory system works not equally with the motor system, but predominantly in the calibration of auditory perception of speech by speech production.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291323

RESUMO

Elderly people show a decline in the ability to decode facial expressions, but also experience age-related facial structure changes that may render their facial expressions harder to decode. However, to date there is no empirical evidence to support the latter mechanism. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of age on facial morphology at rest and during smiling, in younger (n = 100; age range, 18-32 years) and older (n = 30; age range, 55-65 years) Japanese women. Three-dimensional images of each subject's face at rest and during smiling were obtained and wire mesh fitting was performed on each image to quantify the facial surface morphology. The mean node coordinates in each facial posture were compared between the groups using t-tests. Further, the node coordinates of the fitted mesh were entered into a principal component analysis (PCA) and a multifactor analysis of variance (MANOVA) to examine the direct interactions of aging and facial postures on the 3D facial morphology. The results indicated that there were significant age-related 3D facial changes in facial expression generation and the transition from resting to smiling produced a smaller amount of soft tissue movement in the older group than in the younger group. Further, 185 surface configuration variables were extracted and the variables were used to create four discriminant functions: the age-group discrimination for each facial expression, and the facial expression discrimination for each age group. For facial expression discrimination, the older group showed 80% accuracy with 2 of 66 significant variables, whereas the younger group showed 99% accuracy with 15 of 144 significant variables. These results indicate that in both facial expressions, the facial morphology was distinctly different in the younger and older subjects, and that in the older group, the facial morphology during smiling could not be as easily discriminated from the morphology at rest as in the younger group. These results may help to explain one aspect of the communication dysfunction observed in older people.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Face/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Sorriso/fisiologia , Idoso , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento Tridimensional , Lábio/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Compr Child Adolesc Nurs ; 42(sup1): 1-8, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192742

RESUMO

Respiratory disease in children can contribute to damaged alveoli, frailty of respiratory muscles, reduced lung function, impaired gas exchange, and gas retention in the airway. Such condition may lead to disruption of oxygen status. This study aimed to examine the effects of modified pursed lips breathing (PLB) by blowing into a water-filled bottle through a straw and a party whistle on the oxygenation status in children with oxygenation problems. This study used a quasi-experiment method with a pretest-posttest without a control group design approach. The sample consisted of 32 school-aged children and adolescents who were divided into two intervention groups. Group 1 underwent modified PLB by blowing into a water-filled bottle through a straw and Group 2 was provided with modified PLB by blowing a party whistle. The intervention was conducted one time in a day, in a rest time, for 10 min. The results showed that modified PLB by blowing into a water-filled bottle through a straw was more effective in reducing respiratory rate (RR) and improving oxygen saturation (SpO2) than modified PLB by blowing a party whistle. Modified PLB intervention by blowing into a water-filled bottle through a straw improved the oxygenation status of children affected by oxygenation problems. This intervention can be implemented as an independent nursing intervention to improve children's oxygenation status.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/normas , Lábio/fisiologia , Oximetria/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração , Adolescente , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Criança , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Oximetria/métodos , Pediatria/métodos
9.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(5): 1326-1337, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058562

RESUMO

Purpose Oral air pressure measurements during lip occlusion for /pVpV/ syllable strings are used to estimate subglottal pressure during the vowel. Accuracy of this method relies on smoothly produced syllable repetitions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the oral air pressure waveform during the /p/ lip occlusions and propose physiological explanations for nonflat shapes. Method Ten adult participants were trained to produce the "standard condition" and were instructed to produce nonstandard tasks. Results from 8 participants are included. The standard condition required participants to produce /pːiːpːiː.../ syllables smoothly at approximately 1.5 syllables/s. The nonstandard tasks included an air leak between the lips, faster syllable repetition rates, an initial voiced consonant, and 2-syllable word productions. Results Eleven oral air pressure waveform shapes were identified during the lip occlusions, and plausible physiological explanations for each shape are provided based on the tasks in which they occurred. Training the use of the standard condition, the initial voice consonant condition, and the 2-syllable word production increased the likelihood of rectangular oral air pressure waveform shapes. Increasing the rate beyond 1.5 syllables/s improved the probability of producing rectangular oral air pressure signal shapes in some participants. Conclusions Visual and verbal feedback improved the likelihood of producing rectangular oral air pressure signal shapes. The physiological explanations of variations in the oral air pressure waveform shape may provide direction to the clinician or researcher when providing feedback to increase the accuracy of estimating subglottal pressure from oral air pressure.


Assuntos
Pressão do Ar , Glote/fisiologia , Lábio/fisiologia , Fonação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(2): 297-306, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950699

RESUMO

Purpose Facial transplantation involves partial or total replacement of neuromuscular and skeletal structures of the face, head, and neck using donor tissues and is among the most extensive facial reconstructive procedures. This case report compares changes in speech production and articulator movement in a 44-year-old man from pretransplant to a 13-month posttransplant period. Method Speech production and articulator movement data were examined at 5 time points, once pretransplant and 4 times posttransplant (4, 7, 10, and 13 months), and compared to 4 healthy controls. A motion capture system was used to track jaw and vertical/horizontal lip movement during nonspeech and speech tasks. Speech intelligibility, jaw displacement, lip aperture, and movement variability were measured. Results Speech intelligibility varied across the study period and was restored to control status by 7 months posttransplant. Jaw displacement and lip aperture in the vertical plane significantly increased over time for nonspeech and speech tasks. Changes in horizontal lip movements over time were minimal. Jaw and lip movement variability fluctuated over time and was greater than the controls by 13 months posttransplant. Discussion Findings quantify changes in articulator movement and contributions to improved speech production following facial transplant. Changes reflect the adaptability of the speech motor system and are discussed in relation to pretransplant speech motor control patterns.


Assuntos
Transplante de Face , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Queimaduras/fisiopatologia , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Humanos , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Medida da Produção da Fala
11.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 18(2): 444-450, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861627

RESUMO

The authors of this review present a comprehensive assessment of the techniques and indications in the treatment of the long upper lip. Setting aside the maxillofacial malformations, the review is focused on senescence as the most frequent etiology. A graphical reminder of the anatomical entities and of the upper lip proportions allows optimal preoperative planning. All current treatment options, from fillers to surgical excision and dermabrasion, are reviewed and summarized in order to provide an overview of each technique's expected results and contraindications.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Técnicas Cosméticas/normas , Lábio/fisiologia , Rejuvenescimento , Dermabrasão/métodos , Dermabrasão/normas , Preenchedores Dérmicos/administração & dosagem , Preenchedores Dérmicos/normas , Estética , Humanos , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Lábio/cirurgia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
12.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 45(3): 319-335, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730175

RESUMO

In the form preparation task, participants verbally produce words in small sets, which either overlap on an early phonological fragment or contrast on that fragment. A canonical account of word-form encoding assumes a sequential phonological encoding phase necessarily preceding subsequent retrieval of a discrete phonetic motor plan. This account assumes that acoustic onset and speech onset are equivalent, and that speech onset never precedes complete processing of the stimulus. In two form preparation experiments, we examined the influence of anticipatory processes on preacoustic lip articulation. We used motion-tracked digital video to measure continuous changes in vertical lip aperture. In sets with initial segment overlap, participants configured their lips to anticipate upcoming aerodynamic demands, before stimulus presentation. Anticipatory posturing arose even when initial segment was only 75% certain. These findings appear inconsistent with extant speech models that assume ballistic execution of a fully encoded, certainly known response. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Lábio/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Leitura , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 143(5): 1333-1342, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Findings from photometric analysis of soft tissue on cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrate that the aging upper lip shows significant lengthening, thinning, volume loss, and deepening of the nasolabial folds. In this study, these findings are implemented in a review of 500 cases of upper lip rejuvenation to propose an evidence-based strategy for surgical rejuvenation of the upper lip. METHODS: The charts of 500 consecutive surgical perioral rejuvenation patients treated by the senior authors (P.L.T. and A.M.V.) from 2014 until 2018 were reviewed. The surgical methods of lip lift and fat grafting were described in relation to the cases and the metric data. RESULTS: Of the 500 patients, 51 had an isolated procedure such as a lip lift (3 percent), lip augmentation (3 percent), augmentation of the nasolabial folds (2 percent), or skin resurfacing (2 percent). The remaining 449 patients underwent combinations of lip lift, augmentation of the lip and nasolabial fold (32 percent), lip lift with augmentation of the lip and nasolabial fold with resurfacing (30 percent), lip augmentation and resurfacing (14 percent), or lip lift and resurfacing (14 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Rejuvenating the upper lip needs to address both lengthening and volume loss. This requires a combination of surgical shortening of the upper lip by a precisely designed lip lift and a differential filling of certain upper lip regions by microfat grafting. The combination of these two modalities works synergistically. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Lábio/cirurgia , Rejuvenescimento , Envelhecimento da Pele , Tecido Adiposo/transplante , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lábio/diagnóstico por imagem , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sulco Nasogeniano/cirurgia , Fotometria , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
ANZ J Surg ; 89(7-8): 940-944, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of lip defects following neoplasia and trauma is a common procedure in plastic surgery. Reconstruction of large lip defects is a difficult undertaking and some degree of residual functional impairment and disability are likely to occur. Microsurgical reconstruction is the recommended technique for large lip defects; however, limitations exist regarding optimal aesthetic and functional outcomes with current free flap options. METHOD: We propose a new composite flap design based on the innervated pronator quadratus with the radial forearm free flap for a more dynamic reconstruction of total or near total lip defects. Results of our series of four patients have been reviewed. RESULTS: The radial forearm flap - innervated pronator quadratus flap has been used in four patients thus far for lip reconstruction. This flap, in our limited series has shown excellent results in achieving oral competence, good motor function and acceptable cosmetic appearance. CONCLUSION: The composite radial forearm-pronator quadratus flap is a promising new lip reconstruction technique that has potential to provide a higher level of oral competence, sphincteric function and symmetrical lip movement, than current microsurgical options in dynamic lip reconstruction. This method warrants further investigation in plastic surgery literature.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Lábio/cirurgia , Músculo Esquelético/transplante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Antebraço , Humanos , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
15.
Pediatr Res ; 85(3): 349-354, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reliable screening for iron deficiency (ID) has required a blood sample and cost-intensive laboratory measurements. A novel method to non-invasively measure erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), an established marker for ID, is evaluated in children. METHODS: ZnPP was determined non-invasively by fluorescence measurements on the wet vermillion of the lower lip in 99 hospitalized children aged 9 months to 5 years. For comparison, conventional ID parameters and ZnPP were determined from blood samples. RESULTS: The non-invasively measured ZnPP values had limits of agreement (LoA) of 14 µmol ZnPP/mol heme (95% confidence interval: 9-20) compared to fluorescence measurements directly in blood. Repeated high-performance liquid chromatography reference determinations had comparable LoA of 14 µmol ZnPP/mol heme (9-17). Non-invasive ZnPP measurements had sensitivity and specificity of 67% (39-88%) and 97% (91-99%), and negative and positive predictive value of 94% (90-97%) and 80% (55-93%), for detecting ID as defined by the soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). In groups with more severe ID as defined by serum ferritin and sTfR, higher ZnPP values were found, with the highest ZnPP values for the group with ID anemia. CONCLUSION: Non-invasive ZnPP measurements are reliably feasible in children. The simple and fast method has the potential to enable wide-spread screening for ID.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Eritrócitos/química , Lábio/fisiologia , Protoporfirinas/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Ferritinas , Fluorescência , Heme/química , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Protoporfirinas/sangue
16.
Neuropsychologia ; 128: 290-296, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317325

RESUMO

Listening to speech has been shown to activate motor regions, as measured by corticobulbar excitability. In this experiment, we explored if motor regions are also recruited during listening to non-native speech, for which we lack both sensory and motor experience. By administering Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) over the left motor cortex we recorded corticobulbar excitability of the lip muscles when Italian participants listened to native-like and non-native German vowels. Results showed that lip corticobulbar excitability increased for a combination of lip use during articulation and non-nativeness of the vowels. Lip corticobulbar excitability was further related to measures obtained in perception and production tasks showing a negative relationship with nativeness ratings and a positive relationship with the uncertainty of lip movement during production of the vowels. These results suggest an active and compensatory role of the motor system during listening to perceptually/articulatory unfamiliar phonemes.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Potencial Evocado Motor , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Lábio/inervação , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Medida da Produção da Fala , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
17.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 143(3): 701-709, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to illustrate a novel technique for lifting of the aging upper lip with nasal tip plasty in Asians. With this procedure, a shortening of the philtrum, an increase of the vermilion, and a natural and nicer mouth can be obtained, with increase of the tip of the nose simultaneously. METHODS: Thirty patients were the subjects of this study. Incisions were made bilaterally beginning at the alar fold, entering nostrils, and rising medially on the skin below the lower margin of the medial crura. Excess skin of the philtrum was eliminated in two separate pieces and the muscle was suspended to the base of the nose with interrupted stitches. RESULTS: All patients expressed a high degree of satisfaction. The average ratio between the L1 reference line and the height of the upper lip measurement preoperatively was 0.43 ± 0.05. This ratio was improved postoperatively to an average of 0.32 ± 0.05. The nasolabial angle was 91.31 ± 4.19 degrees before surgery and 105.62 ± 5.04 degrees after surgery. The angle of the upper lip was 48.97 ± 2.41 degrees before surgery and 38.21 ± 3.34 degrees after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Lip lift is an effective tool for correcting a natural tendency of the upper lip to cover the upper teeth during aging. There is a dramatic improvement in the patient's facial aesthetic appearance during smiling and at rest. The authors strongly recommend this technique as part of the surgical procedure to achieve a youthful face. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, V.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Estética , Rejuvenescimento/psicologia , Rinoplastia/métodos , Ritidoplastia/métodos , Adulto , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lábio/fisiologia , Lábio/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nariz/fisiologia , Nariz/cirurgia , Satisfação do Paciente , Sorriso/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 47(1): 6-14, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471936

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To introduce a modified protocol for mandibular reconstruction and evaluate the protocol using a standardized assessment method. METHOD: This retrospective study involved a case series of nine patients who underwent mandibular reconstruction between 2015 and 2017. The modular protocol comprised three novel modifications in terms of computer-assisted surgical simulation (CASS); surgical template (ST), and surgical procedure. The standardized postoperative evaluation consisted of operation time, part comparison analysis (PCA), facial symmetry, and mechanical quantitative sensory testing. RESULTS: The surgery successfully removed the affected mandible and preserved the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle (IANB). PCA revealed that the mean error and standard deviation were 0.92 and 0.96 mm, respectively, for all mandibular surface sites. Follow-up results showed good facial symmetry, existence of sensation in lower lip, and no significant differences in pulp vitality between both sides (p = 0.181). Also, the results showed a reduction in the overall operating time. CONCLUSION: The modified mandibular reconstruction method used in this study could repair lateral mandibular defects and preserve the sensory function of the chin and lower lip.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Reconstrução Mandibular/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Placas Ósseas , Parafusos Ósseos , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Queixo/irrigação sanguínea , Queixo/inervação , Queixo/fisiologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/irrigação sanguínea , Face/inervação , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Lábio/irrigação sanguínea , Lábio/inervação , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Mandíbula/irrigação sanguínea , Mandíbula/inervação , Neoplasias Mandibulares/cirurgia , Nervo Mandibular , Osteotomia Mandibular/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Osteotomia/métodos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensação , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Titânio , Adulto Jovem
19.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 31(9): 1243-1248, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Masticatory performance of elderly complete denture wearers is low, which may lead to restriction on intakes of several foods such as fresh fruit or raw vegetables. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tongue motor function, lip motor function, and mixing ability in complete denture wearers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants comprised 54 complete denture wearers with a mean age of 77.1 years. Maximum tongue pressure and oral diadochokinesis were measured to evaluate tongue and lip motor functions. A color-changeable, chewing gum was used to evaluate mixing ability. The relationship between tongue and lip motor functions and mixing ability was assessed using stepwise multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: The stepwise multiple regression analysis identified maximum tongue pressure, the number of repetitions of the syllable "ka", and gender as significant predictors for mixing ability among complete denture wearers. DISCUSSION: The elderly edentulous individuals mainly used tongue motor function in oral motor functions for mixing color-changeable chewing gums, which might be ascribable to wearing complete dentures. CONCLUSIONS: Under the limited conditions of this study, factors relating to tongue motor function, tongue pressure and the number of repetitions of the syllable "/ka"/ significantly contributed to the mixing ability of complete denture wearers. It was suggested that tongue motor function had positive effect on the mixing ability of complete denture wearers.


Assuntos
Prótese Total/efeitos adversos , Lábio/fisiologia , Mastigação/fisiologia , Língua/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pressão
20.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(4): 1199-1206, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460515

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Lower lip retraction (LLR) in rats has been described as a distinctive effect of 5-HT1A agonists. In the course of evaluating behavioral effects of cannabinoid agonists in rats, LLR effects were evident following injection of several cannabinoid agonists. OBJECTIVES: To pharmacologically characterize cannabinoid-induced LLR in rats. METHODS: Lower lip retraction was scored using a 3-point scale for up to 6 h after injection of the cannabinoid agonists Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, 1-10 mg/kg), AM7499 (0.01-1.0 mg/kg), or AM2389 (0.003-0.1 mg/kg), or, for comparison, the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.01-0.3 mg/kg). Next, antagonist effects of rimonabant (1-10 mg/kg) and WAY100635 (0.3 mg/kg) on LLR produced by cannabinoid or 5-HT1A agonists were evaluated. Lastly, effects of 8-OH-DPAT were determined following pretreatment with AM2389 (0.003-0.01 mg/kg) or Δ9-THC (1 mg/kg). RESULTS: All three cannabinoid agonists produced LLR. Effects of AM2389 were attenuated by both rimonabant and WAY100635 whereas effects of 8-OH-DPAT were antagonized by WAY 100635 but not by rimonabant. Pretreatment with 1 mg/kg Δ9-THC or 0.01 mg/kg AM2389 shifted the 8-OH-DPAT dose-effect function for LLR to the left and isobolographic analysis of the data indicates CB1 and 5-HT1A interactions can be supraadditive. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabinoid agonists produce LLR in rats, an effect heretofore ascribed only to activity at 5-HT1A receptors, via CB1 receptor-mediated actions. Co-administration of a cannabinoid agonist and the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT results in a synergistic effect on LLR.


Assuntos
8-Hidroxi-2-(di-n-propilamino)tetralina/farmacologia , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Lábio/efeitos dos fármacos , Lábio/fisiologia , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacologia , Animais , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo
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