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1.
Waste Manag ; 102: 149-160, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678801

RESUMO

Textile waste presents a serious environmental problem with only a small fraction of products from the fashion industry collected and re-used or recycled. The problem is exacerbated in the case of post-consumer waste by the mixture of different natural and synthetic fibres in blended textiles. The separation of mixed fibre waste, where garments are often multicomponent, presents a major recycling problem as fibres must be separated to single components to enable effective recycling. This work investigates the selective digestion of wool fibres from wool/polyester blended fabrics using an enzymatic approach. Complete degradation of wool fibres was achieved by application of a keratinase in a two-step process with addition of reducing agent and undigested polyester fibres were recovered. Electron microscopy showed complete breakdown of the natural fibres in the fabric blends, while spectroscopic and mechanical analysis of the recovered synthetic fibres confirmed that the enzymatic treatment had no significant impact on the properties of the polyester compared to virgin samples. The polyester fibres are therefore suitable to be recycled to polyester yarn and re-used in the manufacture of new garments or other products. The nutrient rich keratin hydrolysate could be used in microbial growth media or incorporated into bio-fertilisers or animal feed, contributing to the development of the circular economy.


Assuntos
Poliésteres , , Animais , Reciclagem , Têxteis , Fibra de Lã
2.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863114

RESUMO

The keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are structural components of wool fibers and variation in the genes encoding the KAPs can affect wool traits. In this study, sequence variation in the ovine KAP7-1 gene (KRTAP7-1) was investigated in 222 sheep across 5 different Pakistani breeds and breed crosses. Two previously identified variants (A and B) of the KRTAP7-1 coding sequence were identified. The frequency of the genotypes AA and AB was 76% and 23%, respectively, and that of BB was 1%. The association of sequence variation with various wool traits and measurements included yield (the proportion of greasy fleece weight that is clean fleece), mean staple length (MSL), wool bulk, mean fiber diameter, fiber diameter SD, the coefficient of variation of fiber diameter, medullation, the SD of medullation, the coefficient of variation of medullation, fiber opacity, the SD of opacity, and the coefficient of variation of opacity. Variation in KRTAP7-1 was found to be associated with yield (P = 0.017). The adjusted mean yield of sheep of genotype AA (n = 169) was 79.9 ±â€…2.72%, while that of genotype AB (n = 51) was 81.9 ±â€…3.37%. There was also an association between variation in KRTAP7-1 and MSL (P = 0.024), with sheep of genotype AA (n = 169) having an adjusted mean MSL of 47.3 ±â€…0.57 mm compared with sheep of genotype AB (n = 51, 50.9 ±â€…0.65 mm). Yield and MSL are both important wool production traits, hence variation in KRTAP7-1 needs to be further investigated in more sheep of differing breed.


Assuntos
Queratinas Específicas do Cabelo/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Ovinos/genética , Lã/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Genótipo , Queratinas/genética , Fenótipo
3.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 83-88, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374611

RESUMO

Wool harvesting remains an important industry in Australia, but its workers suffer from extreme rates of injury, in particular, the lower back injuries. Reducing injuries in sheep shearing could be as simple as extending shearer rest periods between sheep, but the effect of this has not previously been studied. The lumbar flexion-relaxation phenomenon is present in sheep shearing and the onset angle of this phenomenon can provide insight into lower back injury risk. The increase in the onset angle of lumbar flexion-relaxation over several work-rest periods for a simulated sheep shearing task is studied. The rate of increase in the onset angle of lumbar flexion-relaxation was higher when shorter breaks were taken for all participants at least unilaterally, indicating that longer rest breaks could reduce back injury risk. Due to the constraints of the sheep shearing occupation, this type of intervention is better suited to learner and novice shearers. Assistive robotic devices would be more suited to reduce injuries in expert shearers, and some insight is provided for the application of these within sheep shearing. Further study of this phenomenon in sheep shearing could provide additional insight to developing an assistive device that could reduce injury.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Região Lombossacral/fisiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Animais , Austrália , Humanos , Masculino , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Descanso , Ovinos , , Adulto Jovem
4.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330793

RESUMO

Sorption of Co(II) was investigated on natural as well as accelerated electron beam modified sheep wool involving low and high concentrations up to 200 mmol·dm-3. The sorption experiments confirmed the dependence of the sorption capacity not only on sorbate concentration and absorbed dose of energy, but also on post-exposure time. Post-exposure heating to accelerate transformation of the wool structure was of no effect on the sorption comparing with a simple storage for a period of 100 days. Under all tested conditions, the sorption maximum was measured for Co(II) concentration of 125 mmol·dm-3 and that was assigned to form a Co(II) complex with keratin. This assumption was tested on visible spectra of mixed solutions of Arginine and Co(II) to be a simplified model of Co(II) interaction with keratin. The sorption decrease is associated with generation of cross links between macro-chains through ligands of the Co-complex. The nodal points are a hindrance to diffusion of next ions into the fibers. Also, pH variations of aqueous extracts from the wool samples depending on absorbed dose and post-exposure time indicate complexity of the structural transformation being specific for each dose applied.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Elétrons , Lã/química , Lã/efeitos da radiação , Adsorção , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Queratinas , Radiação Ionizante , Ovinos
5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 552: 494-505, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154244

RESUMO

Removal of naphthols, as one of the most common pharmaceutical intermediates which released in the wastewater, is in the top priority for the time being. In the current study, zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIF-8, Zn & ZIF-67, Co) were directly prepared within the matrix of wool fabric to remove 2-naphthol from water. The ZIF@wool fabric composite was firstly prepared and then characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, electronic microscope and energy dispersive X-ray. The material contents within wool were measured to be 118.3-128.8 mg/g for ZIF and 31.5-33.0 mg/g for M+2 (Zn & Co). The as-prepared composites were applied in the removal of 2-naphthol from water. Adsorption of 2-naphthol onto composites was followed to pseudo-first order kinetic model and the rate of adsorption was speeded up two times after incorporation of ZIF inside wool. Adsorption data were fully obeyed to Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity was extremely enlarged from 197.1 mg/g for wool to 371.2-391.1 mg/g for ZIF@wool composite, attributing to the increment in active binding sites. By regeneration for 4 cycles, the adsorption capacities of composites was reduced by only 8-9%. It is hypothesized that, the as-synthesized ZIF@wool fabric composite is a highly applicable adsorbent composite and could be safely applied in removing of 2-naphthol with the capability for the recycling.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Lã/química , Zeolitas/química , Zinco/química , Adsorção , Animais , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água , Zeolitas/síntese química
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 134: 1170-1178, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128183

RESUMO

This study presents a new approach to enhance reactive dye uptake and functional finishing of wool yarns via simple grafting with synthesized chitosan-acrylamide (Ch-Ac) hybrid. To this, Ch-Ac was synthesized and characterized with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Then, Ch-Ac was grafted on wool, characterized with FTIR, SEM, and weight gain analysis and dyeability with two commercial reactive dyes. Results showed that Ch-Ac treated wool could be dyed at lower temperatures (ca. 40 °C), times (ca. 30 min), and amount of reactive dye (2% owf) as compared to raw wool. Also, deeper shades not obtainable in conventional dyeing could be attained using Ch-Ac treated wool. In addition, Ch-Ac treatment imparted very good radical scavenging and excellent antibacterial activity against gram-negative (E. coli) and gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria. Color fastness results confirmed that Ch-Ac treatment had no adverse effect on durability of dyes against washing, light, rubbing and perspiration. The results of this study clearly indicated that Ch-Ac can be used in eco-friendly functional finishing of wool with enhanced reactive dye uptake, minimized residual dye in wastewater, saving in consumption of chemicals, energy, and time of dyeing.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Quitosana , , Acrilamida/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Corantes/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Estrutura Molecular , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Lã/química , Lã/ultraestrutura
7.
Med Vet Entomol ; 33(4): 491-497, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136024

RESUMO

To identify flystrike-related volatile compounds in wool from Merino sheep, the attractiveness of wool to Lucilia cuprina Wiedmann (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was examined. First, a selection of wool samples guided by previous knowledge of sheep lines, predicted to be more susceptible or more resistant to flystrike, was tested. The attractiveness of the 10 samples selected was not associated with field susceptibility: two samples from the more resistant line were identified as most attractive and two samples from the more susceptible line were identified as least attractive, based on the behavioural assays with gravid flies. Comparison of the headspace volatiles of these samples, using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-electroantennographic detection, revealed octanal and nonanal to be present in the attractive wool samples that elicited responses from the fly antenna. Furthermore, the two compounds were not present in wool that was least attractive to L. cuprina. In laboratory bioassays, octanal and nonanal evoked antennal and behavioural responses in gravid L. cuprina, thus confirming their potential role as semiochemicals responsible for attracting L. cuprina to Merino sheep.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Odorantes/análise , Feromônios/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Animais , Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Lã/química
8.
Adv Mater ; 31(28): e1900870, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081271

RESUMO

The ability to pattern natural polymers at different scales is extremely important for many research areas, such as cell culture, regenerative medicine, bioelectronics, tissue engineering, degradable implants, and photonics. For the first time, the use of wool keratin (WK) as a structural biomaterial for fabricating precise protein microarchitectures is presented. Through straightforward biochemical processes, modified WK proteins become intrinsically photoreactive without significant changes in protein structure or function. Under light irradiation, intermolecular chemical crosslinking between WK molecules can be successfully initiated by using commercially available photoinitiators. As a result, high-performance WK patterning on the micrometer scale (µm) can be achieved through a combination of water-based photolithography techniques. By simply mixing with nanoparticles, enzymes, and other dopants, various "functional WK resists" can be generated. In addition, without the addition of any cell-adhesive ligands, these patterned protein microstructures are demonstrated as bio-friendly cellular substrates for the spatial guidance of cells on their surface. Furthermore, periodic microfabricated WK structures in complex patterns that display typical iridescent behavior can be designed and formed over macroscale areas (cm).


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Queratinas/química , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Lã/química , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica
9.
Zoology (Jena) ; 133: 40-53, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979389

RESUMO

Mammalian hairs are internally patterned from both a morphological and proteomic perspective to exhibit specific functional traits, including curvature, which is important for coat structure affecting thermo-insulation. Most functional traits in mammalian coats are complex emergent phenomena associated with single-fibre properties that are themselves multi-variate and poorly understood. Here we compare hair curvature, ultrastructure, microstructure, protein composition and felting (a functional attribute) between fibres from natural straight-wool mutants of domestic sheep (felting lustre-mutant sheep), their wild-type relatives and also with a straight-haired semi-lustrous breed, English Leicester. Proteomic and structural results confirmed that the straight lustre mutant fibres had a normal cuticle and the same cortical protein and ultrastructural building blocks as wild-type fibres, but differed from equivalent fibres from wild-type relatives and English Leicester in layout and relative proportions. While curved wild-type fibres had bilaterally arranged orthocortex and paracortex, and English Leicester fibres had a scatter of paracortex on a background of orthocortex, lustre mutant fibres typically had a complete or partial ring of orthocortex surrounding a paracortex core, and sometimes a central orthocortex (similar to straight human and goat hairs). Lustre mutant fibres also had a reduced abundance of some high glycine-tyrosine proteins, normally associated with the orthocortex, with a possible relationship between the protein expression of the KAP8 and KAP16 protein families and fibre felting properties. We conclude that through control of the internal fibre patterning, multiple-solutions to hair curvature are possible, and variation may affect mechanical phenotype differently. Felting lustre mutant sheep will be a useful tool for discriminating cause and effect from non-causative correlation in mammalian fibre development.


Assuntos
Cabelo/ultraestrutura , Ovinos/fisiologia , Lã/ultraestrutura , Animais , Cruzamento , Cabelo/fisiologia , Proteínas , Ovinos/genética , Lã/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214734, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958853

RESUMO

Hormonal assessment tools are important for determining the reproductive success of production animals. This study used non-invasive wool assessment to quantify changes in progesterone and cortisol levels in reproducing female merino sheep. Wool samples were collected from a group of n = 46 maiden merino ewes (22-25 months old), naturally joined under natural light conditions in southern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Three shearing opportunities were conducted as part of standard on-farm management practices. The wool samples were collected at three different dates during 2017, January (prior to rams being put out with the mob and to provide a baseline level since previous shearing in May 2016), September (during very late stages of gestation-approximately 2 weeks prior to parturition) and December (ewes had given birth and ~2-month-old lambs were at foot). Analysis of cortisol and progesterone was conducted concurrently from the same sample of wool. The hormones in wool samples quantified using commercially available cortisol and progesterone enzyme-immunoassay kits. Wool cortisol concentrations increased significantly (p = 3.04E-14) from pre-joining in January (1.33±0.12 ng/g) to late gestation in September (3.59±0.12 ng/g). Concentration of wool cortisol post-lambing in December (3.27±0.14 ng/g) did not decline significantly (p = 0.124) after gestation however remained significantly higher (p = 3.82E-10) than pre-joining levels. Wool progesterone (PG) concentrations increased significantly (p = 1.83E-33) from pre-joining (0.04±0.005 ng/g) in January to late gestation in September (5.53±0.13 ng/g) with a significant (p = 5.44E-59) decline observed in December (0.05±0.003 ng/g) to post- pregnancy concentrations. No significant difference was shown between pre-joining and post lambing PG concentrations (p = 0.057). Our results showed that non-invasive assessment of hormones in Merino sheep wool reflected significant increase in both cortisol and progesterone guided by pregnancy.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/análise , Progesterona/análise , Lã/metabolismo , Animais , Austrália , Cruzamento , Feminino , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Carneiro Doméstico
11.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(6): 1045-1061, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935300

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the development and growth cycle of hair follicles (HFs). The molecular mechanism by which miRNAs determine the development of HFs in the sheep foetus remains elusive. In this study, the expression profiles of miRNAs at 11 development periods (45, 55, 65, 75, 85, 95, 105, 115, 125, 135 and 145 d) in sheep foetus skin were analysed by high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. A total of 72 conserved miRNAs, 44 novel miRNAs and 32 known miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed. qRT-PCR results for 18 miRNAs were consistent with the sequencing data. 85 d of foetal development was the starting point for secondary hair follicle (SF) development according to tissue morphology and cluster analysis. In SF development, the prolactin signalling pathway and platelet activation played important roles, and 10 miRNAs were potential candidate miRNAs in SF initiation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/genética , Ovinos/embriologia , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ativação Plaquetária , Prolactina/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima ,
12.
Behav Processes ; 164: 59-64, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014981

RESUMO

Nest building is a taxonomically widespread behaviour that consists of the construction of a suitable receptacle with collected materials for the incubation of eggs and sometimes for the raising of offspring. The use of specific nest materials has important fitness consequences for avian parents and offspring because they help to determine the thermal, parasitic and bacterial environment within nests and may also influence parental investment via intraspecific signalling. However, we presently know very little about the process by which nest materials are selected from the wider environment and specifically, it is unclear whether wild birds randomly or non-randomly select nest materials in relation to their local availability. Here, we report an experiment in which we provided experimental pairs of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) with wool, feathers and deer hair - commonly used nest materials found in their woodland habitats - close to their nests during the nest building period whilst control pairs were not provided with any materials. We found that females at experimental nests showed very clear preferences for deer hair, whilst almost completely avoiding the wool and feathers, thereby demonstrating that females exhibited very strong preferences for certain nest materials but not others. We therefore conclude that birds select nest materials in a non-random manner and do not simply use the materials most commonly available to them.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Nidação , Passeriformes , Animais , Plumas , Feminino , Cabelo ,
13.
Nanoscale ; 11(13): 6422-6430, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888347

RESUMO

In this work, nano-hybrid electrospun non-woven mats made of wool keratin combined with diclofenac loaded hydrotalcites (HTD) were prepared and characterized as potential drug delivery systems and scaffolds for fibroblast cell growth. Nano-hybrid electrospun non-woven mats showed a good adaptability to wet skin, effortlessly conforming to the three-dimensional topography of the tissue. Nanosized HTD exercised an overall reinforcing action on the electrospun non-woven mats since the nanohybrid samples displayed a reduced swelling ratio and a slower degradation profile compared to keratin-based nanofiber non-woven mats containing free diclofenac, without negative effects on drug release. The cell viability test indicated a decreased toxicity of the drug when loaded into nanofibers and confirmed the biocompatibility of keratin/HTD electrospun non-woven mats; moreover, a controlled diclofenac release within the first 24 hours does not compromise the fibroblast cell growth in a significant manner.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio/química , Bandagens , Queratinas/química , Hidróxido de Magnésio/química , Nanofibras/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diclofenaco/química , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Células NIH 3T3 , Nanofibras/toxicidade , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Viscosidade , Lã/metabolismo
14.
Gene ; 702: 123-132, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926307

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 5 regulates the development and periodicity of hair follicles, which can affect hair traits. Loss-of-function mutations associated with long-hair phenotypes have been described in several mammalian species. Sheep is an important economic animal, however, the evolution characterizations and biological mechanism of oFGF5 (Ovis aries FGF5) gene are still poorly understood. In this study, oFGF5 gene was obtained by resequencing the whole genome of three Dorper sheep and RACE of two Kazakh sheep FGF5. We proposed FGF5 was phylogenetically related to FGF4 family and oFGF5 clearly orthologed to goat FGF5. Six loci were found from the positive selection results of FGF5 and half of them located on signal peptide. The basically similar rates of function-altering substitutions in sheep and goat lineage and the rest of the mammalian lineage of 365 SNPs indicated that the FGF5 gene was quite conservative during evolution. Homology modeling of the oFGF5 suggested that it has a highly conserved FGF superfamily domain containing 10 ß-strands. Furthermore, the protein-protein docking analysis revealed that oFGF5 have the potential to form heterodimers with oFGFR1, the predicted interaction interface of FGF5-FGFR1 heterodimer was formed mainly by residues from FGF superfamily domain. Our observations suggested the evolutionary and structural biology features of oFGF5 might be relevant to its function about hair follicle development and modulating hair growth, and we confirmed our speculation by using the FGF5 gene editing sheep produced by CRISPR/Cas9 technology.


Assuntos
Fator 5 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/química , Fator 5 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Biologia Computacional , Evolução Molecular , Fator 4 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/classificação , Fator 5 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/classificação , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/química , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Multimerização Proteica , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/química , Alinhamento de Sequência , Ovinos/anatomia & histologia , Lã/anatomia & histologia
15.
Dermatitis ; 30(3): 198-206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wool clothing may be perceived as a poor choice for use by individuals with sensitive skin or atopic dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to evaluate the effect on atopic dermatitis of wearing fine Merino wool clothing versus standard clothing and to assess the effect of Merino wool clothing on quality of life in children and adults with atopic dermatitis 5 years and older. METHODS: Subjects with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis were assessed in a crossover fashion after wearing Merino wool clothing for 6 weeks and standard clothing for 6 weeks, for Eczema Area and Severity Index, Dermatology Life Quality Index, static Investigator's Global Assessment, and skin hydration. RESULTS: While wearing Merino wool clothing, compared with standard clothing, statistically significant improvements were seen in mean Eczema Area and Severity Index scores, Dermatology Life Quality Index scores, and static Investigator's Global Assessment scores. No significant difference was seen with skin hydration. Wearing Merino wool clothing did not produce any negative cutaneous effects compared with wearing standard clothing. CONCLUSIONS: Merino wool clothing compared with standard clothing provided improvements in severity of atopic dermatitis as well as quality of life in atopic patients.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/prevenção & controle , Eczema/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Dermatite Atópica/terapia , Eczema/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Padrão de Cuidado , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709037

RESUMO

ß-Catenin is an evolutionarily conserved molecule in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, which controls decisive steps in embryogenesis and functions as a crucial effector in the development of hair follicles. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying wool production have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of ovine ß-catenin on wool follicles of transgenic sheep produced by pronuclear microinjection with a skin-specific promoter of human keratin14 (k14). Both polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis showed that the sheep carried the ovine ß-catenin gene and that the ß-catenin gene could be stably inherited. To study the molecular responses to high expression of ß-catenin, high-throughput RNA-seq technology was employed using three transgenic sheep and their wild-type siblings. These findings suggest that ß-catenin normally plays an important role in wool follicle development by activating the downstream genes of the Wnt pathway and enhancing the expression of keratin protein genes and keratin-associated protein genes.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Queratina-14/genética , Ovinos/genética , Lã/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Microinjeções , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Ovinos/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/metabolismo
17.
J Anim Sci ; 97(4): 1568-1577, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767013

RESUMO

Though lamb sales account for the majority of annual receipts on U.S. sheep operations, wool is an important income source for many Western flocks. Crossing fine-wool sheep with prolific or composite hair sheep breeds can increase lamb production, but fleece quality and marketability may be reduced by a greater content of nonwool fibers (e.g., med and kemp). The objectives of this study were to compare BW and wool characteristics of Rambouillet, Polypay, and Romanov-White Dorper × Rambouillet (RW-RA) ewes under extensive rangeland management conditions. Ewe BW was collected before mating (fall) and 30 d postlambing (spring) each year from 1 yr up to 4 yr of age. In spring and fall, Rambouillet and Polypay ewes were similar in BW (P ≥ 0.94). Spring BW did not differ (P = 0.13) between RW-RA and Polypay, but Rambouillet ewes were heavier than RW-RA in the spring (P = 0.02). Both Rambouillet and Polypay ewes were heavier (P < 0.07) than RW-RA in the fall. Greasy fleece weight and mid-side wool samples were collected from ewes at 1 and 4 yr of age. Clean fleece weights (CFW) were estimated from average laboratory scoured yield of mid-side wool samples composited within-breed. Average fiber diameter (AFD), SD of fiber diameter (SD-FD), and percentage med (%M), kemp (%K), and total medullated fibers (%T) were quantified on individual mid-side wool samples. There was no difference in 1-yr-old CFW among breed types (P ≥ 0.96). Four-yr-old Rambouillet ewes had heavier CFW (2.29 kg; P < 0.001) than 4-yr-old Polypay (1.83 kg) and RW-RA ewes (1.86 kg), which were not different (P > 0.99). Within 1- and 4-yr-olds, AFD differed among breed type (P < 0.001) and was the finest for Rambouillet (20.1 and 21.9 µm, respectively), intermediate for RW-RA (22.8 and 24.8 µm), and coarsest for Polypay (24.2 and 26.7 µm). Also within 1- and 4-yr olds, SD-FD was lowest in Rambouillet, intermediate in Polypay, and greatest in RW-RA (P < 0.01). Wool from RW-RA ewes had greater %M, %K, and %T (P < 0.001) than wool from Rambouillet and Polypay ewes, which were not different (P > 0.99). Results indicated superior wool production for Rambouillet compared with the coarser, more variable wool produced by Polypay and RW-RA. Still, past research reported greater lamb production in Polypay and RW-RA ewes which, under recent market conditions, would be associated with greater annual gross revenue for these breed types than for Rambouillet.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Reprodução , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , , Fibra de Lã
18.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 68: 39-46, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797176

RESUMO

Hair cortisol analysis has been suggested as a powerful retrospective measure of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in numerous mammal species. In contrast, research evaluating the use of wool as a marker of long-term HPA axis activity is still scarce, and wool differs from hair in a number of ways. Here, we assess repeatability and differences in wool cortisol concentrations (WCCs) across (i) the wool shaft, (ii) two body locations, and (iii) time, in 33 barren Welsh mountain ewes (Ovis aries). We also (iv) investigated effects of grazing-related changes in body mass on WCCs and (v) assessed effects of the washing procedure during sample preparation on WCCs. Cortisol concentrations were repeatable but differed significantly across the wool shaft indicating that, provided wool growth rate is known, a single sample per individual could be used as a retrospective cortisol "timeline." WCCs were significantly higher in shoulder than in back samples, and no correlation between these two body locations was found, highlighting the importance of sampling from the same body location for repeated measures. An increase in body mass during grazing corresponded with a decrease in WCCs, which was significantly negatively correlated with body mass (and positively with age), suggesting that WCCs can be used as a marker of body condition and nutritional status in sheep. Interestingly, we found higher WCCs in washed compared with unwashed samples and discuss implications of this finding for future work. Overall, our study revealed significant within- and between-individual differences in WCCs and highlights a number of advantages but also methodological considerations of using WCCs as a retrospective measure of long-term HPA axis activity in sheep.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/química , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Lã/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Lã/química
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(6): 6223-6233, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635886

RESUMO

The application of more environmentally friendly hide and skin unhairing technologies in leather processing results in a significant increase in keratin waste. There are currently two most promising hair-saving unhairing methods: enzymatic and hair immunisation. The complete use of hair-saving unhairing methods in the leather industry will lead to the formation of approximately 143 thousand tons of hair/wool waste annually, which will require disposal. The disposal of keratin wastes from the leather industry has not been adequately studied, bearing in mind the possible amount of such wastes that will be produced in the future. Unfortunately, existing studies pay little attention to the method of unhairing, even though the unhairing method has a vast influence on the properties of keratin in the obtained hair/wool wastes. Accordingly, the present research is an attempt to establish how the differently obtained keratin wastes behave following disposal. The obtained results have shown that waste wool is characterised by different behaviour during burial in soil, and the behaviour depends on the method of unhairing. This proposition is valid for waste wool bioresistance as well. It was concluded that the deterioration of any sort of keratinous waste from the leather industry should be investigated thoroughly before disposal by burial in landfills.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais , Curtume/métodos , , Alternaria/metabolismo , Animais , Cabelo , Queratinas , Scopulariopsis/metabolismo , Solo
20.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0208229, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605467

RESUMO

The correlations between growth and wool traits in response to canola and flaxseed oil supplementation were evaluated in Australian prime lambs. Sixty dual-purpose prime lambs including purebred Merino and crossbred lambs were allocated to one of five treatments of lucerne hay basal diet supplemented with isocaloric and isonitrogenous wheat-based pellets. Treatments were: no oil inclusion (Control); 2.5% canola oil; 5% canola oil; 2.5% flaxseed oil and 5% flaxseed oil, with lamb groups balanced by breed and gender. Each lamb was daily supplemented with 1kg of pellets and had free access to lucerne hay and water throughout the 7-week feeding trial, after a 3-week adaptation. Individual animal basal and supplementary pellet feed intakes were recorded daily, while body conformation traits, body condition scores and liveweights were measured on days 0, 21, 35 and 49. The lambs were dye-banded on the mid-side and shorn before commencing the feeding trial and mid-side wool samples were collected from the same dye-banded area of each lamb at the end of the experiment. Correlations between wool quality traits and lamb performance were non-significant (P>0.05). Oil supplementation had no detrimental effect on lamb growth and wool quality traits (P > 0.05). Gender significantly affected wither height gain and fibre diameter. There were significant interactions between oil supplementation and lamb breed on chest girth. The correlations between clean fleece yield (CFY) and other wool quality traits were moderate ranging from 0.29 to 0.55. Moderate to high correlations between fibre diameter (FD) and other wool quality traits were detected (0.46-0.99) with the strongest relationship between FD and wool spinning fineness (SF). The relationship between CFY and wool comfort factor (CF) were positive, while negative relationships between CFY and the others were observed. A combination of 5% oil supplementation and genetics is an effective and strategic management tool for enhancing feed efficiency and growth performance without negative effects on wool quality in dual-purpose lamb production. This is a good outcome for dual-purpose sheep farmers. It essentially means the absorbed nutrients in supplemented lambs yielded good growth performance without any detrimental impact on wool quality; a win-win case of nutrient partitioning into the synthesis of muscle and wool without compromising either traits.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Variação Genética , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Óleo de Brassica napus/farmacologia , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/genética , Lã/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Austrália , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Lã/efeitos dos fármacos
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