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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672606

RESUMO

Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation are strongly associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), which suggests that anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory compounds might provide an alternative treatment for PD. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of evernic aid (EA), which was screened from a lichen library provided by the Korean Lichen Research Institute at Sunchon National University. EA is a secondary metabolite generated by lichens, including Ramalina, Evernia, and Hypogymnia, and several studies have described its anticancer, antifungal, and antimicrobial effects. However, the neuroprotective effects of EA have not been studied. We found that EA protected primary cultured neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridium (MPP+)-induced cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, and effectively reduced MPP+-induced astroglial activation by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. In vivo, EA ameliorated MPTP-induced motor dysfunction, dopaminergic neuronal loss, and neuroinflammation in the nigrostriatal pathway in C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that EA has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in PD models and suggest that EA is a potential therapeutic candidate for PD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Hidroxibenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , 1-Metil-4-Fenil-1,2,3,6-Tetra-Hidropiridina , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Líquens/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672591

RESUMO

The present study provides new data concerning the chemical characterisation of Physcia mediterranea Nimis, a rare Mediterranean species belonging to the family Physciaceae. The phytochemical screening was carried out using GC-MS, HPLC-ESI-MS-MS, and NMR techniques. Hot extraction of n-hexane was carried out, followed by separation of the part insoluble in methanol: wax (WA-hex), from the part soluble in methanol (ME-hex). GC-MS analysis of the ME-hex part revealed the presence of methylbenzoic acids such as sparassol and atraric acid and a diterpene with a kaurene skeleton which has never been detected before in lichen species. Out of all the compounds identified by HPLC-ESI-MS-MS, sixteen compounds are common between WA-hex and ME-hex. Most are aliphatic fatty acids, phenolic compounds and depsides. The wax part is characterised by the presence of atranorin, a depside of high biological value. Proton 1H and carbon 13C NMR have confirmed its identification. Atranol, chloroatranol (depsides compound), Ffukinanolide (sesquiterpene lactones), leprolomin (diphenyl ether), muronic acid (triterpenes), and ursolic acid (triterpenes) have also been identified in ME-hex. The results suggested that Physcia mediterranea Nimis is a valuable source of bioactive compounds that could be useful for several applications as functional foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Líquens/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Estrutura Molecular , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Fitoterapia ; 149: 104811, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359429

RESUMO

While depsidones, depsides or dibenzofuran-like compounds dominate the chemical composition of lichens, the cyanolichen Nephroma laevigatum affords a diversity of quinoid pigments represented by chlorinated anthraquinones derived from emodin and new bianthrones resulting from the homo- or heterodimerization of monomers. Bianthrones were pointed out from the dichloromethane extract by MS/MS-based molecular networking, then isolated and characterized on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyzes and GIAO NMR shift calculation followed by CP3 analyzes.


Assuntos
Antracenos/química , Antraquinonas/química , Ascomicetos/química , Líquens/química , Antracenos/isolamento & purificação , Antraquinonas/isolamento & purificação , França , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
An Real Acad Farm ; 86(4): 269-280, oct.-dic. 2020. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199661

RESUMO

La Antártida es el continente más frío, seco, alto y ventoso; aquí, los líquenes y musgos crecen donde es más cálido, húmedo, bajo y protegido. En general, la productividad vegetal depende estrechamente de la longitud del periodo en el cual el agua líquida está disponible, por ello los vegetales se ven confinados a lugares con microclima excepcionalmente favorable. Es está fuerte relación entre microclima y disponibilidad de agua líquida y productividad /crecimiento, lo que hace a este ecosistema potencialmente tan útil para la monitorización del cambio climático global, especialmente en lo que se refiere al incremento de temperatura. Incluso un pequeño aumento de temperatura puede suponer un marcado incremento en el área afectada por estos periodos cálidos produciendo alteraciones en las comunidades vegetales. Es cada vez más claro que existen dos Antártidas, la Península y el continente. Se diferencian en el factor que controla la distribución de la biodiversidad vegetal. En la Península Antártica la temperatura sería el factor determinante y en el continente lo sería la disponibilidad de agua líquida. También el stress por radiación parece limitado a la zona continental. Se han llevado a cabo diferentes intentos de usar líquenes como monitores de cambio climático en regiones polares. La prístina Antártida ofrece una oportunidad única de estudiar el efecto del cambio climático a lo largo de gradientes latitudinales que se extienden entre 62º y 87º S. Tanto la diversidad de especies liquénicas, como sus tasas de crecimiento muestran correlaciones significativas con la temperatura y la precipitación anual a través del continente así como con las oscilaciones climáticas de periodo corto sucedidas en la Península Antártica. Las interacciones competitivas parecen ser pequeñas, de modo que cada individuo se desarrolla en equilibrio con las condiciones ambientales y, como resultado, puede indicar las tendencias en la productividad para intervalos temporales discretos dentro de un escenario de cambio climático. "Es todo aquí tan imponente, tan gigantescas todas las formas que las palabras no alcanzan a describirlo acertadamente. Nosotros cuatro somos los primeros seres humanos a quienes les ha sido dado asombrarse ante estas maravillas de la naturaleza y se nos antoja, a veces, que habrá de pasar largo tiempo antes de que otros pongan el pie en estos remotos parajes" (Diario de Shackleton, 4 de Diciembre de 1908)"


Antarctica is the coldest, driest, highest and windiest continent; the lichens and mosses grow where it is more warm, wet, low and protected. Overall productivity is strongly influenced by the length of period when water is available and the plants become, therefore, increasingly confined to areas of exceptionally good microclimate. It is this strong link between microclimate, water availability and productivity/growth that makes the system so potentially useful for monitoring global climate change, especially temperature increase. Even a small increase in temperature will markedly alter the areas over which such warm periods occur and bring with it a marked community shift. It is becoming clear that there are two Antarcticas, the Peninsula and the main continent. These differ in the controls on biodiversity distribution, there is a probably water unlimited but temperature-determined biodiversity cline in the Peninsula compared to a, water controlled, temperature-independent, fragmented vegetation in the continent. The reverse diel pattern of activity with the presence of very high light stress also seems to be confined to the continent. Several attempts have been made to use lichens as monitors of climate change especially in alpine and polar regions. The pristine Antarctica offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of climate change along a latitudinal gradient that extends between 62º and 87º S. Both lichen species diversity and thallus growth rate seem to show significant correlations to mean annual temperature and precipitation for gradients across the continent as well as to short time climate oscillation in the Antarctic Peninsula. Competition interactions appear to be small so that individual thalli develop in balance with environmental conditions and, as a result, can indicate the trends in productivity for discrete time intervals over long periods of time in a climate warming scenario


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Líquens , Flora , Aquecimento Global , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Regiões Antárticas , Regiões Árticas , Fotossíntese , Líquens/química
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238303, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997661

RESUMO

Lichens are stable symbiotic associations between fungus and algae and/or cyanobacteria that have different biological activities. Around 60% of anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources including plants, fungi, sea creatures, and lichens. This project aims to identify the apoptotic effects and proliferative properties of extracts of Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D.Hawksw, Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr., Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach., Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav., Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., and Usnea florida (L.) Weber ex Wigg. lichen species on prostate cancer cells. Lichen extracts were performed by ethanol, methanol, and acetone separately by using the Soxhlet apparatus and the effects of the extracts on cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were measured with the utilization of MTT, LDH assay, Annexin V assay, and Western Blot. Findings of our study revealed a positive correlation between the elevation of cell sensitivity and the increase in the treatment doses of the extract in that higher doses applied reverberate to higher cell sensitivity. A similar correlation was also identified between cell sensitivity elevation and the duration of the treatment. Evidence in our study have shown the existence of an anti-proliferative effect in the extracts of Bryoria capillaris, Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach., Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav., Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., and Usnea florida (L.) Weber ex Wigg., while a similar effect was not observed in the extracts of Cladonia fimbriata. Evernia divaricata induced anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells, which induced apoptotic cell death by both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Hypogymnia tubulosa has been shown to have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in all extractions methods and our findings identified that both the percentage of the apoptotic cells and apoptotic protein expressions recorded an increase at lower treatment concentrations. Although Lobaria pulmonaria is known to have significant cytotoxic effects, we did not observe a decrease in cell proliferation. Indeed, proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression levels have shown an increase in all extracts, while Usnea florida exhibited apoptosis induction and slight proliferation reduction in extract treatments with lower concentrations. We tested 18 extracts of six lichen species during our study. Of these, Evernia divaricata and Hypogymnia tubulosa demonstrated significant apoptotic activity on prostate cancer cells including at low concentrations, which implies that it is worth pursuing the biologically active lead compounds of these extracts on prostate cancer in vitro. Further corroboratory studies are needed to validate the relative potential of these extracts as anti-metastatic and anti-tumorigenic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Líquens/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
6.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127433, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593004

RESUMO

The Arctic region is substantially a pristine area, but this unique part of the globe has also been contaminated by anthropogenic radioactive nuclides, and now there is still measurable activity of anthropogenic isotopes, even though more than 50 years have passed since the main source. Radionuclides in the Arctic, especially 90Sr have seldom been studied despite their considerable environmental importance. This manuscript covers the results of 90Sr and 137Cs measurements in soil and lichen Cetrariella delisei collected from the Svalbard in 2012. In both lichen thalli and surface soils high activities of 90Sr and 137Cs were recorded and ranged between 3.69 and 28.1 Bq kg-1 90Sr and 5.38-280.1 Bq kg-1137Cs in thalli and between 4.53 and 12.78 Bq kg-1dw 90Sr and 60.6-426.1 Bq kg-1dw 137Cs in surface soil layer. The activity of 90Sr and 137Cs in lichen thalli was influenced by distance from the glacier. This showed that during radionuclide biomonitoring of particular area with the use of lichens, it is important to take into account influence of environmental variability on radionuclides contents.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Camada de Gelo/química , Líquens/química , Radioisótopos de Estrôncio/análise , Regiões Árticas , Parmeliaceae , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Solo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Svalbard , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
7.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 211-217, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594201

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to compare the physiological response (content and degradation of photosynthetic pigments, membrane oxidation products and soluble proteins) and multi-element content of Ramalina celastri (lichenized fungi) growing on agricultural fences with no-tillage (associated with transgenic crops and agrochemical application), organic cropping and a non-cultivated area. We found that R. celastri did not differ in its physiological response to agricultural practices, except for the contents of chlorophyll b and phaeophytin a which were high in both cultivated areas. Lichens growing in organic cropping fields have higher arsenic, chromium, uranium and internal transition elements common in the earth's crust, possibly due to the greater resuspension of the material during soil tillage. Lichens that grow on posts close to no-tillage field had higher bromine contents (present in numerous pesticides). We found evidence that R. celastri behaves as a tolerant species to air pollution in agricultural environments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Líquens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Praguicidas/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Líquens/química , Líquens/fisiologia , Agricultura Orgânica , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Solo/química
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 222, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146527

RESUMO

The determination of trace metal contents directly from a solid sample is a trend in modern atomic spectrometry. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the routine determination of Cd in lichens using solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GF-AAS). For the determination of Cd, the temperature program of the graphite furnace was optimized using a mixed matrix modifier (Pd + Mg (NO3)2 + Triton X-100). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 0.9 µg/kg and 3 µg/kg, respectively. The analytical method for Cd determination in the plant matrix was verified by the analysis of certified reference materials of lichens, seaweed, and rye grass. The developed procedure was applied to the study of Cd distribution in thalli of Usnea antarctica lichen from James Ross Island, Antarctica. The SS-GF-AAS analytical method is particularly suited for use in environmental studies and plant physiology (the microanalysis of anatomical structures).


Assuntos
Cádmio , Poluentes Ambientais , Grafite , Líquens , Regiões Antárticas , Cádmio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Ilhas , Líquens/química , Espectrofotometria Atômica
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110128, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891838

RESUMO

Over the last few decades, the threat posed to biodiversity and ecosystem function by atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been increasingly recognized. The disturbed nutrient balance and species composition of plants induced by higher N deposition can impact the biodiversity of the organisms that consume the plants. In this research, we implemented several experiments to estimate the effects of increased N deposition on the growth, survival, and nutrients of the dominant epiphytic lichens in the subtropical mountains in Central China to assess the lichen food amount and nutritional quality for two endangered primates endemic to China. Our results indicated that the thallus growth and propagule survival of the lichens were significantly decreased when nitrogen addition changed from 6.25 to 50.0 kg N·ha-1·y-1; it was also shown that lichen biomass could be decreased by 11.2%-70.2% when the deposition addition exceeded 6.25 kg N·ha-1·y-1. Further, our study revealed that increased nitrogen deposition also reduced the nutritional quality of the lichens via reducing the soluble protein and soluble sugar levels and increasing the fiber content, which would substantially affect the diet selection of the plants consumers in the region, particularly the populations of the two lichen-eating endangered primate species, Rhinopithecus roxellana and R. bieti. Our experimental study suggested that the nitrogen pollution derived from anthropogenic activities could cause cascading effects for the whole forest ecosystem of Central China; thus, more studies about nitrogen deposition in this region are required.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Líquens/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Animais , Atmosfera , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , China , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Florestas , Líquens/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Primatas
10.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124783, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726517

RESUMO

This research concerned radioactivity of lichens and mosses from coastal zones of the Canadian Arctic and Alaska. Over 50 samples were collected from 7 positions during two scientific expeditions in 2012 and 2013. The tundra contamination caused by anthropogenic radionuclides was relatively low, reaching mean values with SD's of: 17.4 ±â€¯3.5 Bq/kg for 90Sr, 14.0 ±â€¯2.9 Bq/kg for 134Cs, 38.4 ±â€¯7.5 Bq/kg for 137Cs, 0.86 ±â€¯0.24 Bq/kg for 239+240Pu, 0.065 ±â€¯0.017 Bq/kg for 238Pu and 0.50 ±â€¯0.13 Bq/kg for 241Am. The increase of activity concentration with increasing latitudes was noticed mostly in regard to 90Sr, Pu isotopes and 241Am. The analysis of isotopic ratios exhibited dominant contribution of the global fallout (+SNAP 9A satellite re-entry fallout) for the presence of plutonium isotopes and 241Am. The Fukushima fallout signature was identified in a few lichens from Alaska. However, the influence of additional unknown factor on the occurrence of 90Sr and 137Cs has been detected in western part of Canadian Arctic. Natural radioisotopes of thorium and uranium were found throughout the entire investigated region and the average values of activity concentration with SD's were as follows: 2.92 ±â€¯0.47 Bq/kg for 230Th, 2.61 ±â€¯0.48 Bq/kg for 232Th, 4.32 ±â€¯0.80 Bq/kg for 234U and 3.97 ±â€¯0.71 Bq/kg for 238U. Examined Western Arctic tundra was not affected with any technically enhanced natural radioactivity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Briófitas/química , Líquens/química , Cinza Radioativa/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Alaska , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Plutônio/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Tório/análise , Urânio/análise
11.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(1): e1900465, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701649

RESUMO

We performed comparative profiling of four specialized metabolites in the lichen Evernia prunastri, collected at three different geographic locations, California and Maine, USA, and Yoshkar Ola, Mari El, Russia. Among the compounds produced at high concentrations that were identified in all three specimens, evernic acid, usnic acid, lecanoric acid and chloroatranorin, evernic acid was the most abundant. Two depsidones, salazinic acid and physodic acid, were detected in the Yoshkar-Ola collection only. The crystalline structure of evernic acid (2-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-methylbenzoyl)oxy]-6-methylbenzoate) (hmb) revealed two crystallographically and conformationally distinct hmb anions, along with two monovalent sodium atoms. One hmb moiety contained an exotetradentate binding mode to sodium, whereas the other exhibited an exohexadentate binding mode to sodium. Embedded edge-sharing {Na2 O8 }n sodium-oxygen chains connected the hmb anions into the full three-dimensional crystal structure of the title compound. The crystal used for single-crystal X-ray diffraction exhibited non-merohedral twinning. The data suggest the importance of the acetyl-polymalonyl pathway products to processes of maintaining integrity of the lichen holobiont community.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Líquens/química , Salicilatos/análise , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Líquens/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Salicilatos/metabolismo
12.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125064, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683434

RESUMO

The use of naturally occurring epiphytic lichens can be an effective tool for regional monitoring of mercury (Hg) and other potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Nova Scotia, Canada is a hotspot for mercury and other trace metal accumulation in ecosystems; partially attributed to long-range transport of air pollution. The relative contribution of local and international sources of Hg to local air in Nova Scotia is unknown. This study assessed the potential of epiphytic lichens (Usnea spp.) as passive samplers for PTE air pollution in Nova Scotia. Lichens (n = 190) collected across mainland Nova Scotia were analyzed for PTEs. Results indicate that there are 3 distinct clusters of PTEs which suggest patterns and sources for each elemental cluster. Hg was correlated with longitude and prevailing wind direction, and Hg was not significantly different in site-specific hotspot sampling nor year of sampling. Our data support the hypothesis that Hg in lichens is from historical and ongoing long-range transport and diffuse emission patterns rather than localized pollution sources. PTE concentrations were shown to have median values that are similar to other remote regions (such as the Antarctic) however the maximum values were observed to be substantially higher for some elements (e.g. lead, cadmium). This research supports the use of lichens as biomonitors and provides a baseline for future monitoring efforts to identify changes in PTE distribution in Nova Scotia with ongoing industrial activity and a changing climate.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Líquens/química , Mercúrio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Regiões Antárticas , Cádmio , Ecossistema , Nova Escócia , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Vento
13.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113468, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679880

RESUMO

The increasing content of platinum group metal particles emitted into the environment by car traffic is gradually attracting the attention of the scientific community. However, the methods for the determination of platinum group metals in environmental matrices are either costly or suffer from low sensitivity. To facilitate the use of less sensitive, but significantly cheaper, devices, the preconcentration of platinum group metals is employed. For platinum, a multitude of preconcentration approaches have been published. On the contrary, the preconcentration approaches for palladium are still rare. In this work, the development, optimization, and testing of a new approach is described; it is based on a preconcentration of palladium on octadecyl modified silica gel together with the complexing agent dimethylglyoxime, and it is then analyzed with the high-resolution continuum-source atomic absorption spectrometry. For comparison, a newly developed sorbent, QuadraSil™ TA, with a high affinity for platinum group metals was also tested. The preconcentraiton approach was tested on the lichen Hypogymnia physodes, which served as a bioindicator of palladium emissions. The case study site was a mid-sized city in central Europe: Brno, Czech Republic. The dry "bag" monitoring technique was used to collect the palladium near roads with a large span of traffic density. The developed analytical approach confirmed an increasing concentration of palladium with increasing exposure time and intensity of the traffic. Consequently, a simple relationship between the amount of bioaccumulated palladium and traffic density was established.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Líquens/química , Paládio/análise , Cidades , República Tcheca , Paládio/química , Platina/análise , Sílica Gel , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos
14.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 14(1): 16-32, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been established that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation is a potent technique for the detoxification of harmful plant materials. OBJECTIVE: Following encouraging simultaneous medicinal applications of snail slime and yeast, we exploited their hydrolytic and fermentation potentials to prevent toxicities of the selected floras; Erythrodontium barteri (EB), bracken fern (BF), and crustose lichens (CL). The applicability of the saccharification process has been described in a patent (WO2005010193A2). METHODS: The plants were bioprocessed using snail digestive juice and yeast slurry and their health effects were evaluated. Seventy rats were divided equally into groups, treated with single doses of aqueous extracts of the plants and their bioprocessed forms, and compared with control rats. RESULTS: The plants showed very high antinutrients levels, which significantly reduced after SSF with enhanced flavonoids, alkaloids and phenols. Potential alterations of WBC differentials, RBC, liver and renal function markers indices were mitigated by bioprocessed extracts. MDA, SOD, GRase, XO and XDH levels in rats administered the bEB and CL were equivalent to the levels found for the control rats. Some bioprocessed plants produced unaltered insulin, ghrelin, and leptin levels. The bioprocessed extracts, when compared to the effects of unprocessed extracts, produced lower TNF-α, Caspase-3, and adiponectin levels and mitigated the potential suppression of Na+/K+-ATPase levels. Potential depletion of inhibin-B, testosterone, estrogen, and prolactin was mitigated after bioprocessing. CONCLUSION: This study, thus, validates the application of bioprocessing using snail digestive juice and yeast as an effective approach to reduce the potential toxicities of harmful plants.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Fígado , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Biotransformação , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Embriófitas/química , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Líquens/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Patentes como Assunto , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Caramujos/química , Leveduras/química
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1612: 460675, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708216

RESUMO

Lichens are effective atmospheric bioindicators, and the bioaccumulation of pollutants is frequently measured in their tissues to assess contamination levels. Even though monosaccharide anhydrides are not directly considered as contaminants, Levoglucosan is a common tracer of biomass burning in atmospheric samples and measuring their accumulation in lichens could help to evaluate the main atmospheric pollution sources on a spatially resolved scale depending on the size of the sampling grid. In this work, a realiable analytical method to determine monosaccharide anhydrides in liches was developed. It is based on ASE extraction, solid phase extraction to clean the sample, and silylation derivatization before GC/MS analysis. The reliability and detection limits of the method were suited to the analysis of lichen samples, and additional quality tests achieved the validation of the method with lichen test matrix. Finally field samples were quantified and the results obtained were consistent with atmospheric levels.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Líquens/química , Monossacarídeos/análise , Biomassa , Limite de Detecção , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Cloreto de Metileno/química , Monossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida , Sonicação
16.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(5): 646-650, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388894

RESUMO

Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia involving Aß and tau protein. So far, AD cure remains elusive, but considering that AD progresses throughout tau pathology, which turns tau protein an appropriate target, besides tau is also included in other neurodegenerative disorders named as tauopathies. Here, we have isolated seventeen compounds belonging to six lichens species. Due to scarce of spectroscopic data of the compound 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methylphthalide, we explained their structural elucidation based on NMR data. In this study, we show that only tenuiorin from Umbilicaria antarctica inhibited 50% of tau 4R at 100 µM. Then, we shown that molecular interactions of tenuiorin with the steric zipper model of the hexapeptide 306VQIVYK311 were studied by docking calculations and the results suggested that tenuiorin forms both hydrogen bonds with lysine and glutamine side chains and forms several hydrophobic interactions with valine and lysine from 306VQIVYK311 motif.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Depsídeos/isolamento & purificação , Líquens/química , Resorcinóis/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas tau/antagonistas & inibidores , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Regiões Antárticas , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Depsídeos/química , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Resorcinóis/química , Resorcinóis/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 37, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828442

RESUMO

This study presents a comparative assessment of the trace metal air pollutants of urban, peri-urban, and rural areas of the Brahmaputra Valley plain in the Eastern Himalayan region using biomonitoring of Pyxine cocoes. In situ collection of the thalli growing on Bombax sp. from representative locations was done, which was analyzed for Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn using ICP-OES. The metals, viz. Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were highly enriched, indicating anthropogenic influences. The coefficients of variation (CV) of Co, Cr, and Ni were also high, pointing at their accumulation from local sources. Influence of local sources was also observed for Cd, Fe, and Mn in peri-urban and Cd in urban samples. Metals related to automobiles were accumulated in greater volume in samples of peri-urban locations, which implies the impact of the highway that runs through these locations and other associated human activities. The samples of urban areas were found to be enriched with metals originating from both vehicular emissions and road dust. Also, accumulations of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni in the lichen thalli were found to be around tea gardens. Inter-species correlations were found to be positively significant for most of the elements. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the metal data revealed that vehicular emission and coal burning, street dust, and crustal dust were the major sources of trace metals in the ambient air of the region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Líquens/química , Metais/análise , Ascomicetos , Automóveis , Monitoramento Biológico , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
18.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 66(4): 597-603, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837656

RESUMO

Cladonia uncialis is a lichen species with confirmed antibacterial activity and whose genome has been recently sequenced, enabling first attempts in its functional characterization. In this work, we investigated activity of the C. uncialis acetone extract (CUE) and usnic acid (UA) enantiomers against ten clinical microbial strains causing skin infections. The results showed that CUE, containing (-)-UA and squamatic acid, assayed at the same concentrations as UA, was noticeably more active than (-)-UA alone, in its pure form. The studied CUE displayed an activity that was comparable to that of (+)-UA observed for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecium (18-24 mm zone of growth inhibition), but did not display any activity against fungal strains. The CUE demonstrated low cytotoxicity against HaCaT cells, in comparison to UA enantiomers, which is important for its therapeutic use. Results of the antioxidant assay (DPPH) indicated low antioxidant activity (IC50>200 µg/mL) of CUE, while the total phenolic content was 70.36 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/g of the dry extract.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Líquens/química , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Líquens/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/microbiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17611, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772229

RESUMO

Coastal marine atmospheric fog has recently been implicated as a potential source of ocean-derived monomethylmercury (MMHg) to coastal terrestrial ecosystems through the process of sea-to-land advection of foggy air masses followed by wet deposition. This study examined whether pumas (Puma concolor) in coastal central California, USA, and their associated food web, have elevated concentrations of MMHg, which could be indicative of their habitat being in a region that is regularly inundated with marine fog. We found that adult puma fur and fur-normalized whiskers in our marine fog-influenced study region had a mean (±SE) total Hg (THg) (a convenient surrogate for MMHg) concentration of 1544 ± 151 ng g-1 (N = 94), which was three times higher (P < 0.01) than mean THg in comparable samples from inland areas of California (492 ± 119 ng g-1, N = 18). Pumas in California eat primarily black-tailed and/or mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and THg in deer fur from the two regions was also significantly different (coastal 28.1 ± 2.9, N = 55, vs. inland 15.5 ± 1.5 ng g-1, N = 40). We suggest that atmospheric deposition of MMHg through fog may be contributing to this pattern, as we also observed significantly higher MMHg concentrations in lace lichen (Ramalina menziesii), a deer food and a bioindicator of atmospheric deposition, at sites with the highest fog frequencies. At these ocean-facing sites, deer samples had significantly higher THg concentrations compared to those from more inland bay-facing sites. Our results suggest that fog-borne MMHg, while likely a small fraction of Hg in all atmospheric deposition, may contribute, disproportionately, to the bioaccumulation of Hg to levels that approach toxicological thresholds in at least one apex predator. As global mercury levels increase, coastal food webs may be at risk to the toxicological effects of increased methylmercury burdens.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Bioacumulação , Cervos/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Líquens/química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Puma/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Poluentes Atmosféricos/farmacocinética , Animais , Baías , California , Cabelo/química , Herbivoria , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacocinética , Oceano Pacífico , Comportamento Predatório , Puma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água do Mar/química , Vibrissas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 691, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667628

RESUMO

This study identified specific emission sources of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of two secondary iron and steel smelting factories in Osun state, southwestern Nigeria, using transplanted biomonitors. A total of 120 biomonitors consisting of lichen and moss were grown under a controlled environment and later transplanted to the surroundings of each factory for monitoring of air pollutants for 3 months in both wet and dry seasons. The elemental contents (K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr) of the biomonitors were determined by X-ray florescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The source identification was performed by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modelling approach using the elemental data set from the two smelters. Among the measured elements, Fe had the highest average concentration in the lichen and moss samples as well as in both seasons. The average concentrations of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Br were low. The varying average elemental concentrations of lichen and moss reflect the pattern of impact of smelting on atmospheric airborne pollution around the factories. The four factors resolved by PMF and their respective contributions were metal processing (39.0%), Fe source (28.0%), crustal/soil (22.0%) and road dust (11.0%) for moss and Fe source (34.0%), crustal/soil (26.0%), coal combustion (25.0%) and road dust (15.0%) for lichen. The study showcases lichen and moss as cheaper and yet efficient uninterrupted monitoring tools of air pollution sources associated with iron and steel smelting industrial activities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metalurgia , Aço , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Biológico , Briófitas/química , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferro/análise , Líquens/química , Nigéria , Estações do Ano , Solo/química
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