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1.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 234, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has induced a worldwide epidemiological event with a high infectivity and mortality. However, the predicting biomarkers and their potential mechanism in the progression of COVID-19 are not well known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify the candidate predictors of COVID-19 and investigate their underlying mechanism. METHODS: The retrospective study was conducted to identify the potential laboratory indicators with prognostic values of COVID-19 disease. Then, the prognostic nomogram was constructed to predict the overall survival of COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the scRNA-seq data of BALF and PBMCs from COVID-19 patients were downloaded to investigate the underlying mechanism of the most important prognostic indicators in lungs and peripherals, respectively. RESULTS: In total, 304 hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital were included in the retrospective study. CEA was the only laboratory indicator with significant difference in the univariate (P < 0.001) and multivariate analysis (P = 0.020). The scRNA-seq data of BALF and PBMCs from COVID-19 patients were downloaded to investigate the underlying mechanism of CEA in lungs and peripherals, respectively. The results revealed the potential roles of CEA were significantly distributed in type II pneumocytes of BALF and developing neutrophils of PBMCs, participating in the progression of COVID-19 by regulating the cell-cell communication. CONCLUSION: This study identifies the prognostic roles of CEA in COVID-19 patients and implies the potential roles of CEACAM8-CEACAM6 in the progression of COVID-19 by regulating the cell-cell communication of developing neutrophils and type II pneumocyte.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , COVID-19/mortalidade , Comunicação Celular , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Nomogramas , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 73(3): 482-490, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230949

RESUMO

S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) is involved in a variety of biological processes such as inflammation and tumor cell migration and invasion regulation. The purpose of this study was to construct S100A9 gene-edited mice by using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, thereby providing an animal model for exploring the biological functions of this gene. According to the S100A9 gene sequence, the single-stranded small guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting exons 2 and 3 was transcribed in vitro, and a mixture of Cas9 mRNA and candidate sgRNA was injected into mouse fertilized eggs by microinjection. Early embryos were obtained and transferred to surrogate mice, and F0 mice were obtained and identified by PCR identification and gene sequencing. F0 mice were further mated with wild-type C57BL/6 mice to obtain F1 heterozygous mice, and then homozygous offspring were obtained through F1 mice self-crossing. Real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to verify the expression and distribution of S100A9. In order to observe the pathological changes of mouse lung tissue using HE staining, an allergic asthma model was induced by ovalbumin from chicken egg white (OVA). The results showed that the 2 492 bp of exons 2, 3 of the S100A9 gene was successfully knocked out, and S100A9-/- mice with stable inheritance were obtained. Furthermore, it was found that S100A9 gene was highly expressed in the lung and spleen of wild-type mice. The expression of S100A9 mRNA and protein was not detected in the lung and spleen of S100A9-/- mice. However, compared with wild-type mice, the lungs of S100A9-/- mice showed a significantly worse inflammatory phenotype, and the proportion of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was significantly increased in response to the treatment of OVA. These results suggest we have successfully constructed a new strain of S100A9-/- mice, and preliminarily confirmed that the lack of S100A9 function can aggravate airway inflammation in asthmatic mice, providing a new mouse model for further study of S100A9 gene function.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Marcação de Genes , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Calgranulina B , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Pulmão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Ovalbumina , Fenótipo
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009381, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197564

RESUMO

Clearance of viral infections, such as SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV), must be fine-tuned to eliminate the pathogen without causing immunopathology. As such, an aggressive initial innate immune response favors the host in contrast to a detrimental prolonged inflammation. The complement pathway bridges innate and adaptive immune system and contributes to the response by directly clearing pathogens or infected cells, as well as recruiting proinflammatory immune cells and regulating inflammation. However, the impact of modulating complement activation in viral infections is still unclear. In this work, we targeted the complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF/CD55), a surface protein that protects cells from non-specific complement attack, and analyzed its role in IAV infections. We found that DAF modulates IAV infection in vivo, via an interplay with the antigenic viral proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), in a strain specific manner. Our results reveal that, contrary to what could be expected, DAF potentiates complement activation, increasing the recruitment of neutrophils, monocytes and T cells. We also show that viral NA acts on the heavily sialylated DAF and propose that the NA-dependent DAF removal of sialic acids exacerbates complement activation, leading to lung immunopathology. Remarkably, this mechanism has no impact on viral loads, but rather on the host resilience to infection, and may have direct implications in zoonotic influenza transmissions.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD55/fisiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Pulmão/imunologia , Viremia/imunologia , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Antígenos CD55/química , Antígenos CD55/deficiência , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Ativação do Complemento , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/fisiologia , Adaptação ao Hospedeiro , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/enzimologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Interferon gama/análise , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico , Neuraminidase/fisiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Carga Viral , Proteínas Virais/fisiologia , Virulência , Replicação Viral , Perda de Peso
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 359, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We diagnosed a clinical case of pulmonary infection involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Tropheryma whipplei in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The diagnosis was assisted by metagenomic next-generation sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year-old Han Chinese inmate was transferred to the emergency department because of dry cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. The patient's body temperature rose to 39.3 °C following empirical cephalosporin treatment for 1 week. The blood CD4+/CD8+ ratio was 0.7, suggesting immunodeficiency. Routine microbiological tests were performed, and tuberculosis interferon gamma release assays were positive. Mycobacterium tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction was also positive. Chest computed tomography scan revealed miliary nodules and ground-glass opacifications, which were in accordance with tuberculosis. To fully examine the etiology, we performed routine laboratory tests and metagenomic sequencing, the results of which indicated the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Tropheryma whipplei. We administered anti-tuberculosis regimen in combination with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The patient recovered, with chest computed tomography scan showing absorption of lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with traditional diagnostic methods such as culture and serology, metagenomic next-generation sequencing has the advantage of detecting a wide array of microorganisms in a single test and therefore can be used for clinical diagnosis of rare pathogens and microbial coinfections. It is particularly useful for immunocompromised patients as they are more prone to infection by opportunistic microorganisms.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Adulto , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tropheryma
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 663303, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194429

RESUMO

The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), a process termed NETosis, avoids pathogen spread but may cause tissue injury. NETs have been found in severe COVID-19 patients, but their role in disease development is still unknown. The aim of this study is to assess the capacity of NETs to drive epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lung epithelial cells and to analyze the involvement of NETs in COVID-19. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of severe COVID-19 patients showed high concentration of NETs that correlates with neutrophils count; moreover, the analysis of lung tissues of COVID-19 deceased patients showed a subset of alveolar reactive pneumocytes with a co-expression of epithelial marker and a mesenchymal marker, confirming the induction of EMT mechanism after severe SARS-CoV2 infection. By airway in vitro models, cultivating A549 or 16HBE at air-liquid interface, adding alveolar macrophages (AM), neutrophils and SARS-CoV2, we demonstrated that to trigger a complete EMT expression pattern are necessary the induction of NETosis by SARS-CoV2 and the secretion of AM factors (TGF-ß, IL8 and IL1ß). All our results highlight the possible mechanism that can induce lung fibrosis after SARS-CoV2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Adulto , Biópsia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo
6.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(7): 707-712, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the drug resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of children with refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP) and the distribution of drug-resistance genes, as well as the association of alleles at 2063 locus of 23SrRNA V region central ring with resistance to antimicrobial drugs. METHODS: BALF specimens were collected from 245 children with RMPP who were admitted to the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University from March 2016 to December 2020. A rapid cultured drug sensitivity assay was used to detect the resistance of MP isolates to nine commonly used antimicrobial drugs. The real-time PCR was used to measure MP DNA. The direct sequencing was used to detect gene mutations in MP 23SrRNA V region central ring. RESULTS: Among the 245 BALF specimens, 207 tested positive for MP DNA, with a positive rate of 84.5%. The results of drug susceptibility test showed that the children with RMPP had a resistance rate of > 70% to macrolide antimicrobial drugs, with the highest resistance rate to clarithromycin, followed by roxithromycin, clindamycin, acetylspiramycin, erythromycin, and azithromycin, and these children had a resistance rate of < 5% to quinolone antimicrobial drugs. Among the 207 MP DNA-positive specimens, 41 (19.8%) had no drug-resistance gene mutations and 166 (80.2%) had drug-resistance gene mutations, among which 154 (74.4%) had an A→G mutation at 2063 locus of 23SrRNA V region central ring, 7 (3.4%) had an A→G mutation at 2064 locus, and 5 (2.4%) had mutations in both 2063 and 2064 loci. Among the 166 specimens with point mutations of the MP 23SrRNA gene, 159 (95.8%) had point mutations at 2063 locus. The A→G point mutation at 2063 locus of 23SrRNA V region central ring had a great impact on resistance to macrolide antimicrobial drugs. There was a significant difference in the distribution of alleles at 2063 locus between the children with resistance to clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, acetylspiramycin, erythromycin, and azithromycin (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MP in the BALF of children with RMPP has a relatively high resistance rate to macrolide antimicrobial drugs. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobial drugs is closely associated with the A→G point mutation in the 23SrRNA gene, and the point mutation at 2063 locus of 23SrRNA V region central ring may affect the drug-resistance mechanism of MP.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico
7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0252941, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242213

RESUMO

Medical imaging as method to assess the longitudinal process of a SARS-CoV-2 infection in non-human primates is commonly used in research settings. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is regularly used to determine the local virus production and immune effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the lower respiratory tract. However, the potential interference of those two diagnostic modalities is unknown in non-human primates. The current study investigated the effect and duration of BAL on computed tomography (CT) in both healthy and experimentally SARS-CoV-2-infected female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). In addition, the effect of subsequent BALs was reviewed. Thorax CTs and BALs were obtained from four healthy animals and 11 experimentally SARS-CoV-2-infected animals. From all animals, CTs were obtained just before BAL, and 24 hours post-BAL. Additionally, from the healthy animals, CTs immediately after, and four hours post-BAL were obtained. Thorax CTs were evaluated for alterations in lung density, measured in Hounsfield units, and a visual semi-quantitative scoring system. An increase in the lung density was observed on the immediately post-BAL CT but resolved within 24 hours in the healthy animals. In the infected animals, a significant difference in both the lung density and CT score was still found 24 hours after BAL. Furthermore, the differences between time points in CT score were increased for the second BAL. These results indicate that the effect of BAL on infected lungs is not resolved within the first 24 hours. Therefore, it is important to acknowledge the interference between BAL and CT in rhesus macaques.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/virologia , Macaca mulatta , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/virologia
8.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 7121-7125, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237991

RESUMO

Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) refers to the abnormal traffic between the biliary tract and the bronchus. The condition is very rare and usually develops secondary to liver echinococcosis or amebiasis, liver abscess, trauma, biliary obstruction, or tumors. BBF has a high mortality rate and currently, there are no accurate and effective diagnostic methods. This study reports the diagnosis and treatment of two patients with BBF which were confirmed by detecting bilirubin crystallization in the sputum. The first patient was a 45-year-old woman admitted to the hospital with "recurrent cough and lung infection". She had a history of multiple biliary tract surgeries and bilirubin crystallization was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) upon examination. Computed tomography (CT) imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), together with clinical features, confirmed a diagnosis of BBF. The second patient was a 53-year-old woman admitted to the hospital with coughing and bile-like sputum. She had a history of cholangiocarcinoma surgery and bilirubin crystallization was detected in the cytomorphological BALF examination. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) combined with clinical features confirmed a diagnosis of BBF. Both patients recovered after treatment and were discharged from the hospital. The clinical diagnosis of BBF largely relies upon imaging combined with clinical standards, and BALF examinations are rarely performed. This current investigation retrospectively analyzed the diagnosis and treatment of two cases of BBF, and demonstrated that bilirubin crystallization in the BALF may be an important diagnostic indicator for BBF.


Assuntos
Fístula Biliar , Bilirrubina , Fístula Biliar/diagnóstico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Cristalização , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(27): e26514, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232184

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Chlamydia psittaci (C psittaci) is a gram-negative obligate intracellular parasite, with birds as main hosts. The main route of infection in humans is inhalation of aerosols from contaminated animal excreta through the respiratory tract. The main manifestation of C psittaci infection is pneumonia. Patients suffering from severe infection are prone to sepsis and multiple organ failure. We report a case of simultaneous detection of C psittaci in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) technology. PATIENT CONCERNS: The 71-year-old male patient was a farmer with a long history of raising poultry and initial symptoms of fever and muscle pain accompanied by limb weakness and paroxysmal cough. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with sepsis, severe pneumonia, and multiple organ failure. INTERVENTIONS: Anti-infective therapy with doxycycline and meropenem was applied. OUTCOMES: The patient's body temperature and infection indicators improved and the chest X-ray findings showed the amelioration of lesions after 18 days of treatment. The patient was discharged without treatment on hospital day 19 due to financial constraints and subsequently died after 7 days. LESSONS: mNGS is an excellent diagnostic tool when specific pathogens are undetected by traditional assays.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Idoso , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208905

RESUMO

Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is an important critical care complication. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, a critical signaling event in the inflammatory response, has been implicated in the tracking of the lung injury. The present study aimed to determine the effect of simultaneous pretreatment with enteral aspirin and omega-3 fatty acid on lung injury in a murine VILI model. We compared the lung inflammation after the sequential administration of lipopolysaccharides and mechanical ventilation between the pretreated simultaneous enteral aspirin and omega-3 fatty acid group and the non-pretreatment group, by quantifying NF-κB activation using an in vivo imaging system to detect bioluminescence signals. The pretreated group with enteral aspirin and omega-3 fatty acid exhibited a smaller elevation of bioluminescence signals than the non-pretreated group (p = 0.039). Compared to the non-pretreated group, the pretreatment group with simultaneous enteral aspirin and omega-3 fatty acid showed reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (p = 0.038). Histopathological lung injury scores were also lower in the pretreatment groups compared to the only injury group. Simultaneous pretreatment with enteral administration of aspirin and omega-3 fatty acid could be a prevention method for VILI in patients with impending mechanical ventilation therapy.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/tratamento farmacológico , Algoritmos , Animais , Aspirina/farmacologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Feminino , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
11.
Cell Commun Signal ; 19(1): 73, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) has become an ongoing pandemic. Understanding the respiratory immune microenvironment which is composed of multiple cell types, together with cell communication based on ligand-receptor interactions is important for developing vaccines, probing COVID-19 pathogenesis, and improving pandemic control measures. METHODS: A total of 102 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Clinical information, routine laboratory tests, and flow cytometry analysis data with different conditions were collected and assessed for predictive value in COVID-19 patients. Next, we analyzed public single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which offers the closest available view of immune cell heterogeneity as encountered in patients with varying severity of COVID-19. A weighting algorithm was used to calculate ligand-receptor interactions, revealing the communication potentially associated with outcomes across cell types. Finally, serum cytokines including IL6, IL1ß, IL10, CXCL10, TNFα, GALECTIN-1, and IGF1 derived from patients were measured. RESULTS: Of the 102 COVID-19 patients, 42 cases (41.2%) were categorized as severe. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that AST, D-dimer, BUN, and WBC were considered as independent risk factors for the severity of COVID-19. T cell numbers including total T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the severe disease group were significantly lower than those in the moderate disease group. The risk model containing the above mentioned inflammatory damage parameters, and the counts of T cells, with AUROCs ranged from 0.78 to 0.87. To investigate the molecular mechanism at the cellular level, we analyzed the published scRNA-seq data and found that macrophages displayed specific functional diversity after SARS-Cov-2 infection, and the metabolic pathway activities in the identified macrophage subtypes were influenced by hypoxia status. Importantly, we described ligand-receptor interactions that are related to COVID-19 serverity involving macrophages and T cell subsets by communication analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that macrophages driving ligand-receptor crosstalk contributed to the reduction and exhaustion of CD8+ T cells. The identified crucial cytokine panel, including IL6, IL1ß, IL10, CXCL10, IGF1, and GALECTIN-1, may offer the selective targets to improve the efficacy of COVID-19 therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This is a retrospective observational study without a trial registration number. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Comunicação Celular , Macrófagos/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Idoso , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Citocinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200572

RESUMO

The implications of the microbiome on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prognosis has not been thoroughly studied. In this study we aimed to characterize the lung and blood microbiome and their implication on COVID-19 prognosis through analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, lung biopsy samples, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples. In all three tissue types, we found panels of microbes differentially abundant between COVID-19 and normal samples correlated to immune dysregulation and upregulation of inflammatory pathways, including key cytokine pathways such as interleukin (IL)-2, 3, 5-10 and 23 signaling pathways and downregulation of anti-inflammatory pathways including IL-4 signaling. In the PBMC samples, six microbes were correlated with worse COVID-19 severity, and one microbe was correlated with improved COVID-19 severity. Collectively, our findings contribute to the understanding of the human microbiome and suggest interplay between our identified microbes and key inflammatory pathways which may be leveraged in the development of immune therapies for treating COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/microbiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Biópsia Líquida , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/imunologia , Prognóstico , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Fúngico/análise , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111633, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243624

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and most deadly form of interstitial lung disease. Osteopontin (OPN), a matricellular protein with proinflammatory and profibrotic properties, plays a major role in several fibrotic diseases, including IPF; OPN is highly upregulated in patients' lung samples. In this study, we knocked down OPN in a bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) mouse model using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to determine whether the use of OPN siRNA is an effective therapeutic strategy for IPF. We found that fibrosing areas were significantly smaller in specimens from OPN siRNA-treated mice. The number of alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was also reduced in OPN siRNA-treated mice. Regarding the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins, the administration of OPN-siRNA to BLM-treated mice upregulated E-cadherin expression and downregulated vimentin expression. Moreover, in vitro, we incubated the human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line A549 with transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 and subsequently transfected the cells with OPN siRNA. We found a significant upregulation of Col1A1, fibronectin, and vimentin after TGF-ß1 stimulation in A549 cells. In contrast, a downregulation of Col1A1, fibronectin, and vimentin mRNA levels was observed in TGF-ß1-stimulated OPN knockdown A549 cells. Therefore, the downregulation of OPN effectively reduced pulmonary fibrotic and EMT changes both in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, our results indicate that OPN siRNA exerts a protective effect on BLM-induced PF in mice. Our results provide a basis for the development of novel targeted therapeutic strategies for IPF.


Assuntos
Bleomicina/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Osteopontina/genética , Células A549 , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
14.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064104

RESUMO

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predominantly have a respiratory tract infection with various symptoms and high mortality is associated with respiratory failure second to severe disease. The risk factors leading to severe disease remain unclear. Here, we reanalyzed a published single-cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq) dataset and found that bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with severe disease compared to those with mild disease contained decreased TH17-type cells, decreased IFNA1-expressing cells with lower expression of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR8, increased IgA-expressing B cells, and increased hyperactive epithelial cells (and/or macrophages) expressing matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which may together contribute to the pulmonary pathology in severe COVID-19. We propose IFN-I (and TLR7/TLR8) and PAI-1 as potential biomarkers to predict the susceptibility to severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Hialuronan Sintases/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Mucina-1/metabolismo , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th17/patologia
15.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 6438-6445, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are mycobacteria other than mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and mycobacterium leprae. NTM can cause infection in many human tissues and organs and is most commonly seen in the lungs. Clinically, the symptoms and signs of nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease (NMLD) are very similar to those of tuberculosis (TB). Because most NTMs are resistant to conventional anti-TB drugs, the rapid diagnosis of NMLD is the key to treatment. This study aimed to use gene chip technology to examine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from NMLD patients to explore the value of this technique for the rapid diagnosis of NMLD in BALF. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 308 patients with NMLD treated at Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital from January 2018 to June 2020 was performed. BALF was collected from the patients. Gene chip detection (Capital Bio Corporation, Chengdu, China) and BACTEC MGIT960 (Becton, Dickinson and Company, MD, USA) liquid culture were performed to compare the NTM positive detection rates between the two methods. The NTM strain isolated from liquid culture were identified by rDNA sequencing and the results of identification were compared with those of gene chip detection using BALF specimens. RESULTS: A total of 221 cases of NTM were detected in 308 BALF specimens by the gene chip method; the positive rate was 71.75% (221/308). A total of 218 cases of NTM were detected by the liquid culture method, and the positive rate was 70.78% (218/308). There was no significant difference in the positive rate of NTM detected in BALF specimens between the two methods (χ2=0.138 P=0.804>0.05); 187 cases were detected with both sequencing and gene chip detection, and the coincidence rate of strain identification with the two methods reached 96.79% (181/187). Sequencing of 218 strains of NTM was carried out; eight species were identified, and the top four species were M. intracellulare (131/218, 60.09%), M. avium (48/218, 22.02%), M. abscessus (27/218, 12.38%), and M. kansasii (5/218, 2.29%). CONCLUSIONS: Gene chip technology can rapidly detect NTM in BALF and accurately identify bacterial species. It has important clinical value in the early diagnosis and treatment of NMLD.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , China , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112448, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174739

RESUMO

Atmospheric PM2.5 can induce airway inflammation and mucin secretion. MUC5B is required for airway defense. However, the research on the role of MUC5B in airway inflammation induced by atmospheric PM2.5 remains limited. This study was designed to explore the role of MUC5B in airway inflammation induced by atmospheric PM2.5. In vivo, Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 1.5, 7.5, 37.5 mg/ kg PM2.5 saline suspension via intratracheal instillation. HE staining and AB-PAS staining were used to observe the airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia. In vitro, normal A549 cells and MUC5B-knockdown A549 cells were exposed to 0, 100, 200 and 400 µg/mL PM2.5 for 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h. ELISA was used to measure the levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats and in cell culture. Real time-PCR and ELISA were used to quantify the mRNA and protein levels of MUC5B in trachea and lung of rats and in A549 cells. PM2.5 could cause the infiltration of inflammatory cells and increase the mucus secretions and goblet cell metaplasia. MUC5B is related to rats' airway inflammation induced by PM2.5. A549 cells exposed to PM2.5 in higher concentration and longer time, the protein level of MUC5B was significantly increased, while the levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α and MUC5B mRNA were significantly decreased. Compared with normal A549 cells, the levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were significantly higher in Muc5b-knockdown cells. Atmospheric PM2.5 can induce airway inflammation and mucin secretion. MUC5B played a critical role in controlling the inflammatory response induced by PM2.5.


Assuntos
Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucina-5B/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Células A549 , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Mucina-5B/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(14): 7001-7012, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137173

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in many deaths throughout the world. It is vital to identify the novel prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets to assist with the subsequent diagnosis and treatment plan to mitigate the expansion of COVID-19. Since angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-positive cells are hosts for COVID-19, we focussed on this cell type to explore the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19. In this study, we identified that ACE2-positive cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with COVID-19 belong to bronchial epithelial cells. Comparing with patients of COVID-19 showing severe symptoms, the antigen processing and presentation pathway was increased and 12 typical genes, HLA-DRB5, HLA-DRB1, CD74, HLA-DRA, HLA-DPA1, HLA-DQA1, HSP90AA1, HSP90AB1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DQA2, and HLA-DMA, particularly HLA-DPB1, were obviously up-regulated in ACE2-positive bronchial epithelial cells of patients with mild disease. We further discovered SDCBP was positively correlated with above 12 genes particularly with HLA-DPB1 in ACE2-positive bronchial epithelial cells of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, SDCBP may increase the immune infiltration of B cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells in different lung carcinoma. Moreover, we found the expression of SDCBP was positively correlated with the expression of antigen processing and presentation genes in post-mortem lung biopsies tissues, which is consistent with previous discoveries. These results suggest that SDCBP has good potential to be further developed as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target in the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Brônquios/patologia , COVID-19/patologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Célula Única , Sinteninas/metabolismo , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071777

RESUMO

In the longtime challenge of identifying specific, easily detectable and reliable biomarkers of IPF, BALF proteomics is providing interesting new insights into its pathogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first shotgun proteomic investigation of EVs isolated from BALF of IPF patients. Our main aim was to characterize the proteome of the vesicular component of BALF and to explore its individual impact on the pathogenesis of IPF. To this purpose, ultracentrifugation was chosen as the EVs isolation technique, and their purification was assessed by TEM, 2DE and LC-MS/MS. Our 2DE data and scatter plots showed considerable differences between the proteome of EVs and that of whole BALF and of its fluid component. Analysis of protein content and protein functions evidenced that EV proteins are predominantly involved in cytoskeleton remodeling, adenosine signaling, adrenergic signaling, C-peptide signaling and lipid metabolism. Our findings may suggest a wider system involvement in the disease pathogenesis and support the importance of pre-fractioning of complex samples, such as BALF, in order to let low-abundant proteins-mediated pathways emerge.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Proteoma , Proteômica , Idoso , Cromatografia Líquida , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Vesículas Extracelulares/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica/métodos , Transdução de Sinais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 658428, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149696

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 virus causes upper and lower respiratory diseases including pneumonia, and in some cases, leads to lethal pulmonary failure. Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), the receptor for cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been shown to protect against severe acute lung failure. Here, we provide evidence that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 reduced the mRNA expression of ACE2 and type I interferons in primary cells of lung bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from naïve rhesus macaques. The expression levels of ACE2 and type I interferons were also found to be correlated with each other, consistent with the recent finding that ACE2 is an interferon-inducible gene. Furthermore, induction of ACE2 and type I interferons by poly I:C, an interferon inducer, was suppressed by S1 protein in primary cells of BAL. These observations suggest that the downregulation of ACE2 and type I interferons induced by S1 protein may directly contribute to SARS-CoV-2-associated lung diseases.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19 , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Intern Med J ; 51(6): 965-967, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155764

RESUMO

As data about microbiological testing and the cellular composition of the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in patients ventilated due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are lacking, this was investigated in a retrospective analysis (n = 58). Co-infection with pathogens was detected in 31 patients, whereas the analysis of BAL cellularity showed an increased total cell count and an alveolitis dominated by neutrophils. None of the physicians performing bronchoscopies in COVID-19 patients had serological evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Humanos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Irrigação Terapêutica
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