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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2322-2332, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028154

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and responsible for the current pandemic. Recent SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility studies in cats show that the virus can replicate in these companion animals and transmit to other cats. Here, we present an in-depth study of SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease and transmission in domestic cats. Cats were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 via intranasal and oral routes. One day post challenge (DPC), two sentinel cats were introduced. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, clinicopathological abnormalities and viral shedding. Postmortem examinations were performed at 4, 7 and 21 DPC. Viral RNA was not detected in blood but transiently in nasal, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as various tissues. Tracheobronchoadenitis of submucosal glands with the presence of viral RNA and antigen was observed in airways of the infected cats. Serology showed that both, principals and sentinels, developed antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. All animals were clinically asymptomatic during the course of the study and capable of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to sentinels. The results of this study are critical for understanding the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 in a naturally susceptible host species, and for risk assessment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Células Vero , Replicação Viral
2.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(3): 213-224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865913

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic, serious allergic inflammatory disease in the airway. The inflammation in the airway is induced by the allergic T-helper 2 cells (Th2 cells), which leads to unfettered production of inflammatory cytokines. The accretion of inflammatory cells in the airway also speeds up the secretion of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppresses antioxidative processes. Hence, the present work aimed to study the antiasthmatic efficacy of betulin and its effect in suppressing the inflammatory markers of ovalbumin (OVA) challenged asthmatic mice. The observed results revealed that the levels of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages were effectively decreased by betulin treatment; furthermore, the inflammatory markers IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-α levels were notably suppressed by betulin administration in OVA-challenged asthmatic mice. Similarly, the oral administration of betulin showed a reduction in IgE level and elevation in the IFN-γ level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were observed in betulin treated mice. Furthermore, reduced levels of reactive oxygen species like NO2, NO3, and MDA were noted in the betulin treated group. Consistently, airway hyperreactivity (AHR) was depleted in the betulin administered group compared with the OVA-challenged asthmatic group. Betulin treatment was revealed to have noteworthy antiasthmatic effects mediated by the suppression of production of inflammatory cells and the expression of other inflammatory markers. Furthermore, the elevation in the level of antioxidant markers helped to disclose the original regulatory mode of betulin on asthma treatment.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eosinófilos/citologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Testes de Função Respiratória , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem
3.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(3): 225-234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865914

RESUMO

Asthma is marked by chronic irritation in the airway lumen of the lungs due to the accretion of inflammatory cells that influence the regular inhalation process. An extended buildup of inflammation leads to oxidative pressure and the repression of antioxidant functions. In the current study, a potential compound, boldine, was tested for the containment of provocative markers along the path of antiasthmatic activity in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice model. As an effect, the boldine (10 and 20 mg/kg) treatment suppressed inflammatory cells such as eosinophil, macrophage, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and other inflammatory markers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of OVA-induced mice. Likewise, immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were drastically condensed in the serum of boldine-treated animals. Levels of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH), were upregulated in the boldine treatment group compared to the asthmatic control group, which displays the antioxidant effects of boldine on asthmatic animals. Interestingly, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels were repressed in the BALF of boldine-treated mice groups. Therefore, the effects of boldine are significant for the management of asthma, reducing the accrual of inflammatory cells, along with other inflammatory markers, while improving antioxidant markers and containing ROS. Hence, boldine may be an option for clinical trials of chronic asthma management.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aporfinas/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Aporfinas/administração & dosagem , Asma/imunologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eosinófilos/citologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Testes de Função Respiratória
5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670298

RESUMO

The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has affected millions of individuals and caused thousands of deaths worldwide. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and mostly unknown. Therefore, identifying the molecular mechanisms that promote progression of the disease is critical to overcome this pandemic. To address such issues, recent studies have reported transcriptomic profiles of cells, tissues and fluids from COVID-19 patients that mainly demonstrated activation of humoral immunity, dysregulated type I and III interferon expression, intense innate immune responses and inflammatory signaling. Here, we provide novel perspectives on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 using robust functional approaches to analyze public transcriptome datasets. In addition, we compared the transcriptional signature of COVID-19 patients with individuals infected with SARS-CoV-1 and Influenza A (IAV) viruses. We identified a core transcriptional signature induced by the respiratory viruses in peripheral leukocytes, whereas the absence of significant type I interferon/antiviral responses characterized SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also identified the higher expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways including heme biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation and tryptophan metabolism. A BTM-driven meta-analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from COVID-19 patients showed significant enrichment for neutrophils and chemokines, which were also significant in data from lung tissue of one deceased COVID-19 patient. Importantly, our results indicate higher expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation both in peripheral mononuclear leukocytes and BALF, suggesting a critical role for mitochondrial activity during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Collectively, these data point for immunopathological features and targets that can be therapeutically exploited to control COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Quimiocinas/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/sangue , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/virologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Transcriptoma/genética
6.
J Occup Health ; 62(1): e12146, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Along with technological innovations for improving the efficiency of printing, nanoparticles have been added to the surface of toners, and there is concern about the harmful effects of those components. We investigated, through a long-term observation following intratracheal instillation using rats, whether exposure to a toner with external additives can cause tumorigenesis. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were intratracheally instilled with dispersed toner at low (1 mg/rat) and high (2 mg/rat) doses, and the rats were sacrificed at 24 months after exposure, after which we examined pulmonary inflammation, histopathological changes, and DNA damage in the lung. Rats that had deceased before 24 months were dissected at that time as well, to compare tumor development. RESULTS: Although alveolar macrophages with pigment deposition in the alveoli were observed in the 1 and 2 mg exposure groups, no significant lung inflammation/fibrosis or tumor was observed. Since immunostaining with 8-OHdG or γ-H2AX did not show a remarkable positive reaction, it is thought that toner did not cause severe DNA damage to lung tissue. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that toner with external additives may have low toxicity in the lung.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/induzido quimicamente , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Tinta , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traqueia
7.
Pathog Dis ; 78(4)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667665

RESUMO

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) around the world has led to a pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. However, there are no effective drugs to prevent and treat the disease. Transcriptome-based drug repositioning, identifying new indications for old drugs, is a powerful tool for drug development. Using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid transcriptome data of COVID-19 patients, we found that the endocytosis and lysosome pathways are highly involved in the disease and that the regulation of genes involved in neutrophil degranulation was disrupted, suggesting an intense battle between SARS-CoV-2 and humans. Furthermore, we implemented a coexpression drug repositioning analysis, cogena, and identified two antiviral drugs (saquinavir and ribavirin) and several other candidate drugs (such as dinoprost, dipivefrine, dexamethasone and (-)-isoprenaline). Notably, the two antiviral drugs have also previously been identified using molecular docking methods, and ribavirin is a recommended drug in the diagnosis and treatment protocol for COVID pneumonia (trial version 5-7) published by the National Health Commission of the P.R. of China. Our study demonstrates the value of the cogena-based drug repositioning method for emerging infectious diseases, improves our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-induced disease, and provides potential drugs for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Saquinavir/farmacologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Degranulação Celular/imunologia , Endocitose/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lisossomos/imunologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ativação de Neutrófilo/imunologia , Pandemias , Transcriptoma
8.
J Crit Care ; 59: 149-155, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674001

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathological data of critical ill COVID-19 patients is essential in the search for optimal treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed postmortem needle core lung biopsies in seven patients with COVID-19 related ARDS. Clinical, radiological and microbiological characteristics are reported together with histopathological findings. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients age ranged from 58 to 83 years, five males and two females were included. Time from hospital admission to death ranged from 12 to 36 days, with a mean of 20 ventilated days. ICU stay was complicated by pulmonary embolism in five patients and positive galactomannan on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in six patients, suggesting COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis. Chest CT in all patients showed ground glass opacities, commonly progressing to nondependent consolidations. We observed four distinct histopathological patterns: acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia, diffuse alveolar damage, fibrosis and, in four out of seven patients an organizing pneumonia. None of the biopsy specimens showed any signs of invasive aspergillosis. CONCLUSIONS: In this case series common late histopathology in critically ill COVID patients is not classic DAD but heterogeneous with predominant pattern of organizing pneumonia. Postmortem biopsy investigations in critically COVID-19 patients with probable COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis obtained no evidence for invasive aspergillosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Betacoronavirus , Biópsia , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Masculino , Mananas/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspergilose Pulmonar/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 329: 109210, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726580

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture capable of triggering inflammation and oxidative damage in animals at pulmonary and systemic levels. Tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) reduces tissue injury associated with inflammation in vivo by mechanisms that are not completely understood. Here we evaluated the effect of tempol on inflammation and oxidative damage induced by acute exposure to cigarette smoke in vivo. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8 each): 1) control group exposed to ambient air (GC), 2) animals exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 days (CSG), mice treated 3) prior or 4) concomitantly with tempol (50 mg/kg/day) and exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 days. The results showed that the total number of leukocytes and neutrophils increased in the respiratory tract and lung parenchyma of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Likewise, MPO levels and activity as well as lipid peroxidation and lung protein nitration and carbonylation also increased. Administration of tempol before or during exposure to cigarette smoke inhibited all the above parameters. Tempol also reduced the pulmonary expression of the inflammatory cytokines Il-6, Il-1ß and Il-17 to basal levels and of Tnf-α by approximately 50%. In contrast, tempol restored Il-10 and Tgf-ß levels and enhanced the expression of Nrf2-associated genes, such as Ho-1 and Gpx2. Accordingly, total GPx activity increased in lung homogenates of tempol-treated animals. Taken together, our results show that tempol protects mouse lungs from inflammation and oxidative damage resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, likely through reduction of leukocyte infiltration and increased transcription of some of the Nrf2-controlled genes.


Assuntos
Óxidos N-Cíclicos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Nitritos/análise , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Marcadores de Spin , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
10.
Elife ; 92020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633718

RESUMO

Neither the disease mechanism nor treatments for COVID-19 are currently known. Here, we present a novel molecular mechanism for COVID-19 that provides therapeutic intervention points that can be addressed with existing FDA-approved pharmaceuticals. The entry point for the virus is ACE2, which is a component of the counteracting hypotensive axis of RAS. Bradykinin is a potent part of the vasopressor system that induces hypotension and vasodilation and is degraded by ACE and enhanced by the angiotensin1-9 produced by ACE2. Here, we perform a new analysis on gene expression data from cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from COVID-19 patients that were used to sequence the virus. Comparison with BALF from controls identifies a critical imbalance in RAS represented by decreased expression of ACE in combination with increases in ACE2, renin, angiotensin, key RAS receptors, kinogen and many kallikrein enzymes that activate it, and both bradykinin receptors. This very atypical pattern of the RAS is predicted to elevate bradykinin levels in multiple tissues and systems that will likely cause increases in vascular dilation, vascular permeability and hypotension. These bradykinin-driven outcomes explain many of the symptoms being observed in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Bradicinina/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Angiotensinas/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Renina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Vasodilatação
11.
Life Sci ; 256: 117995, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis between IPF and fibrotic HP (fHP) can be challenging: these two ILDs share many common features but call for different therapeutic approaches. In the present study, differential lipid mediator profiles were analysed by a new method in BAL and serum from HP and IPF patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 76 patients were enrolled retrospectively in the study. Median age (IQR) was 67 years (51-74); 63% were males, 30 had fHP and 46 had IPF. Serum and BAL samples were collected at initial diagnosis. For quantification of serum and BAL lipid mediators was used bead-based multiplex LEGENDPlex™ analysis (Biolegend). RESULTS: Serum Apo A1 levels were significantly higher in IPF than fHP patients (p = 0.314); indeed, serum levels of CCL2 and Apo C3 were lower in HP than in IPF patients (p = 0.013 and p = 0.041, respectively). BAL concentrations of Apo A1, adipsin, Apo C3 and APN were significantly lower in IPF than in fHP patients (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.007 and p = 0.023, respectively). In the logistic regression, IPF was tested as dependent variable. Serum levels of Apo A1, CCL2 and Apo C3 were tested as independent variables and ROC curve analysis of model performance showed AUC 93% (p < 0.0001); on the other hand, BAL concentrations of Apo A1, adipsin, Apo C3 and APN showed AUC 81% (p < 0.0001). DISCUSSION: Lipid biomarkers evaluated in BAL in our study confirm the hypothesis that fHP and IPF have different lung fibrosis phenotypes. The former is a post-inflammatory cell-regulated ILD and the second is more related to tissue remodeling and repair.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/diagnóstico , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Lipídeos/análise , Idoso , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(8): 1524-1535, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572532

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is increasingly reported in patients with influenza admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Classification of patients with influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) using the current definitions for invasive fungal diseases has proven difficult, and our aim was to develop case definitions for IAPA that can facilitate clinical studies. METHODS: A group of 29 international experts reviewed current insights into the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of IAPA and proposed a case definition of IAPA through a process of informal consensus. RESULTS: Since IAPA may develop in a wide range of hosts, an entry criterion was proposed and not host factors. The entry criterion was defined as a patient requiring ICU admission for respiratory distress with a positive influenza test temporally related to ICU admission. In addition, proven IAPA required histological evidence of invasive septate hyphae and mycological evidence for Aspergillus. Probable IAPA required the detection of galactomannan or positive Aspergillus culture in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or serum with pulmonary infiltrates or a positive culture in upper respiratory samples with bronchoscopic evidence for tracheobronchitis or cavitating pulmonary infiltrates of recent onset. The IAPA case definitions may be useful to classify patients with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), while awaiting further studies that provide more insight into the interaction between Aspergillus and the SARS-CoV-2-infected lung. CONCLUSION: A consensus case definition of IAPA is proposed, which will facilitate research into the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of this emerging acute and severe Aspergillus disease, and may be of use to study CAPA.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Influenza Humana/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Humanos , Mananas/análise , Pandemias , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/etiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle
15.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(7): 869-892, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536294

RESUMO

Surface modification by different quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) makes nanoclays more compatible with various polymeric matrices, thereby expanding their potential applications. The growing industrial use of nanoclays could potentially pose a health risk for workers. Here, we assessed how surface modification of nanoclays modulates their pulmonary toxicity. An in vitro screening of the unmodified nanoclay Bentonite (montmorillonite) and four organomodified nanoclays (ONC); coated with various QAC, including benzalkonium chloride (BAC), guided the selection of the materials for the in vivo study. Mice were exposed via a single intratracheal instillation to 18, 54, and 162 µg of unmodified Bentonite or dialkyldimethyl-ammonium-coated ONC (NanofilSE3000), or to 6, 18, and 54 µg of a BAC-coated ONC (Nanofil9), and followed for one, 3, or 28 days. All materials induced dose- and time-dependent responses in the exposed mice. However, all doses of Bentonite induced larger, but reversible, inflammation (BAL neutrophils) and acute phase response (Saa3 gene expression in lung) than the two ONC. Similarly, highest levels of DNA strand breaks were found in BAL cells of mice exposed to Bentonite 1 day post-exposure. A significant increase of DNA strand breaks was detected also for NanofilSE3000, 3 days post-exposure. Only mice exposed to Bentonite showed increased Tgf-ß gene expression in lung, biomarker of pro-fibrotic processes and hepatic extravasation, 3 days post-exposure. This study indicates that Bentonite treatment with some QAC changes main physical-chemical properties, including shape and surface area, and may decrease their pulmonary toxicity in exposed mice.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/prevenção & controle , Bentonita/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Animais , Bentonita/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação , Pulmão/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 400: 115041, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428593

RESUMO

Respiratory ailments have plagued occupational and public health communities exposed to World Trade Center (WTC) dust since the September 11, 2001 attack on the Twin Towers in Lower Manhattan. We proposed that these ailments were proposed to be induced by inhalation exposure to WTC particulate matter (WTCPM), that was released during the collapse of the buildings and its subsequent resuspension during cleanup. We investigated this hypothesis using both an in vitro and an in vivo mouse intranasal (IN) exposure models to identify the inflammatory potential of WTCPM with specific emphasis on respiratory and endothelial tissue responses. The in vitro exposure studies found WTCPM exposure to be positively correlated with cytotoxicity and increased NO2- production in both BEAS-2B pulmonary epithelial cells and THP-1 macrophage cells. The in vivo C57BL/6 mouse studies found significant increases in inflammatory markers including increases in polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) influx into nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (NLF and BALF), as well as increased levels of total protein and cytokine/chemokines levels. Concurrently, NLF, BALF, and serum NO2- levels exhibited significant homeostatic temporal deviations as well as temporal myograohic aortic dysfunction in myography studies. Respiratory exposure to- and evidence -based retention of- WTCPM may have contributed to chronic systemic effects in exposed mice that r resembled to observed effects in WTCPM-exposed human populations. Collectively, these findings are reflective of WTCPM exposure and its effect(s) on respiratory and aortic tissues, highlighting potential dysfunctional pathways that may precipitate inflammatory events, while simultaneously altering homeostatic balances. The tight interplay between these balances, when chronically altered, may contribute to- or result in- chronically diseased pathological states.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Materiais de Construção/toxicidade , Poeira/análise , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais de Construção/análise , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Cavidade Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Nasal/imunologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Células THP-1
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2607, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451375

RESUMO

Quantification of pathogen and host biomarkers is essential for the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of infectious diseases. Here, we demonstrate sensitive and rapid quantification of bacterial load and cytokines from human biological samples to generate actionable hypotheses. Our digital assay measures IL-6 and TNF-α proteins, gram-negative (GN) and gram-positive (GP) bacterial DNA, and the antibiotic-resistance gene blaTEM with femtomolar sensitivity. We use our method to characterize bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with asthma, and find elevated GN bacteria and IL-6 levels compared to healthy subjects. We then analyze plasma from patients with septic shock and find that increasing levels of IL-6 and blaTEM are associated with mortality, while decreasing IL-6 levels are associated with recovery. Surprisingly, lower GN bacteria levels are associated with higher probability of death. Applying decision-tree analysis to our measurements, we are able to predict mortality and rate of recovery from septic shock with over 90% accuracy.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Choque Séptico/imunologia , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Asma/imunologia , Asma/microbiologia , Carga Bacteriana , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Árvores de Decisões , Genes Bacterianos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/análise , Interleucina-6/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365944

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) initiates the cytokine/chemokine storm-mediated lung injury. The SARS-CoV unique domain (SUD) with three macrodomains (N, M, and C), showing the G-quadruplex binding activity, was examined the possible role in SARS pathogenesis in this study. The chemokine profile analysis indicated that SARS-CoV SUD significantly up-regulated the expression of CXCL10, CCL5 and interleukin (IL)-1ß in human lung epithelial cells and in the lung tissues of the mice intratracheally instilled with the recombinant plasmids. Among the SUD subdomains, SUD-MC substantially activated AP-1-mediated CXCL10 expression in vitro. In the wild type mice, SARS-CoV SUD-MC triggered the pulmonary infiltration of macrophages and monocytes, inducing CXCL10-mediated inflammatory responses and severe diffuse alveolar damage symptoms. Moreover, SUD-MC actuated NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-dependent pulmonary inflammation, as confirmed by the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor and the NLRP3-/- mouse model. This study demonstrated that SARS-CoV SUD modulated NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent CXCL10-mediated pulmonary inflammation, providing the potential therapeutic targets for developing the antiviral agents.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Quimiocina CXCL10/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/deficiência , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Pneumonia/patologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Regulação para Cima , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
19.
Mycoses ; 63(6): 528-534, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-547397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to viral infection are at risk for secondary complications like invasive aspergillosis. Our study evaluates coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) associated invasive aspergillosis at a single centre in Cologne, Germany. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS admitted to the medical or surgical intensive care unit at the University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. RESULTS: COVID-19 associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was found in five of 19 consecutive critically ill patients with moderate to severe ARDS. CONCLUSION: Clinicians caring for patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 should consider invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and subject respiratory samples to comprehensive analysis to detect co-infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Alemanha , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Mananas/análise , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
20.
Mycoses ; 63(6): 528-534, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to viral infection are at risk for secondary complications like invasive aspergillosis. Our study evaluates coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) associated invasive aspergillosis at a single centre in Cologne, Germany. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS admitted to the medical or surgical intensive care unit at the University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. RESULTS: COVID-19 associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was found in five of 19 consecutive critically ill patients with moderate to severe ARDS. CONCLUSION: Clinicians caring for patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 should consider invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and subject respiratory samples to comprehensive analysis to detect co-infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Aspergilose Pulmonar/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Alemanha , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Mananas/análise , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspergilose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
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