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1.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(4): 520-525, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107450

RESUMO

Background: Omentin is an adipocytokine secreted by visceral adipose tissue cells associated with the action of insulin-increasing, insulin-facilitated glucose uptake. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the levels of omentin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum of periodontally healthy individuals and chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Settings and Design: A hospital-based comparative study was conducted amongst 40 subjects of age group 30-50 years. Methods: Subjects were divided into four groups, group I (10 healthy individuals), group II (10 T2DM), group III (10 CP only) and group IV (10 patients with CP and T2DM). Clinical and systemic parameters assessed were gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), periodontal attachment level (PAL) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Serum and GCF samples were collected and analysed for omentin levels using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Although the mean GCF omentin levels were highest in group I and lowest in group IV, it was not statistically significant. However, the serum omentin levels were statistically significant, showing the highest mean level in group I and lowest in group IV and serum levels were statistically significant. Also, the serum omentin levels had a negative correlation with HbA1c. Conclusion: The levels of omentin reflect the diabetic status of an individual, which suggests that omentin can be a potential anti-inflammatory marker and a therapeutic agent for conditions like CP and T2DM.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Índice Periodontal
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(10): 1345-1355, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047690

RESUMO

Background: Several studies have demonstrated an association between obesity, periodontitis, and exercise. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effects of regular exercise on obese women with periodontal disease, using serum, saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples. A before-after study design was adopted to evaluate the effects of 12 weeks of regular exercise on obese women grouped according to periodontal status, without a control group (no exercise). The study sample comprised of 15 patients without periodontitis (NP group) and 10 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP group), from whom periodontal parameters were measured and serum, saliva, and GCF samples were collected. Body mass index (BMI), anthropometric measurements, somatotype-motoric tests, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were recorded at baseline and after exercise. Subjects and Methods: Med Calc was used for statistical analysis. Results: After exercise, a significant decrease in BMI and a significant increase in VO2max were observed in both groups. A significant decrease in probing depth and clinical attachment loss, serum leptin, GCF tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and leptin, and a significant increase in GCF resistin were observed in the CP group. A significant decrease in serum TNF-α and leptin levels and a significant increase in serum resistin and GCF TNF-α, leptin, resistin, and adiponectin levels were observed in the NP group. Significant correlations between bleeding on probing and levels of interleukin-1ß and leptin in GCF were observed in the CP group. Conclusions: This study showed that regular exercise exerts different impacts with respect to clinical and biochemical aspects of periodontal and systemic conditions in obese women.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/metabolismo , Periodontite Crônica/complicações , Periodontite Crônica/metabolismo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Obesidade/complicações , Saliva/química , Adipocinas/sangue , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Periodontite Crônica/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Bolsa Periodontal/metabolismo , Resistina/sangue , Resistina/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 815-822, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A novel acute-phase protein, YKL-40, is known as an inflammation-associated glycoprotein. YKL-40 is shown to be linked to inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and tissue remodeling secreted by various cells and is also considered to be stimulated by cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). The present study aimed to investigate YKL-40 and IL-6 levels in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) after non-surgical periodontal therapy for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six CP patients and 26 periodontally healthy individuals were enrolled. Clinical measurements were recorded; saliva and GCF samples were obtained at baseline and 1 and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Levels of YKL-40 and IL-6 in saliva and GCF were analysed by ELISA. RESULTS: Salivary and GCF YKL-40 and IL-6 levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in CP patients compared to healthy controls at baseline (p < 0.001). At 1 and 3 months after the completion of treatment, both YKL-40 and IL-6 levels in saliva and GCF had statistically significantly decreased compared with baseline values in CP patients (p < 0.001). On the other hand, no statistically significant difference was observed between 1 and 3 months in terms of salivary and GCF YKL-40 and IL-6 levels or any of the clinical findings (p > 0.016). CONCLUSION: Salivary and GCF YKL-40 levels may be useful to evaluate resolution of periodontal inflammation. Within the limits of this study, YKL-40 acute-phase protein might be a potential biomarker for detection of periodontitis and monitoring the response to periodontal therapy.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Proteína 1 Semelhante à Quitinase-3 , Humanos , Interleucina-6/análise , Saliva/química
4.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(3): 433-438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769279

RESUMO

Introduction: Bidi, a leaf rolled cigarette, is the most popular form of smoking in India. Bidi cigarette contains higher tar, ammonia, and nicotine content than a conventional cigarette and is more hazardous. Aim of Study: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bidi smoking on periodontitis by assessing the interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-8 from a gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were selected, which included 40 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis (20 bidi smokers and 20 non-bidi smokers) and 20 periodontal healthy controls. Diseased and healthy sites were selected from each of the chronic periodontitis subjects. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), periodontal probing depth (PPD), recession (RC), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Pooled GCF samples were taken from the same site and analyzed for IL-1ß and IL-8 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Bidi smokers displayed decreased levels of IL-1ß and IL-8 than non-bidi smokers for both healthy and diseased sites and significantly reduced IL-8 levels among bidi smokers when compared to controls. Among bidi smokers, the diseased site had significantly higher levels of IL-8 than the healthy site. Non-smoker subjects with chronic periodontitis especially diseased sites contained significantly higher amounts of IL-1ß and IL-8 than smokers and controls. The PI scores were highest among bidi smokers with reduced BOP and GI scores. Conclusions: Bidi smoking influenced the cytokine profile among periodontitis patients exhibiting decreased levels of IL-1ß and IL-8.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Fumar Cigarros , Produtos do Tabaco , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Humanos , Índia , Interleucina-1beta , Interleucina-8
5.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110124, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721813

RESUMO

Utilising biomarkers for COVID-19 diagnosis, prediction of treatment response and overall prognostication have been investigated recently. However, these ventures have only considered the use of blood-based molecular markers. Saliva is another biofluid that warrants being applied in similar fashion with major advantages that centres on its non-invasive and repeatable collection as well as cost-efficiency. To this end, this article presents a hypothesis for the sources of biomarkers useful clinically for COVID-19 disease outcome estimation and identify the likely implications of their detection in saliva.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Biomarcadores/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Modelos Imunológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Citocinas/análise , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Vesículas Extracelulares , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Humanos , MicroRNAs/análise , Doenças da Boca/complicações , Doenças da Boca/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Saliva/imunologia , Saliva/virologia , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Glândulas Salivares/virologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise
6.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(4): 410-415, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584278

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this article was to determine the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on clinical parameters and also to evaluate serum level of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in chronic periodontitis patients with and without hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were 40 female patients (20 systemically healthy subjects with chronic periodontitis and 20 subjects with hypothyroidism and chronic periodontitis). Clinical parameters like plaque score, gingival score, gingival recession, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline and 4 weeks after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy included oral hygiene instructions and full-mouth scaling and root planing. A total of 5 mL of venous blood sample was collected from each subject at baseline and 4 weeks after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. RESULTS: The clinical parameters and biochemical parameters like IL-6 and TNF-α in both groups showed pronounced reduction at the end of 4 weeks following nonsurgical periodontal therapy. However, simultaneous comparison of clinical and biochemical parameters between the two groups was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that nonsurgical periodontal therapy contributes to reduction in serum level of IL-6 and TNF-α in systemically healthy subjects with chronic periodontitis and subjects with hypothyroidism and chronic periodontitis. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of periodontitis as well as hypothyroidism is increasing nowadays. Interleukin-6 and TNF-α are found to play a significant role in pathobiology of both periodontitis and hypothyroidism. With the treatment of periodontitis, it is found that there is improvement in periodontal and thyroid status of the patients. So, it is an alert to health professionals about the relation of hypothyroidism and periodontitis so that they consider a multidisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Hipotireoidismo , Índice de Placa Dentária , Raspagem Dentária , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Perda da Inserção Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal , Aplainamento Radicular , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
7.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(4): 561-567, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246666

RESUMO

Background: Amlodipine, calcium channel blocker (CCB), is used in the management of cardiovascular diseases which causes gingival overgrowth (GO). The growth factors may have a role in the pathogenesis of amlodipine-induced GO. Objectives: This pilot study aimed to investigate the growth factors including transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with amlodipine-induced GO and compare with of healthy subjects. Methods: GCF samples were collected from 56 sites presenting GO (GO + group) and from 38 sites not presenting GO (GO- group) of 5 patients using amlodipine for more than one year, and from 45 sites (control group) of 5 healthy subjects. The levels of TGF-b1, PDGF-BB, and bFGF were determined by using ELISA kits. Results: The mean concentration of TGF-b1 in GCF samples of GO + group (9.50 ± 7.30 ng/ml) was higher than both GO- group (2.07 ± 0.50 ng/ml) and control group (2.74 ± 1.01 ng/ml) (P = 0.014). No significant difference was found among the groups in the GCF levels of PDGF-BB (P = 0.767). bFGF was detected in only 33% of the sites from patients. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that TGF-b1 may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of amlodipine-induced GO.


Assuntos
Anlodipino/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Crescimento Excessivo da Gengiva/induzido quimicamente , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/análise , Anlodipino/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(4): 568-573, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246667

RESUMO

Objectives: The applied orthodontic force causes remodeling of the periodontium through the selective release of cytokines causing resorption of bone, enabling controlled movement of the tooth. This study compared the cytokine profile between patients treated with conventional labial and lingual fixed orthodontic appliances. Patients and Methods: The study included 80 patients in need of orthodontic treatment, out of which 40 patients were treated by the labial fixed appliance and 40 by the lingual fixed appliance. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) specimens were gathered from both the groups using a microcapillary pipette. The samples were collected at the beginning of the treatment and after 21 days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to evaluate the cytokine levels. Results: Interleukin (IL)-1α, 1ß, 2, 8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were significantly high (P < 0.001) in GCF of participants treated with conventional labial fixed appliance. IL-1α, 1ß, 2, 6, 8, and TNF-α levels were significantly high (P < 0.001) in GCF of participants treated by the lingual fixed appliance. The concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1ß were increased higher than other cytokines in both the treatment groups. Conclusion: Overall, the lingual fixed appliance had higher cytokine levels than a labial fixed appliance. Analyzing the GCF cytokine levels during orthodontic treatment could provide an ideal platform for monitoring the progress of the treatment.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Citocinas/análise , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores/análise , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228921, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-18 have been proposed to play important roles in periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but human data are conflicting. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of IL-17A and IL-18 in periodontitis and DM by measuring salivary and serum levels, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 49 participants with type 2 DM and 25 control subjects without type 2 DM were recruited. A periodontal screening and recording (PSR) index (0, 1-2, 3, and 4) was used to classify whether these subjects had periodontitis. Salivary and serum IL-17A and IL-18 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between these cytokines and clinical parameters. RESULTS: Salivary IL-17A levels were not significantly different between patients with DM and controls, however, the levels were significantly higher in controls with periodontitis than those without periodontitis (p = 0.031). Salivary IL-17A levels were significantly associated with the PSR index (ß = 0.369, p = 0.011). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed the association of salivary IL-18 levels and fasting plasma glucose (ß = 0.270, p = 0.022) whereas serum IL-18 levels were associated with HbA1C (ß = 0.293, p = 0.017). No correlation between salivary and serum levels of IL-17A and IL-18 was found. CONCLUSION: Salivary IL-17A was strongly associated with periodontitis, whereas salivary IL-18 was associated with FPG and serum IL-18 was associated with HbA1C. These results suggest the role of these cytokines in periodontal inflammation and DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/análise , Interleucina-18/análise , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Periodontite Crônica/complicações , Citocinas/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Interleucina-17/sangue , Interleucina-18/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Periodontite/sangue , Periodontite/metabolismo , Saliva/química
10.
Biol Res ; 53(1): 3, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pellicle, the acellular organic material deposited on the surface of tooth enamel, has been thought to be derived from saliva. In this study, protein compositions of the pellicle, gingival crevicular fluid, and saliva collected from healthy adults were compared to elucidate the origin of pellicle proteins. RESULTS: The pellicle, gingival crevicular fluid, and saliva from the parotid gland or mixed gland were collected; subsequently, protein expression in samples from the respective individual was compared by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Following SDS-PAGE, proteins in the major bands were identified by mass spectrometry. The band pattern of pellicle proteins appeared different from those of gingival crevicular fluid, or saliva samples. Using mass spectrometry, 13 proteins in these samples were identified. The relative abundance of the proteins was quantitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry coupled with stable isotope labeling and by western blot. Cystatin S and α-amylase detected in pellicle were enriched in saliva samples, but not in gingival crevicular fluid, by western blot, and their abundance ratios were high in saliva and low in gingival crevicular fluid when analyzed by stable isotope labeling. Serotransferrin, however, was found only in the pellicle and gingival crevicular fluid by western blot and its abundance ratio was low in saliva. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that the gingival crevicular fluid appears to contribute to pellicle formation in addition to saliva.


Assuntos
Película Dentária/química , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Proteínas/análise , Saliva/química , Adulto , Western Blotting , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas
11.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227757, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986169

RESUMO

AIM: Alveolar resorption is one of the most important events in periodontitis. Osteoclast activity is regulated by the ratio between receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the RANKL/OPG ratio in crevicular fluid after periodontal treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 15 patients with periodontitis were included in the study group. Samples were collected from an area with active periodontitis and a healthy area. The RANKL and OPG levels were measured before and after periodontal scaling and root planing (SRP) treatment. The study group was compared to the control group, which included 10 patients without periodontitis. ID Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT03787875. RESULTS: A decrease in the RANKL level was found in areas with active periodontitis after periodontal treatment, but no change in the OPG level was observed. Therefore, the treatment induced a decrease in the RANKL/OPG ratio in sites with destructive periodontal activity. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal treatment acts on the RANKL/OPG ratio by decreasing osteoclastogenesis. These results encourage the use of these molecules for periodontal diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. ID CLINICALTRIAL.GOV: NCT03787875.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/prevenção & controle , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Raspagem Dentária , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Osteoprotegerina/análise , Idoso , Perda do Osso Alveolar/diagnóstico , Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Periodontite Crônica/complicações , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Índice Periodontal , Estudos Prospectivos , Ligante RANK , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(4): 1421-1430, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies have demonstrated that children from aggressive periodontitis (AgP) parents presented precocious alterations in their periodontal condition, and the use of chemical agents in association to plaque control could be useful to control these alterations. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Triclosan toothpaste to modulate the clinical and subgingival condition in children from AgP parents. METHODS: Fifteen children from AgP parents and 15 from periodontally healthy parents were included in this crossover placebo study. Children were randomly allocated into triclosan or placebo therapy, using selected toothpaste for 45 days. After 15 days of wash-out, groups were crossed, changing the used toothpaste. Clinical examination and saliva, crevicular gingival fluid (GCF), and subgingival biofilm collection were performed at baseline and 45 days of each phase. GCF cytokines' levels were analyzed by Luminex/MAGpix platform and subgingival and salivary periodontal pathogens' levels by qPCR. RESULTS: At baseline, AgP group presented higher plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and bleeding on probing (BoP), higher Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) abundance in saliva and subgingival biofilm, and lower levels of INF-É£, IL-4, and IL-17 in GCF. Placebo therapy only reduced PI in both groups. Triclosan toothpaste reduced PI and GI in both groups. Triclosan promoted reduction of BoP and probing depth (PD), Aa salivary, and IL-1ß levels in AgP group. In health group, triclosan reduced INF-É£ and IL-4 concentration. CONCLUSION: Triclosan toothpaste demonstrated to be more effective than placebo toothpaste to control the periodontal condition in children from AgP parents, by reducing the BoP, PD, salivary Aa, and IL-1ß. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Triclosan toothpaste can improve oral conditions in higher-risk population for AgP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier NCT03642353.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Triclosan/uso terapêutico , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Periodontite Agressiva , Biofilmes , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Citocinas , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Humanos , Masculino , Índice Periodontal , Saliva
13.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 119(1 Pt 1): 157-163, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The irradiation of 660-nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has exhibited potential to accelerate oral wound healing and prevent periodontal breakdown in rodents. This study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of 660-nm LEDs during non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). METHODS: Nineteen patients with at least one periodontitis-involved tooth in three quadrants received NSPT, and three protocols of LED light irradiation, including LED light irradiation from initial clinical assessment (T0) until the completion of scaling and root planning (T1) (LED01), LED light irradiation from T1 until re-evaluation (T2) (LED02), and no LED light irradiation (control treatment), were randomly assigned to respective quadrant. Clinical parameters were assessed at T0 and T2, and such biomarkers as IL-1ß and MMP-8 from gingival crevicular fluid were assessed at T0, T1, and T2. RESULTS: At T2, all examined sites exhibited significantly reduced probing pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival bleeding index, plaque score, and visual analog scale. In the sites with greatest initial PD and CAL, LED01 and LED02 significantly reduced PD and CAL compared with the control treatment. IL-1ß and MMP-8 were reduced in all groups at T1 and T2, and the reduction of MMP-8 was the most notable in LED01. CONCLUSION: LED light irradiation during or after scaling and root planing assisted in the recovery of periodontium and can be used as an adjunct treatment during NSPT, specifically for sites with severe periodontal breakdown.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 8 da Matriz/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Aplainamento Radicular/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Periodontol ; 91(3): 396-402, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are higher in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (type-2 DM) than controls (systemically healthy individuals without CP. The aim was to assess the levels of AGEs in the GCF of CP patients with and without type-2 DM. METHODS: Participants were divided into three groups as follows. Group-1: Patients with type-2 DM and CP; group-2: Non-diabetic individuals with CP; group-3: Non-diabetic individuals without periodontal diseases. Demographic data were collected using a questionnaire. Full-mouth plaque-index (PI), bleeding-on-probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (AL), and marginal-bone-loss (MBL) were assessed. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were recorded. The GCF was collected and levels of AGEs were assessed using standard techniques. Group comparisons were performed and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Ninety-four individuals (32, 31, and 31 individuals in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were included. Mean HbA1c levels were significantly higher in group-1 than groups 2 (P <0.05) and 3 (P <0.05). The mean age of individuals in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 55.2, 51.5, and 50.7 years, respectively. The mean duration of type-2 DM among individuals in group-1 was 8.2 years (7 to 10 years). Levels of AGEs were detected in all the patients. The mean GCF levels of AGEs were significantly higher among patients in group-1 (521.9 pg/mL [428.5 to 569.3 pg/mL]) (P <0.01) than groups 2 (234.84 pg/mL [216.8 to 318.9 pg/mL]) and 3 (87.2 pg/mL [75.2 to 97.8 pg/mL]). The mean GCF levels of AGEs were significantly higher among patients in group-2 (P <0.01) than group-3 (P <0.01). CONCLUSION: The GCF levels of AGEs are higher in CP patients with type-2 DM compared to systemically healthy individuals with and without periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Índice de Placa Dentária , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perda da Inserção Periodontal , Índice Periodontal
15.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(3): 1311-1320, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To monitor the cytokine release patterns in the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) and to investigate which factors affect the success rate of narrow diameter implants (NDI) during the first year. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mandibular implant overdentures (IOD) retained by 2 NDI were installed in 16 clinically atrophic edentulous patients. The following parameters were monitored during the first year: (i) peri-implant health parameters (plaque index (PI), calculus presence (CP), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing (BoP); (ii) cytokine concentrations in the PICF (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10); (iii) implant stability quotient (ISQ); (iv) marginal bone level (MBL) and bone level change (BLC); (v) implant success. The insertion torque, bone type, mandibular atrophy, time since edentulism, and smoking habits were also recorded. All data were analyzed using multivariable multilevel mixed-effects regression models. RESULTS: The variability in the TNF-α release patterns temporarily reduced at weeks (w) 8-12, while the IL-1ß concentrations remained low until they peaked at w48 [p < 0.05; + 177.55 pg/µl (+ 96.13 - + 258.97)]. Conversely, IL-10 release decreased significantly at w48 [p < 0.05; - 456.24 pg/µl (- 644.41 - - 268.07)]. The PD and ISQ decreased significantly (p < 0.05) over the follow-up period, while the MBL was stable after w48 with a BLC of 0.12 ± 0.71 mm. The overall success rate was 81.3%, and was influenced by TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-10, PI, GI, PD, smoking, and time since edentulism. CONCLUSION: Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine release was balanced during the first 24 weeks. The GI, smoking, and time since edentulism are the most important factors determining the implant success. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The study contributes to the understanding of the osseointegration process in a clinically atrophic population rehabilitated with IOD, and highlights the importance of monitoring clinical peri-implant health-related parameters, smoking habit, and time since edentulism to predict implant success rates.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Revestimento de Dentadura , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Osseointegração , Idoso , Biomarcadores/química , Citocinas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mandíbula , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Oral Dis ; 26(1): 200-212, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, and these two factors combined on gingival crevicular fluid levels and ratios of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines. Associations between cytokines with each other and with key periodontal pathogens in periodontal sites under the challenge of one or both of these risk factors were also assessed. METHODS: A total of 102 subjects with periodontitis were included in this cross-sectional study and assigned to one of the following groups: non-diabetic non-smokers (control group, n = 25), non-smokers with DM (DM group, n = 30), non-diabetic smokers (S group, n = 26), and smokers with DM (S + DM group, n = 21). The levels of 13 pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, TNF-α, MIP-1α, GM-CSF, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12, IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23) and 5 anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-ß) cytokines were assessed in healthy and diseased sites, using multiplex immunoassay. Ratios of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines were obtained in all possible permutations. The levels of 7 key periodontal pathogens were evaluated by qPCR. RESULTS: Overall, the ratios of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines were higher in healthy and diseased sites of the DM group and in healthy sites of the S + DM group, and lower in diseased sites of the S group, compared with the control (p < .05). The proportion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines in relation to the 18 cytokines studied was higher in the DM group and lower in the S group, whereas the proportion of the anti-inflammatory cytokines was lower in both diabetic groups and higher in the S group, compared to the control (p < .05). A cluster of six common cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-12, IL-13, IL-21, and IL-23) was observed in the diseased sites of all groups studied. Eight common cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, and IFN-γ) grouped closely in the healthy sites of both diabetic groups. Significant associations between pathogens and cytokines occurred mainly in the diseased sites of the S + DM group (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus induced an overall pro-inflammatory state, while smoking mainly stimulated immunosuppression in periodontal sites. When the two risk factors overlapped, smoking seemed to partially assuage the hyperinflammatory effect of DM.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Imunossupressão , Fumar , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/análise , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
J Periodontal Res ; 55(2): 209-214, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Azurocidin is a neutrophil-derived protein in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) which, according to relevant studies, might correlate with periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate azurocidin as a potential biomarker for chronic periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and one patients participated in the study, divided into two groups. Forty-eight were included in the periodontally healthy group (HP) and fifty-three in the chronic periodontitis group (CP). Clinical indices included probing depth (PD), recession (REC), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque (PL). Pooled GCF samples were collected with paper strips, freezed in liquid nitrogen (-196°C), stored at -80°C, and the levels of azurocidin were analyzed with ELISA. Values were transformed and expressed for comparisons in pg/30 s sample. Statistical comparisons were performed using non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney) at the 0.05 level. Furthermore, the diagnostic accuracy of the procedure was assessed with receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC), areas under the curve (AUC), and the Youden's J Index calculated. RESULTS: Demographic data were comparable between the two groups. Clinical parameters and the levels of azurocidin were statistically significantly higher in the CP group when compared to the HP group (Mann-Whitney test, P < .05). Quantitative data from ELISA demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy of azurocidin, with AUC calculated higher than 0.9 at the 0.000 level. CONCLUSION: Azurocidin in GCF is a promising biomarker for periodontal disease. The results of the present study agree with previous studies in the literature showing an up-regulated trend in the levels of azurocidin in periodontitis patients.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perda da Inserção Periodontal , Índice Periodontal
18.
Oral Dis ; 26(1): 166-172, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of smoking on peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP) following initial periodontal therapy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients with CP (20 smokers (S + CP) and 20 non-smokers (S-CP)) and 40 subjects with healthy periodontium (20 smokers (S + PH) and 20 non-smokers (S-PH)), comprising 80 subjects, were included in this study. Baseline GCF samples were obtained from all subjects, and clinical periodontal measurements were recorded. In patients who had received initial periodontal therapy, GCF samples were obtained and all clinical periodontal measurements were recorded again during the 6th-8th weeks. GCF PGRP-1 levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: At baseline, GCF PGRP-1 levels were significantly higher in both groups with CP than in both groups with healthy periodontium, whereas these levels were significantly lower in S + CP than in S-CP. GCF PGRP-1 levels decreased significantly in both CP groups after periodontal therapy, and this reduction was significantly greater in non-smokers than in smokers. CONCLUSION: Smoking might have a suppressive effect on GCF PGRP-1 levels in CP. Initial periodontal therapy is effective in decreasing GCF PGRP-1 levels in both smokers and non-smokers with CP.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Raspagem Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Aplainamento Radicular , Adulto Jovem
19.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 177-184, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001696

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Crevicular fluid was used to assess interleukin-17 (IL-17) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer patients receiving zoledronic acid and/or bevacizumab. The markers were also assessed in the serum. METHODS: Twenty-five patients were included and comprised three groups: patients who received zoledronic acid (n = 9), patients who received bevacizumab (n = 9), and patients who received zoledronic acid combined with bevacizumab (n = 5). One patient received zoledronic acid and everolimus and another received zoledronic acid, bevacizumab, and temsirolimus. IL-17 and VEGF were measured by standard quantitative ELISA kits and assessed in two study points. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients maintained good periodontal health; one had asymptomatic osteonecrosis of the jaw. First assessment: 44 samples were collected; 21 from serum and 23 from crevicular fluid. Second assessment, 6 months later: 11 samples were collected; 6 from serum and 5 from crevicular fluid. IL-17 was detected in all samples, in serum and crevicular fluid, and remained unchanged at both time points. Serum VEGF in patients with bevacizumab alone or combined with zoledronic acid was significantly lower compared with that of patients who received zoledronic acid alone. VEGF was not detected in the crevicular fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Crevicular fluid might be an easy, non-invasive means to assess IL-17. The stable values of IL-17 in crevicular fluid and serum and the lack of VEGF in the crevicular fluid could be related to the good periodontal health of our patients. Further studies are needed to assess IL-17 and VEGF in the crevicular fluid in patients with and without periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Interleucina-17/análise , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Ácido Zoledrônico/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/diagnóstico , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Osteonecrose/induzido quimicamente , Osteonecrose/diagnóstico , Osteonecrose/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Bolsa Periodontal/induzido quimicamente , Bolsa Periodontal/diagnóstico , Bolsa Periodontal/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Ácido Zoledrônico/efeitos adversos
20.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(1): 487-502, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical treatments such as guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and access flap surgery are widely employed for the treatment of intrabony defects. However, little is known regarding the postoperative expression of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) markers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to compare the expression of GCF markers following treatment of periodontal intrabony defects with guided tissue regeneration or access surgery. The association of the markers' expression with the clinical outcome was also assessed. METHODS: An electronic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, OpenGrey, LILACS and Cochrane Library up to December 2018 complemented by a manual search. Human, prospective clinical studies were identified. The changes from baseline up to 30 days (early healing) and 3 months (late healing) were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 164 publications were identified and reviewed for eligibility. Of these, 10 publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The included studies evaluated 15 different GCF markers with a follow-up time between 21 and 360 days postoperatively. PDGF, VEGF and TIMP-1 changes were often investigated in the included studies; however, contrasting results were reported. Two studies agreed that both GTR and OFD lead to similar OPG level changes. TGF-ß1 is increased early postoperatively, irrespective of the surgical technique employed. CONCLUSION: There is limited evidence available on the expression of GCF markers after surgical interventions of intrabony periodontal defects. However, OPG and TGF-ß1 tend to increase early post-operatively, irrespective of the surgical technique employed, irrespective of the surgical technique employed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: More well-designed, powered studies with sampling periods reflecting the regenerative process are needed, and future research should focus on employing standardised protocols for collecting, storing and analysing GCF markers.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Líquido do Sulco Gengival , Regeneração Tecidual Guiada Periodontal , Perda do Osso Alveolar/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Humanos , Perda da Inserção Periodontal , Estudos Prospectivos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
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