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1.
Nat Protoc ; 15(10): 3284-3333, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895525

RESUMO

Inflammasomes are multimeric heterogeneous mega-Dalton protein complexes that play key roles in the host innate immune response to infection and sterile insults. Assembly of the inflammasome complex following infection or injury begins with the oligomerization of the upstream inflammasome-forming sensor and proceeds through a multistep process of well-coordinated events and downstream effector functions. Together, these steps enable elegant experimental readouts with which to reliably assess the successful activation of the inflammasome complex and cell death. Here, we describe a comprehensive protocol that details several in vitro (in bone marrow-derived macrophages) and in vivo (in mice) strategies for activating the inflammasome and explain how to subsequently assess multiple downstream effects in parallel to unequivocally establish the activation status of the inflammasome and cell death pathways. Our workflow assesses inflammasome activation via the formation of the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) speck; cleavage of caspase-1 and gasdermin D; release of IL-1ß, IL-18, caspase-1, and lactate dehydrogenase from the cell; and real-time analysis of cell death by imaging. Analyses take up to ~24 h to complete. Overall, our multifaceted approach provides a comprehensive and consistent protocol for assessing inflammasome activation and cell death.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5877-5881, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Pleural effusion (PE) has a heterogeneous aetiology, and differential diagnosis between benign and malignant disease may require invasive procedures in up to 60% of cases. The sensitivity of pleural cytology is limited, and several strategies have been tested to reduce the need of invasive diagnostic approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of pleural fluid cytology, compared to, and combined with, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), C reactive protein (CRP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay of pleural fluid (PF) in patients with a history of cancer, exudative non-purulent PE, and suspicion of malignant PE on imaging studies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of 40 patients with pulmonary metastases and malignant PE, and 57 controls with benign exudative PE were reviewed. All the patients underwent pleural cytology and CEA, CRP, and LDH assay before VATS-guided biopsy. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity were 55.0% and 98.2% (cytology), 35.0% and 98.2% (CEA), 92.5% and 71.9% (CRP), 70.0% and 54.4% (LDH). The multivariate analysis excluded LDH, and the final AUC (cytology+CEA+CRP) was 0.894. CONCLUSION: In all patients with a history of cancer and PE of uncertain origin, the combination of PF cytology plus pleural CEA and CRP assay together should be suggested to recognize malignant plural effusion (MPE), minimising the use of unnecessary invasive investigations.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Diferencial , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pleura/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural Maligno/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Pleura/patologia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural Maligno/patologia
3.
Life Sci ; 260: 118426, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937159

RESUMO

AIMS: Tobacco smoking is a major health problem associated with lung and liver damage. Lung and liver damage secondary to tobacco smoking is mediated through nicotine-induced oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that antioxidant treatment with tiron may improve nicotine-induced lung and liver damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into six groups, a control, nicotine (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.; for 8 weeks) and tiron (100 or 200 mg/kg/day, i.p.; for 8 weeks) with or without nicotine administration. KEY FINDINGS: Tiron improved survival rate and attenuated lung and liver damage as reflected by decreased total and differential cell counts, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum; also histopathological examination confirmed the protective effect of tiron in lung and liver tissues of nicotine treated rats. Tiron attenuated dyslipidemia, which is associated with nicotine. These ameliorative effects of tiron may be mainly due to its antioxidant effect as proved by a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels, and increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) level, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. This is likely related to suppression of protein levels of NADPH oxidase enzyme (NOX1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α); and up-regulation of protein levels of nuclear factor erythroid-2 (Nrf2). SIGNIFICANCE: This makes tiron (synthetic analogue of vitamin E) good candidate for future use to minimize nicotine's hazards among smokers.


Assuntos
Sal Dissódico do Ácido 1,2-Di-Hidroxibenzeno-3,5 Dissulfônico/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Nicotina/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Contagem de Células , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Enzimas/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Lesão Pulmonar/patologia , Masculino , NADPH Oxidase 1/sangue , NADPH Oxidase 1/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/sangue , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4857-4867, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Anticancer peptide PNC-27 binds to HDM-2 protein on cancer cell membranes inducing the formation of cytotoxic transmembrane pores. Herein, we investigated HDM-2 membrane expression and the effect of PNC-27 treatment on human non-stem cell acute myelogenous leukemia cell lines: U937, acute monocytic leukemia; OCI-AML3, acute myelomonocytic leukemia and HL60, acute promyelocytic leukemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured cell surface membrane expression of HDM-2 using flow cytometry. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay while direct cytotoxicity was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and induction of apoptotic markers annexin V and caspase-3. RESULTS: HDM-2 is expressed at high levels in membranes of U937, OCI-AML3 and HL-60 cells. PNC-27 can bind to membrane HDM-2 to induce cell necrosis and LDH release within 4 h. CONCLUSION: Targeting membrane HDM-2 can be a potential strategy to treat leukemia. PNC-27 targeting membrane HDM-2 demonstrated significant anti-leukemia activity in a variety of leukemic cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide/metabolismo , Necrose , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
5.
Life Sci ; 259: 118215, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768579

RESUMO

AIMS: Infantile hemangioma (IH) is one of the most common tumors in infancy, which etiology and pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, hypoxia and abnormal glucose metabolism is regarded as critical pathogenic factors. This study investigated the expression and function of glycolysis-associated molecules (GLUT1, HK2, PFKFB3, PKM2, and LDHA) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions to further understand the pathogenesis of IH. MAIN METHODS: Hemangioma-derived endothelial cells (HemECs) were isolated from proliferating phase infantile hemangiomas and identified by immunofluorescence. HemECs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. RNA and protein expression of glycolysis-associated molecules were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Glucose consumption, ATP production and lactate production were measured. Glycolysis-associated molecules were inhibited by WZB117, 3BP, 3PO, SKN, and GSK 2837808A and the resulting effects on HemECs proliferation, migration, and tube formation were quantified. KEY FINDINGS: Glycolysis-associated molecules were highly expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in HemECs compared with HUVECs (P < 0.05). Glucose consumption and ATP production were higher in HemECs than in HUVECs, while lactate production in HemECs was lower than in HUVECs (P < 0.05). Inhibition of some glycolysis-associated molecules reduced the proliferation, migration, and tube formation capacity of HemECs (P < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed that glycolysis-associated molecules were highly expressed in IH. Glucose metabolismin HemECs differed from normal endothelial cells. Altering the expression of glycolysis-associated molecules may influence the phenotype of HemECs and provide new therapeutic approaches to the successful treatment of IH.


Assuntos
Glicólise/fisiologia , Hemangioma/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Feminino , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Glicólise/genética , Hemangioma/fisiopatologia , Hexoquinase/genética , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hipóxia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/genética , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105037, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury after ischemic stroke is usually accompanied with the activation of inflammasome which seriously impairs neurological function. MiR-139 has been reported to be associated with inflammatory regulation in multiple diseases. However, its effect and mechanism on inflammation regulation after cerebral I/R injury are still poorly understood. METHODS: An in vitro model of cerebral I/R injury was constructed with oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) treatment. TargetScan bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase reporter assay were utilized to confirm the targeted relationship between miR-139 and c-Jun. Cell pyroptosis was verified by flow cytometry and Caspase-1 Detection Kit. qRT-PCR assay was performed to detect the expression levels of miR-139, c-Jun, NLRP3 and ASC. Western blotting was applied to measure the protein levels of c-Jun and pyroptosis-related markers NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, GSDMDNterm. The ELISA assay was applied to measure the release of IL-1ß, IL-18 and LDH. RESULTS: MiR-139 was significantly downregulated whereas c-Jun was obviously upregulated after OGD/R treatment. TargetScan analysis predicted that c-Jun was a potential target of miR-139, which was verified by the dual-luciferase reporter assay. Also, overexpression of miR-139 repressed c-Jun expression. Furthermore, miR-139 inhibited OGD/R-induced cell pyroptosis and the upregulation of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC, GSDMDNterm, and the release of IL-1ß, IL-18 and LDH, while miR-139 inhibition exerted the opposite effects. However, overexpression of c-Jun aggravated OGD/R-induced nerve injury and partly abolished the neuroprotective effect of miR-139. CONCLUSION: Upregulation of miR-139 exerted neuroprotection against OGD/R-induced nerve injury by negatively regulating c-Jun/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling. This study offered insights for providing potential therapeutic targets for treating cerebral I/R injury.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/metabolismo , Piroptose , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glucose/deficiência , Humanos , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Neurônios/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(12): 11245-11258, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a public health emergency of global concern. Updated analysis of cases might help identify the risk factors of illness severity. RESULTS: The median age was 63 years, and 44.9% were severe cases. Severe patients had higher APACHE II (8.5 vs. 4.0) and SOFA (2 vs. 1) scores on admission. Among all univariable parameters, lymphocytes, CRP, and LDH were significantly independent risk factors of COVID-19 severity. LDH was positively related both with APACHE II and SOFA scores, as well as P/F ratio and CT scores. LDH (AUC = 0.878) also had a maximum specificity (96.9%), with the cutoff value of 344.5. In addition, LDH was positively correlated with CRP, AST, BNP and cTnI, while negatively correlated with lymphocytes and its subsets. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that LDH could be identified as a powerful predictive factor for early recognition of lung injury and severe COVID-19 cases. METHODS: We extracted data regarding 107 patients with confirmed COVID-19 from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University. The degree of severity of COVID-19 patients (severe vs. non-severe) was defined at the time of admission according to American Thoracic Society guidelines for community acquired pneumonia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Biomarcadores , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21020, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629724

RESUMO

As a catabolic product of hemoglobin, bilirubin has been confirmed playing an important role in the development of various central nervous system disease. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation between serum bilirubin level and mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).Patients admitted with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in our hospital between January 2015 and January 2018 were enrolled in this study. Clinical and laboratory data of 361 patients were retrospectively collected to explore the independent risk factors of mortality.The comparison of baseline characteristics showed that non-survivors had lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (P < .001) and higher level of serum total bilirubin (TBIL) (P < .001) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) (P < .001). We found that only GCS (P < .001), glucose (P < .001), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (P = .042) and DBIL (P = .005) were significant risk factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis. GCS and DBIL had comparable AUC value (0.778 vs 0.750, P > .05) on predicting mortality in TBI patients. The AUC value of the combination of GCS and DBIL is higher than the single value of these two factors (P < .05). Moreover, predictive model 1 consisted of GCS, glucose, LDH and DBIL had the highest AUC value of 0.894.DBIL is a significant risk factor of mortality in TBI patients. Assessing the level of DBIL is beneficial for physicians to evaluate severity and predict outcome for TBI patients.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow/tendências , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(4): 402-408, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669208

RESUMO

Aerobic fed-batch cultures were studied as a means of suppressing the production of lactate, which inhibits the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). LAB produce lactate via lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), regenerating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) consumed during glycolysis. Therefore, we focused on NADH oxidase (NOX), employing oxygen as an electron acceptor, as an alternative pathway to LDH for NAD+ regeneration. To avoid glucose repression of NOX and NAD+ consumption by glycolysis exceeding NAD+ regeneration by NOX, glucose was fed gradually. When Lactococcus lactis MG 1363 was aerobically fed at a specific growth rate of 0.2 h-1, the amount of lactate produced per amount of grown cell was reduced to 12% of that in anaerobic batch cultures. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that in addition to NAD+ regeneration by NOX, ATP acquisition by production of acetate and NAD+ regeneration by production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol contributed to suppression of lactate production.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Ácido Láctico/biossíntese , Lactococcus lactis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Aerobiose , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicólise , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo
11.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 167: 108351, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711001

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), also referred to as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is instigated by a novel coronavirus. The disease was initially reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Diabetes is a risk factor associated with adverse outcomes. Herein, our objective was to investigate the characteristics of laboratory findings of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This was a retrospective study and included 80 T2DM patients of Jinling Hospital from 2010 to 2020, as well as 76 COVID-19 patients without T2DM and 55 COVID-19 patients with T2DM who were treated at Huoshen hill Hospital from February 11 to March 18, 2020. We then compared the differences in laboratory test results between the three groups. RESULTS: The levels of lymphocytes, uric acid (UA), and globulin in the T2DM group were significantly higher. In contrast, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)levels were lower than those in the COVID-19 (p < 0.05) and COVID-19 + T2DM groups (p < 0.05). No considerable difference was observed regarding the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), white blood cell (WBC), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), globulin, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the three groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: T2DM patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 showed decreased levels of body mass index (BMI), lymphocytes, UA, and albumin, and increased CRP levels. The decreased BMI, UA, and albumin levels may be associated with oxidative stress response and nutritional consumption. The decreased lymphocyte counts and increased CRP levels may be related to the infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Creatinina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Globulinas/metabolismo , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
12.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(11): 1265-1272, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence of pneumonia in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using chest radiographs to identify the characteristics of those with initially negative chest radiographs, who were positive for pneumonia on follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort data of 236 COVID-19 patients were reviewed. Chest radiography was performed on admission, with serial radiographs obtained until discharge. The 'positive conversion group' was defined as patients whose initial chest radiographs were negative but were positive for pneumonia during follow-up. Patients with initially positive chest radiographs were defined as the 'initial pneumonia group.' Patients with negative initial and follow-up chest radiographs were defined as the 'non-pneumonia group.' Clinical and laboratory findings were compared between groups, and predictors of positive conversion were investigated. RESULTS: Among 236 patients, 108 (45.8%) were in the non-pneumonia group, 69 (29.2%) were in the initial pneumonia group, and 59 (25%) were in the positive conversion group. The patients in the 'initial pneumonia group' and 'positive conversion group' were older, had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase levels, and lower absolute lymphocyte counts than those in the 'non-pneumonia group' (all p < 0.001). Among patients with negative initial chest radiographs, age ≥ 45 years (odds ratio [OR]: 3.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.76-8.75, p = 0.001), absolute lymphocyte count < 1500 cells/µL (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.03-4.89, p = 0.041), and CRP > 0.5 mg/dL (OR: 3.91, 95% CI: 1.54-9.91, p = 0.004) were independent predictors for future development of pneumonia. CONCLUSION: More than a half of COVID-19 patients initially had normal chest radiographs; however, elderly patients (≥ 45 years of age) with abnormal laboratory findings (elevated CRP and low absolute lymphocyte counts) developed pneumonia on follow-up radiographs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 140-145, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659472

RESUMO

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a congener of fumonisins produced by Fusarium species that may be found as corn contaminants threatening health of humans and animals. FB1 causes a variety of toxicity effects, including hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and cytotoxic effects. However, detailed mechanisms associated with FB1 immunotoxicity in neutrophils are still unclear. To accomplish this, we utilized neutrophils to study the mechanisms of FB1 immunotoxicity. In the current study, we found that FB1 induced the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and decreased SOD and CAT activities. Concurrently, FB1 treatment led to the concentration-dependent phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and p38 in neutrophils. Moreover, we demonstrated that FB1-induced NET formation was dependent of NADPH oxidase activity. Pretreatment of neutrophils with DPI, U0126 and SB202190 significantly reduced ROS generation, and prevented NET formation, further suggesting that ROS dependent activation of ERK 1/2 and p38 pathways, which possibly mediate FB1-induced NET release in neutrophils. Thus, NET formation and ROS production could be attributed to FB1 immunotoxicity, which might enrich the toxicological mechanisms of FB1.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Imunotoxinas/toxicidade , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/sangue , Bovinos , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Técnicas In Vitro , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
14.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 63(4): 519-530, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628869

RESUMO

KD025 is a ROCK2 inhibitor currently being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of fibrotic lung diseases. The therapeutic effects of KD025 are partly due to its inhibition of profibrotic pathways and fat metabolism. However, whether KD025 affects pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC) function is unknown, despite evidence that alveolar-capillary membrane disruption constitutes major causes of death in fibrotic lung diseases. We hypothesized that KD025 regulates PMVEC metabolism, pH, migration, and survival, a series of interrelated functional characteristics that determine pulmonary barrier integrity. We used PMVECs isolated from Sprague Dawley rats. KD025 dose-dependently decreased lactate production and glucose consumption. The inhibitory effect of KD025 was more potent compared with other metabolic modifiers, including 2-deoxy-glucose, extracellular acidosis, dichloroacetate, and remogliflozin. Interestingly, KD025 increased oxidative phosphorylation, whereas 2-deoxy-glucose did not. KD025 also decreased intracellular pH and induced a compensatory increase in anion exchanger 2. KD025 inhibited PMVEC migration, but fasudil (nonspecific ROCK inhibitor) did not. We tested endothelial permeability in vivo using Evans Blue dye in the bleomycin pulmonary fibrosis model. Baseline permeability was decreased in KD025-treated animals independent of bleomycin treatment. Under hypoxia, KD025 increased PMVEC necrosis as indicated by increased lactate dehydrogenase release and propidium iodide uptake and decreased ATP; it did not affect Annexin V binding. ROCK2 knockdown had no effect on PMVEC metabolism, pH, and migration, but it increased nonapoptotic caspase-3 activity. Together, we report that KD025 promotes oxidative phosphorylation; decreases glycolysis, intracellular pH, and migration; and strengthens pulmonary barrier integrity in a ROCK2-independent manner.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Anexina A5/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxiglucose/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Propídio/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
15.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 168, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 4 million people within 4 months. There is an urgent need to properly identify high-risk cases that are more likely to deteriorate even if they present mild diseases on admission. METHODS: A multicenter nested case-control study was conducted in four designated hospitals in China enrolling confirmed COVID-19 patients who were mild on admission. Baseline clinical characteristics were compared between patients with stable mild illness (stable mild group) and those who deteriorated from mild to severe illness (progression group). RESULTS: From Jan 17, 2020, to Feb 1, 2020, 85 confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled, including 16 in the progression group and 69 in the stable mild group. Compared to stable mild group (n = 69), patients in the progression group (n = 16) were more likely to be older, male, presented with dyspnea, with hypertension, and with higher levels of lactase dehydrogenase and c-reactive protein. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, advanced age (odds ratio [OR], 1.012; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.020-1.166; P = 0.011) and the higher level of lactase dehydrogenase (OR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.001-1.024; P = 0.038) were independently associated with exacerbation in mild COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Advanced age and high LDH level are independent risk factors for exacerbation in mild COVID-19 patients. Among the mild patients, clinicians should pay more attention to the elderly patients or those with high LDH levels.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e2010895, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505563

RESUMO

Importance: The epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported, but information on immune features associated with disease severity is scarce. Objective: To delineate and compare the immunologic features of mild and moderate COVID-19 in pediatric patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center case series included 157 pediatric patients admitted to Wuhan Children's Hospital with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Data were collected from January 25 to April 18, 2020. Exposures: Documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical and immunologic characteristics were collected and analyzed. Outcomes were observed until April 18, 2020. Results: Of the 157 pediatric patients with COVID-19, 60 (38.2%) had mild clinical type with pneumonia, 88 (56.1%) had moderate cases, 6 (3.8%) had severe cases, and 3 (1.9%) were critically ill. The 148 children with mild or moderate disease had a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 84 (18-123) months, and 88 (59.5%) were girls. The most common laboratory abnormalities were increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (median [IQR], 16.0 [12.0-26.0] U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (median [IQR], 30.0 [23.0-41.8] U/L), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) activity (median [IQR], 24.0 [18.0-34.0] U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (median [IQR], 243.0 [203.0-297.0] U/L), which are associated with liver and myocardial injury. Compared with mild cases, levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ were unchanged, whereas the level of immune suppressive interleukin 10 was markedly increased in moderate cases compared with mild cases (median [IQR], 3.96 [3.34-5.29] pg/mL vs 3.58 [3.10-4.36] pg/mL; P = .048). There was no statistically significant difference in absolute number of lymphocytes (including T cells and B cells) between mild and moderate cases, but moderate cases were associated with a decrease in neutrophil levels compared with mild cases (median [IQR], 2310/µL [1680/µL-3510/µL] vs 3120/µL [2040/µL-4170/µL]; P = .01). Immunoglobin G and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were negatively associated with biochemical indices related to liver and myocardial injury (immunoglobulin G, ALT: r, -0.3579; AST: r, -0.5280; CK-MB activity: r, -0.4786; LDH: r, -0.4984; and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, ALT: r, -0.1893; AST: r, -0.3912; CK-MB activity: r, -0.3428; LDH: r, -0.3234), while counts of lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and interleukin 10 showed positive associations (lymphocytes, ALT: r, 0.2055; AST: r, 0.3615; CK-MB activity: r, 0.338; LDH: r, 0.3309; CD4+ T cells, AST: r, 0.4701; CK-MB activity: r, 0.4151; LDH: r, 0.4418; interleukin 10, ALT: r, 0.2595; AST: r, 0.3386; CK-MB activity: r, 0.3948; LDH: r, 0.3794). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series, systemic inflammation rarely occurred in pediatric patients with COVID-19, in contrast with the lymphopenia and aggravated inflammatory responses frequently observed in adults with COVID-19. Gaining a deeper understanding of the role of neutrophils, CD4+ T cells, and B cells in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection could be important for the clinical management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Distribuição por Idade , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/metabolismo , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
17.
PLoS Med ; 17(6): e1003130, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As of April 18, 2020, over 2,000,000 patients had been diagnosed with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) globally, and more than 140,000 deaths had been reported. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adult patients have been documented recently. However, information on pediatric patients is limited. We describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric patients to provide valuable insight into the early diagnosis and assessment of COVID-19 in children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective, observational study involves a case series performed at 4 hospitals in West China. Thirty-four pediatric patients with COVID-19 were included from January 27 to February 23, 2020. The final follow-up visit was completed by March 16, 2020. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were analyzed on the basis of demographic data, medical history, laboratory tests, radiological findings, and treatment information. Data analysis was performed for 34 pediatrics patients with COVID-19 aged from 1 to 144 months (median 33.00, interquartile range 10.00-94.25), among whom 14 males (41%) were included. All the patients in the current study presented mild (18%) or moderate (82%) forms of COVID-19. A total of 48% of patients were noted to be without a history of exposure to an identified source. Mixed infections of other respiratory pathogens were reported in 16 patients (47%). Comorbidities were reported in 6 patients (18%). The most common initial symptoms were fever (76%) and cough (62%). Expectoration (21%), vomiting (12%), and diarrhea (12%) were also reported in a considerable portion of cases. A substantial increase was detected in serum amyloid A for 17 patients (among 20 patients with available data; 85%) and in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for 17 patients (among 29 patients with available data; 59%), whereas a decrease in prealbumin was noticed in 25 patients (among 32 patients with available data; 78%). In addition, significant increases in the levels of lactate dehydrogenase and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase were detected in 28 patients (among 34 patients with available data; 82%) and 25 patients (among 34 patients with available data; 74%), respectively. Patchy lesions in lobules were detected by chest computed tomographic scans in 28 patients (82%). Ground-glass opacities, which were a typical feature in adults, were rare in pediatric patients (3%). Rapid radiologic progression and a late-onset pattern of lesions in the lobules were also noticed. Lesions in lobules still existed in 24 (among 32 patients with lesions; 75%) patients that were discharged, although the main symptoms disappeared a few days after treatment. All patients were discharged, and the median duration of hospitalization was 10.00 (8.00-14.25) days. The current study was limited by the small sample size and a lack of dynamic detection of inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data systemically presented the clinical and epidemiological features, as well as the outcomes, of pediatric patients with COVID-19. Stratified analysis was performed between mild and moderate cases. The findings offer new insight into early identification and intervention in pediatric patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Tosse/epidemiologia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hidroxibutirato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Lactente , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pré-Albumina/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/fisiopatologia
18.
Aquat Toxicol ; 225: 105523, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531534

RESUMO

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant of current concern despite its global ban in 2013 due to its characteristics as a persistent organic pollutant. While the toxicity of HBDC in vertebrates has been extensively studied, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying its toxicity in fish are not fully understood to date. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the in vitro cytotoxicity of HBCD in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) using liver explants, and to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Explants were incubated with nine different concentrations of HBCD (0.00032, 0.0016, 0.008, 0.04, 0.2, 1, 5, 25 and 125 mg HBCD/L) for 6 and 24 h, and cytotoxicity was tested by using the Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The expression of genes with a key role in the regulation of apoptosis, oxidative stress, cryoprotective responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS), and xenobiotic metabolism was also measured in liver explants after exposure to 0.00032, 0.0016, 0.008, 0.2, and 25 mg HBCD/L. After 6 h, a concentration-dependent significant increase in cytotoxicity was found between 0.008 and 1 mg/L HBCD, followed by a decrease between 1 and 25 mg/L. Cytotoxicity reached 100 % at a concentration of 125 mg/L HBCD. After 24 h, HBCD showed a biphasic response with a concentration-dependent decrease in cytotoxicity between 0.0016 and 1 mg/L that returned to baseline levels at 5 mg/L. Then, cytotoxicity increased at concentrations greater than 5 mg/L to reach a maximum value at 125 mg/L. Changes in the expression of genes related to apoptosis (apoEn, apoIn, caspase2, caspase9 and bax) were also time- and concentration-dependent. Genes related to antioxidant responses such as gst and catalase were generally decreased after 6 h of incubation and increased after 24 h. The same pattern was observed for cyp1a and cyp3a, both related to xenobiotic metabolism. The expression of genes related to cryoprotective responses anti ROS (akt and pi3k) decreased at almost all HBCD concentrations tested after 6 h but remained unaltered after 24 h. Overall, we demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of HBCD in fathead minnow liver explant was not proportional to its concentration in the culture media. Cytotoxicity was highly dynamic and did not follow a typical concentration-response pattern, complicating its toxicological characterization.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
19.
Life Sci ; 256: 117943, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531377

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic drugs on glioblastoma cells through an improved co-drug delivery system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methotrexate (MTX) and paclitaxel (PTX) were co-loaded into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Poloxamer188 (P188). KEY FINDINGS: The mean size of the NPs was about 212 nm, with a zeta potential of about -15.7 mV. Encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and drug loading (DL%) were determined to be 72% and 4% for MTX and 85% and 4.9% for PTX, respectively. The prepared NPs were characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, an in vitro sustained release profile was observed for both drug loaded PLGA NPs. Glioblastoma cellular uptake of the NPs was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and cell survival rate was investigated through the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method after 48 h of incubation showing IC50 values of 24.5 µg·mL-1 for PTX and 9.5 µg·mL-1 for MTX for the MTX/PTX co-loaded PLGA nanoparticles coated with PVA/P188 (Co-2 NPs). Apoptosis and necrosis were also studied via flow cytometry, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and the amount of anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) expression. Blood compatibility of the co-delivery of PTX and MTX loaded PLGA NPs was investigated using a hemolysis method as well. SIGNIFICANCE: The co-delivery of PTX and MTX loaded PLGA NPs is promising for the treatment of glioblastoma compared to their respective free drug formulations and, thus, should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Composição de Medicamentos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apolipoproteínas/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3162, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572027

RESUMO

Interacting with proteins is a crucial way for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) to exert their biological responses. Here we report a high throughput strategy to characterize lncRNA interacting proteins in vivo by combining tobramycin affinity purification and mass spectrometric analysis (TOBAP-MS). Using this method, we identify 140 candidate binding proteins for lncRNA highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC). Intriguingly, HULC directly binds to two glycolytic enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). Mechanistic study suggests that HULC functions as an adaptor molecule that enhances the binding of LDHA and PKM2 to fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 (FGFR1), leading to elevated phosphorylation of these two enzymes and consequently promoting glycolysis. This study provides a convenient method to study lncRNA interactome in vivo and reveals a unique mechanism by which HULC promotes Warburg effect by orchestrating the enzymatic activities of glycolytic enzymes.


Assuntos
Glicólise , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional
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