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1.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(3): 111-116, mayo-jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia is a prevalent disorder and a main component of the metabolic syndrome resulting from various factors. The aerial parts and flowers of Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of L. officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipid levels of mice. METHODS: Experimental mature female BALB/c mice were treated with 100, 300 or 500 mg/kg/day of lavender aqueous extract or distilled water for 15 days via intraperitoneally injections. At the end of 15th day, the serum biochemical parameters include cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL levels as well as the liver cell function test were determined. RESULTS: The aqueous extract of lavender significantly decreased serum cholesterol and LDL levels. Serum cholesterol level was lower in the 300 and 500 mg/kg/day experimental groups when compared with the control group. In liver histology evaluation, fat accumulation was not observed in the experimental group, which treated with high-fat foods and receiving high doses of extract. CONCLUSION: L. officinalis extract exerts a hypolipidemic effect in studied groups, however, further phytochemical and biological tests are suggested to determine the active chemical constituent responsible for these activities


ANTECEDENTES: La hiperlipidemia es un trastorno prevalente y un componente principal del síndrome metabólico originada por diversos factores. Las partes aéreas y flores de la Lavandula officinalis tienen una actividad antioxidante y, por tanto, investigamos en este estudio los efectos de su extracto en los niveles lipídicos séricos en ratones. MÉTODOS: Se trataron ratones BALB/c hembra maduras experimentales con 100, 300 o 500 mg/kg/día de extracto acuoso de lavanda o agua destilada durante 15 días, mediante inyecciones intraperitoneales. Al finalizar el 15.° día se investigaron los parámetros bioquímicos séricos incluyendo colesterol, triglicéridos, niveles de HDL y LDL, así como la prueba de la función hepática. RESULTADOS: El extracto acuoso de lavanda disminuyó significativamente los niveles séricos de colesterol y LDL. El nivel de colesterol sérico fue inferior en los grupos experimentales de 300 y 500 mg/kg/día, en comparación con el grupo control. En la evaluación de la histología hepática no se observó acumulación de grasa en el grupo experimental, que fue tratado con alimentos de alto contenido en grasa y recibió altas dosis de extracto. CONCLUSIÓN: El extracto de Lavandula officinalis ejerce un efecto hipolipidémico en el grupo estudiado, aunque son precisas más pruebas fitoquímicas y biológicas para determinar el constituyente químico activo responsable de estas actividades


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Lavandula , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/veterinária , LDL-Colesterol/administração & dosagem , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais
2.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 36(4): 213-220, oct.-dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188311

RESUMO

Los grandes ensayos clínicos de prevención cardiovascular han demostrado que cuanto más se disminuye el colesterol aterogénico, mayor es el beneficio preventivo, sin que se haya observado un valor umbral por debajo del cual desparezca dicho efecto o se observen efectos negativos para la salud. Por ello, los objetivos de control de la hipercolesterolemia en los pacientes de alto riesgo cardiovascular son cada vez más estrictos. El hecho de que la mayoría de pacientes de alto riesgo no alcancen dichos objetivos hace necesario, entre otras medidas, un uso racional de los fármacos hipolipemiantes disponibles, incluyendo los anticuerpos monoclonales inhibidores de la proteína PCSK9 (iPCSK9). Los iPCSK9 actualmente autorizados para uso clínico, evolocumab y alirocumab, han demostrado una alta potencia para disminuir el colesterolLDL, que puede superar el 60%, y otros efectos favorables sobre el perfil lipídico, incluyendo una disminución también muy acusada del colesterol-noHDL y de la apolipoproteínaB. Así mismo, mediante ensayos clínicos a gran escala ambos fármacos han demostrado un efecto preventivo frente a las enfermedades cardiovasculares y un alto grado de seguridad. Además, en el caso del alirocumab se ha observado una disminución de la mortalidad por todas las causas. Sin embargo, el elevado coste de los iPCSK9 hace necesario ceñir sus indicaciones a los pacientes de mayor riesgo cardiovascular que no puedan controlarse con estatinas de alta potencia y ezetimiba. Es de esperar que las nuevas guías que serán emitidas en un futuro cercano por distintas sociedades científicas definan con mayor detalle en qué pacientes y en qué condiciones pueden utilizarse los iPCSK9, unos agentes que en este momento constituyen el avance más importante de la terapia hipocolesterolemiante de las últimas décadas


The large clinical trials on cardiovascular prevention have demonstrated that the more atherogenic cholesterol is reduced the greater the preventive benefit, and neither a threshold value below which that effect disappears nor negative effects on health have been observed. Therefore, the objectives of hypercholesterolaemia control in patients at high cardiovascular risk are becoming ever stricter. The fact that most high-risk patients do not achieve these objectives requires, among other measures, rational use of available lipid-lowering drugs, including monoclonal antibodies that inhibit the protein PCSK9 (PCSK9i). The PCSK9i that are currently licensed for clinical use, evolocumab and alirocumab, have shown high potency in lowering LDL-cholesterol, which can exceed 60%, and other favourable effects on lipid profiles, including a very marked reduction of non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoproteinB. Likewise, through large-scale clinical trials, both drugs have demonstrated a preventive effect against cardiovascular diseases, and a high degree of safety. In addition, in the case of alirocumab, a reduction in all-cause mortality has been observed. However, the high cost of the PCSK9i means that prescription is restricted to patients at highest cardiovascular risk who cannot be controlled with high-potency statins and ezetimibe. It is to be hoped that the new guidelines that are to be issued soon by various scientific societies will define in greater detail the patients and the conditions in which we can use PCSK9i, drugs which currently constitute the greatest advance in hypercholesterolaemia of recent decades


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto
3.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 33(12): 500-506, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742421

RESUMO

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has increasingly been replaced by tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) because of reduced kidney and bone toxicity with TAF. This switch has, however, caused worsening of lipid concentrations in clinical trials, but data from any real-world setting are scarce. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of TDF to TAF switch on plasma lipid concentrations in a real-world clinic population. This is a retrospective study comparing lipid concentrations and other laboratory parameters between the last visit on TDF and the first visit after at least a 2-month exposure to TAF. A total of 490 HIV-positive subjects were included in the study. The median (interquartile range) increase was 23.2 (0-38.7) mg/dL in total cholesterol (p < 0.001) and 15.5 (0-30.9) mg/dL in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p < 0.001). The ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased by 0.2 (-0.2 to 0.6), p < 0.001. The proportion of patients having optimal LDL cholesterol concentration by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) decreased from 30.8% to 17.8% and proportion having dyslipidemia or severe dyslipidemia increased from 30.2% to 50.3% after the switch. Demographic characteristics, antiretroviral agents, or comedication did not affect the changes in lipid concentrations. Plasma creatinine decreased by 0.03 (-0.09 to 0.03) mg/dL (p < 0.001) and estimated glomerular filtration rate increased by 0.5 (-2.3 to 3.2) mL/min (p = 0.009). Switching from TDF to TAF caused a statistically significant worsening of the lipid profile that may have clinical relevance. The benefit of the lipid-lowering effect of TDF should be considered in selected patients with low risk for kidney and bone toxicity.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adenina/efeitos adversos , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/virologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Phytother Res ; 33(11): 2862-2869, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423665

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of corn silk decoction on lipid profile in patients with angina pectoris. PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Google Scholar, Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang database were searched up to January 2019 for randomized controlled trials that assessed the impact of corn silk decoction on total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with angina pectoris. Study evaluation and synthesis methods were in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook, and data were analyzed using Review Manager (version 5.3) software. Random effects model was applied in this systematic review and meta-analysis to compensate for potential heterogeneity among the included studies. A total of four randomized controlled trials were eligible for meta-analysis. Pooled results of these studies indicated that corn silk decoction might improve high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduce total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with angina pectoris. Subgroup analyses showed that corn silk decoction or modified corn silk decoction plus conventional pharmaceutical treatment could have favorable effects on blood lipids. However, the lack of blinding in most studies may have led to overestimation of these effects. Further studies with better design are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/tratamento farmacológico , Flores/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Zea mays/química , Angina Pectoris/sangue , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
6.
Lancet ; 394(10199): 672-683, 2019 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A fixed-dose combination therapy (polypill strategy) has been proposed as an approach to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease, especially in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). The PolyIran study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of a four-component polypill including aspirin, atorvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, and either enalapril or valsartan for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The PolyIran study was a two-group, pragmatic, cluster-randomised trial nested within the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), a cohort study with 50 045 participants aged 40-75 years from the Golestan province in Iran. Clusters (villages) were randomly allocated (1:1) to either a package of non-pharmacological preventive interventions alone (minimal care group) or together with a once-daily polypill tablet (polypill group). Randomisation was stratified by three districts (Gonbad, Aq-Qala, and Kalaleh), with the village as the unit of randomisation. We used a balanced randomisation algorithm, considering block sizes of 20 and balancing for cluster size or natural log of the cluster size (depending on the skewness within strata). Randomisation was done at a fixed point in time (Jan 18, 2011) by statisticians at the University of Birmingham (Birmingham, UK), independent of the local study team. The non-pharmacological preventive interventions (including educational training about healthy lifestyle-eg, healthy diet with low salt, sugar, and fat content, exercise, weight control, and abstinence from smoking and opium) were delivered by the PolyIran field visit team at months 3 and 6, and then every 6 months thereafter. Two formulations of polypill tablet were used in this study. Participants were first prescribed polypill one (hydrochlorothiazide 12·5 mg, aspirin 81 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg, and enalapril 5 mg). Participants who developed cough during follow-up were switched by a trained study physician to polypill two, which included valsartan 40 mg instead of enalapril 5 mg. Participants were followed up for 60 months. The primary outcome-occurrence of major cardiovascular events (including hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, fatal myocardial infarction, sudden death, heart failure, coronary artery revascularisation procedures, and non-fatal and fatal stroke)-was centrally assessed by the GCS follow-up team, who were masked to allocation status. We did intention-to-treat analyses by including all participants who met eligibility criteria in the two study groups. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01271985. FINDINGS: Between Feb 22, 2011, and April 15, 2013, we enrolled 6838 individuals into the study-3417 (in 116 clusters) in the minimal care group and 3421 (in 120 clusters) in the polypill group. 1761 (51·5%) of 3421 participants in the polypill group were women, as were 1679 (49·1%) of 3417 participants in the minimal care group. Median adherence to polypill tablets was 80·5% (IQR 48·5-92·2). During follow-up, 301 (8·8%) of 3417 participants in the minimal care group had major cardiovascular events compared with 202 (5·9%) of 3421 participants in the polypill group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·66, 95% CI 0·55-0·80). We found no statistically significant interaction with the presence (HR 0·61, 95% CI 0·49-0·75) or absence of pre-existing cardiovascular disease (0·80; 0·51-1·12; pinteraction=0·19). When restricted to participants in the polypill group with high adherence, the reduction in the risk of major cardiovascular events was even greater compared with the minimal care group (adjusted HR 0·43, 95% CI 0·33-0·55). The frequency of adverse events was similar between the two study groups. 21 intracranial haemorrhages were reported during the 5 years of follow-up-ten participants in the polypill group and 11 participants in the minimal care group. There were 13 physician-confirmed diagnoses of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the polypill group and nine in the minimal care group. INTERPRETATION: Use of polypill was effective in preventing major cardiovascular events. Medication adherence was high and adverse event numbers were low. The polypill strategy could be considered as an additional effective component in controlling cardiovascular diseases, especially in LMICs. FUNDING: Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Barakat Foundation, and Alborz Darou.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Combinação de Medicamentos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Enalapril/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroclorotiazida/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Valsartana/administração & dosagem
7.
Lancet ; 394(10199): 697-708, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448741

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestation as ischaemic heart disease remains a considerable health burden. Given that many factors contribute to ischaemic heart disease, a multifactorial approach to prevention is recommended, starting with lifestyle advice, smoking cessation, and control of known cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure and lipids. Within the lipid profile, the principal target is lowering LDL cholesterol, firstly with lifestyle interventions and subsequently with pharmacological therapy. Statins are the recommended first-line pharmacological treatment. Some individuals might require further lowering of LDL cholesterol or be unable to tolerate statins. Additional therapies targeting different pathways in cholesterol metabolism are now available, ranging from small molecules taken orally, to injectable therapies. Examples include ezetimibe, which targets Niemann-Pick C1-like protein, and monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9. Phase 3 trials have also been completed for bempedoic acid (targeting ATP-citrate lyase) and inclisiran (an interference RNA-based therapeutic targeting hepatic PCSK9 synthesis). In addition to LDL cholesterol, mendelian randomisation studies support a causal role for lipoprotein(a) and triglycerides in ischaemic heart disease. In this Series paper, we appraise currently available and emerging therapies for lowering LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), and triglycerides for prevention of ischaemic heart disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Lipoproteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
8.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(4): 141-151, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182708

RESUMO

Objetivos: Conocer el grado de control lipídico previo al primer accidente cardiovascular en población atendida durante 2013 en Atención Primaria. Analizar la distribución de dichos eventos según intervalos de control de colesterol LDL (LDL-col), colesterol HDL (HDL-col) y triglicéridos (TG). Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal multicéntrico. Sujetos: mayores de 18 años atendidos en centros del Servicio (SAP) Baix Llobregat Nord, que habían sufrido un primer evento (ECV) isquémico cardiaco (CI) o cerebral (CV) del 01/01/2013 al 31/12/2013. Mediciones: edad, sexo, tabaquismo, hipertensión arterial, diabetes, dislipemia, obesidad, colesterol total (col-tot), LDL-col, HDL-col, TG, presión arterial sistólica, diastólica, IMC, HbA1c, índices aterogénicos, REGICOR, fármacos. Resultados: Trescientos setenta y nueve sujetos afectos, 197 (52%) cardiaco y 182 (48%) cerebral. Doscientos veinticinco (59,4%) varones; edad media en el diagnóstico 68,9 años (DS 13,7), 71,2 (DS 14,4) en CV (p: 0,001). Hipertensión 214 (56,5%), diabetes 113 (29,8%), DLP 193 (50,9%). Casos en LDL < 100-159: 88%, HDL ≥ 40/50: 72,8%, TG < 150: 71,3%. Media col-tot: 198,3 mg/dl (DS 40,2); LDL-col 121 (DS 33,8), LDL-col < 130: 170 (58,6%). Media HDL-col: 52,5 mg/dl (DS 15,4) y TG: 130,9 mg/dl (DS 73,2) (CI: 139,5 [DS 84,2] vs. CV: 120,9 [DS 55,9] [p: 0,003]). col-tot/HDL-col óptimo 67%, TG/HDL-col óptimo 39,8%. CI: col-tot/HDL-col óptimo varón vs. mujer: 51,2 vs. 76,9% (p 0,002); TG/HDL-col óptimo varón vs. mujer: 28% vs. 53,8% (p 0,004). Conclusiones: La cuantía de eventos fue similar en ambos territorios, y la edad media en el diagnóstico algo mayor en CV. Hipertensión, DLP y obesidad son los FRCV más prevalentes, y su control en prevención primaria es susceptible de mejora. La mayor parte de los casos se agruparon en los intervalos lipídicos LDL < 100-159 mg/dl, HDL ≥ 40/50 mg/dl y TG < 150 mg/dl


Objective: To ascertain the degree of lipidic control before the first cardiovascular accident in population attended during 2013 at Primary Care. To analyze the distribution of these events depending on control intervals of cholesterol LDL (LDL-chol), cholesterol HDL (HDL-chol) and triglycerides (TG). Method: A multicentric cross-sectional, descriptive study on above 18-year-old people attended at the centres of the Primari Care Service (PCS) Baix Llobregat Nord, who had suffered a first cardiac or cerebral ischemic attack from 01/01/2013 to 31/12/2013. Variables collected included age,sex, smoking, high blood preassure,diabetes, dyslipidemia (DLP), obesity, total cholesterol (chol-tot), LDL-chol, HDL-chol, TG, systolic and diastolic blood preassure (SBP,DBP), IMC, HbA1c, atherogenic indices, REGICOR, drugs. Results: 379 affected people, among them 197 (52%) heart attack and 182 (48%) stroke (ictus). Two hundred and twenty-five (54.4%) males, diagnosis median age 68.9 years (DS 13.7), 71.2 (DS 14.4) in CV (p: .001). High blood preassure 214 (56.5%), diabetes 113 (29.8%), DLP 193 (50.9%). Cases in LDL< 100-159: 88%, HDL ≥ 40/50: 72.8%, TG < 150: 71.3%. chol-tot average: 198.3 mg/dl (DS 40.2), LDL-chol:121 (DS 33.8), LDL-chol < 130:170 (58.6%). HDL-chol average: 52.5 mg/dl (DS 15.4) and TG: 130.9 mg/dl (DS 73.2) (CI:139.5 [DS 84.2] vs. CV: 120.9 [DS 55.9] [p: .003]). Optimal chol-tot/HDL-chol 67%, optimal TG/HDL-chol 39.8%. CI:optimal chol-tot/HDL-chol male vs. female: 51.2% vs. 76.9% (p: .002); optimal TG/HDL-chol male vs. female: 28% vs. 53.8% (p: .004). Conclusions: The quantity of events was similar in both cardiac and cerebral territories, whereas the median age in the diagnosis was a little higher in CV. High blood preassure, DLP and obesity are the most prevalent FRCV, and its control at primary prevention is improvable. Most of the cases were grouped in the LDL lipid ranges < 100-159 mg/dl, HDL ≥ 40/50 mg/dl and TG < 150 mg/dl


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , HDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Triglicerídeos , Lipídeos/sangue
9.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 38(6): 391-405, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324407

RESUMO

Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels is one of the most important strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. However, in clinical practice, a high proportion of patients do not achieve recommended LDL-C levels through lifestyle and lipid-lowering therapy with statins and ezetimibe. PCSK9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) are a new therapeutic option that significantly (50-60%) reduces LDL-C levels, which in clinical trials translates into an additional reduction in risk for cardiovascular events, and has a good safety profile. However, it is a high-cost therapy, and therefore its use in clinical practice should take its cost-effectiveness into account. Priority should be given to use in patients at higher cardiovascular risk and those in whom high LDL-C levels persist despite optimal lipid-lowering therapy. This consensus document aims to summarize the main data on the clinical use of PCSK9i and to make recommendations for Portugal on the profile of patients who may benefit most from this therapy.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Portugal/epidemiologia
10.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 21(8): 69, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227914

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is one major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we discuss current developments in the understanding of LDL-C as lifelong risk factor, treatment targets, and emerging approaches to reduce cardiovascular risk by lowering LDL-C. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence underscores the importance of LDL-C lowering in CVD prevention by mechanisms that increase the hepatic clearance of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins from the plasma. Mendelian randomization studies provided evidence on both safety and efficacy of lower LDL-C in the long term. For young individuals, metrics other than 10-year CVD risk are required. Despite this evidence, LDL-C treatment target attainment is poor. Novel approaches are therefore needed. These include individualized strategies and new LDL-C-lowering pharmaceuticals. Early, long-term treatment with LDL-C-lowering therapies has the potential to markedly reduce CVD incidence and progression. Future research should aim to identify patient characteristics that enable physicians to tailor therapy to each individual patient.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Apolipoproteínas B , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 323-330, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177906

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite statins, many patients fail to adequately lower lipids and remain at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Selective ETA (endothelin-A) receptor antagonists reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors. Preclinical data suggest that ETA antagonism has beneficial effects on circulating lipids. We assessed the effects of selective ETA antagonism on circulating lipids and PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) in CKD. This was a secondary analysis of a fully randomized, double-blind, 3-phase crossover study. Twenty-seven subjects with predialysis CKD on optimal cardio- and renoprotective treatment were randomly assigned to receive 6 weeks dosing with placebo, the selective ETA receptor antagonist, sitaxentan, or long-acting nifedipine. We measured circulating lipids and PCSK9 at baseline and then after 3 and 6 weeks. Baseline lipids and PCSK9 did not differ before each study phase. Whereas placebo and nifedipine had no effect on lipids, 6 weeks of ETA antagonism significantly reduced total (-11±1%) and low-density lipoprotein-associated (-20±3%) cholesterol, lipoprotein (a) (-16±2%) and triglycerides (-20±4%); high-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol increased (+14±2%), P<0.05 versus baseline for all. Additionally, ETA receptor antagonism, but neither placebo nor nifedipine, reduced circulating PCSK9 (-19±2%; P<0.001 versus baseline; P<0.05 versus nifedipine and placebo). These effects were independent of statin use and changes in blood pressure or proteinuria. Selective ETA antagonism improves lipid profiles in optimally-managed patients with CKD, effects that may occur through a reduction in circulating PCSK9. ETA receptor antagonism offers a potentially novel strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in CKD. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00810732.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas do Receptor de Endotelina A/uso terapêutico , Nifedipino/administração & dosagem , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4399, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pre-hospital statin use is associated with lower renal replacement therapy requirement and/or death during intensive care unit stay. METHODS: Prospective cohort analysis. We analyzed 670 patients consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit of an academic tertiary-care hospital. Patients with ages ranging from 18 to 80 years admitted to the intensive care unit within the last 48 hours were included in the study. RESULTS: Mean age was 66±16.1 years old, mean body mass index 26.6±4/9kg/m2 and mean abdominal circumference was of 97±22cm. The statin group comprised 18.2% of patients and had lower renal replacement therapy requirement and/or mortality (OR: 0.41; 95%CI: 0.18-0.93; p=0.03). The statin group also had lower risk of developing sepsis during intensive care unit stay (OR: 0.42; 95%CI: 0.22-0.77; p=0.006) and had a reduction in hospital length-of-stay (14.7±17.5 days versus 22.3±48 days; p=0.006). Statin therapy was associated with a protective role in critical care setting independently of confounding variables, such as gender, age, C-reactive protein, need of mechanical ventilation, use of pressor agents and presence of diabetes and/or coronary disease. CONCLUSION: Statin therapy prior to hospital admission was associated with lower mortality, lower renal replacement therapy requirement and sepsis rates.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , HDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Triglicerídeos , APACHE , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(3): 93-100, mayo-jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182702

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: El adecuado control lipídico tras un síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) es una estrategia de prevención secundaria crucial para disminuir el riesgo de reinfarto y muerte cardiovascular. Existen tablas que predicen la dosificación necesaria del tratamiento hipolipidemiante según el colesterol LDL (cLDL) inicial pero no han sido probadas en el SCA. Analizamos los factores asociados al control del cLDL tras un SCA y la utilidad de las tablas de Masana y Plana en este contexto. Métodos: Entre enero de 2015 y mayo de 2016 se incluyeron 326 pacientes con SCA. Se registraron las concentraciones basales de cLDL y el tratamiento hipolipidemiante al alta. Se analizaron las variables asociadas a un adecuado control del cLDL (< 70 mg/dL) en el seguimiento. Resultados: La edad media fue 66 ± 13 años, el 72% varones. El tratamiento hipolipidemiante al alta se ajustó a las recomendaciones de Masana en 196 (60%) pacientes. Tras 122 [66-184] días, en 148 (45%) se alcanzó el objetivo de cLDL, siendo este porcentaje mayor (109/196 -56%- vs. 39/130 -30%- pacientes) cuando el tratamiento fue planificado según las tablas de Masana y Plana (p < 0,001). En el análisis multivariante, el género masculino (p < 0,001), la ausencia de dislipidemia previa (p < 0,001) y la aplicación de las tablas de Masana y Plana (p = 0,007) fueron predictores independientes para alcanzar el cLDL objetivo. Conclusiones: El control lipídico adecuado tras un SCA se alcanza en menos de la mitad de casos. La dosificación de la terapia hipolipidemiante según las tablas de Masanay Plana mejora la consecución de este crucial objetivo terapéutico


Introduction and objectives: Adequate LDL cholesterol (LDLc) control after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a crucial secondary prevention strategy to minimize the incidence of recurrent myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. There are tables that predict the necessary dosage of lipid-lowering treatment from the initial LDLc but have not been tested in ACS. Variables associated with optimal LDLc after an ACS were analyzed and the therapeutic yield of the use of Masana's recommendations in this setting. Methods: A total number of 326 ACS-patients were included between January-2015 and May-2016. Baseline LDLc concentration and prescribed hypolipemiant treatment at hospital discharge were registered. We analyzed the variables associated with optimal LDLc levels (< 70 mg/dL) control during follow-up. Results: Among our patient population (72% male, age 66 ± 13 years), the hypolipemiant treatment at hospital discharge fulfilled the Masana's recommendations in 196 (60%) patients. After a follow-up period of 122 [66-184] days the targeted LDLc levels were achieved in 148 (45%) patients, being this percentage greater among those in whom the Masana's recommendations were fulfilled (109/196, 56%), as compared with the remaining (39/130, 30%; P < .001). The male gender (P < .001), the absence of prior history of dyslipemia (P < .001) and the adherence to Masana's recommendations (P = .007) were independent predictors for the achievement of targeted LDLc levels during follow-up. Conclusions: In less than half of ACS-patients adequate mid-term LDLc control is obtained. The dosage of the lipid-lowering therapy according to Masana's recommendations helps to achieve this important therapeutic goal


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores de Risco , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/prevenção & controle , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Dislipidemias , Análise Multivariada , Lipídeos/sangue
16.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(5): 544-554, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins are effective in helping prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, studies suggest that only 20%-64% of patients taking statins achieve reasonable low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) thresholds. On-treatment levels of LDL-C remain a key predictor of residual CVD event risk. OBJECTIVES: To (a) determine how many patients on statins achieved the therapeutic threshold of LDL-C < 100 mg per dL (general cohort) and < 70 mg per dL (secondary prevention cohort, or subcohort, with preexisting CVD); (b) estimate the number of potentially avoidable CVD events if the threshold were reached; and (c) forecast potential cost savings. METHODS: A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study using electronic health record data from the Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC) was conducted. The INPC provides comprehensive information about patients in Indiana across health care organizations and care settings. Patients were aged > 45 years and seen between January 1, 2012, and October 31, 2016 (ensuring study of contemporary practice), were statin-naive for 12 months before the index date of initiating statin therapy, and had an LDL-C value recorded 6-18 months after the index date. Subsequent to descriptive cohort analysis, the theoretical CVD risk reduction achievable by reaching the threshold was calculated using Framingham Risk Score and Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaboration formulas. Estimated potential cost savings used published first-year costs of CVD events, adjusted for inflation and discounted to the present day. RESULTS: Of the 89,267 patients initiating statins, 30,083 (33.7%) did not achieve the LDL-C threshold (subcohort: 58.1%). In both groups, not achieving the threshold was associated with patients who were female, black, and those who had reduced medication adherence. Higher levels of preventive aspirin use and antihypertensive treatment were associated with threshold achievement. In both cohorts, approximately 64% of patients above the threshold were within 30 mg per dL of the respective threshold. Adherence to statin therapy regimen, judged by a medication possession ratio of ≥ 80%, was 57.4% in the general cohort and 56.7% in the subcohort. Of the patients who adhered to therapy, 23.7% of the general cohort and 50.5% of the subcohort had LDL-C levels that did not meet the threshold. 10-year CVD event risk in the at-or-above threshold group was 22.78% (SD = 17.24%) in the general cohort and 29.56% (SD = 18.19%) in the subcohort. By reducing LDL-C to the threshold, a potential relative risk reduction of 14.8% in the general cohort could avoid 1,173 CVD events over 10 years (subcohort: 15.7% and 454 events). Given first-year inpatient and follow-up costs of $37,300 per CVD event, this risk reduction could save about $1,455 per patient treated to reach the threshold (subcohort: $1,902; 2017 U.S. dollars) over a 10-year period. CONCLUSIONS: Across multiple health care systems in Indiana, between 34% (general cohort) and 58% (secondary prevention cohort) of patients treated with statins did not achieve therapeutic LDL-C thresholds. Based on current CVD event risk and cost projections, such patients seem to be at increased risk and may represent an important and potentially preventable burden on health care costs. DISCLOSURES: Funding support for this study was provided by Merck (Kenilworth, NJ). Chase and Boggs are employed by Merck. Simpson is a consultant to Merck and Pfizer. The other authors have nothing to disclose.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/economia , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/economia , Indiana , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Ter Arkh ; 91(4): 90-98, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094482

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to assess cardiovascular risk in patients with elevated levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C and concomitant AH, a comparative analysis of adherence, efficacy and safety of various forms of combined therapy in outpatient practice, including promising lisinopril/amlodipine/rosuvastatin FC (Ekvamer®). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ANICHKOV study included 702 patients in Moscow and the Moscow region over 18 years old with a -chole-sterol level ≥7.5 mmol/l and/or LDL-C ≥4.9 mmol/l from March 2017 to December 2018 based on 2 federal centers. According to the results of visit I, patients were prescribed with one of three therapy schemes. In the absence of AH, patients received scheme I -(Mertenil® at initial dosage of 10 mg/day). When history of AH existed or AH detected at visit I, patients were randomized to scheme II (Ekvamer® 5/10/10 mg/day) or III (Mertenil® 10 mg/day + Ekvator® 5/10 mg/day). During the observation, the treatment scheme remained unchanged, however, if the target levels of LDL-C and/or BP were not reached, the doses could be increased. The analysis of the main effects of the prescribed therapy were carried out for 12 months, and the frequency of MACE (CVD, ACS, stroke, or hospitalization to perform PCI) was also evaluated. RESULTS: Following the visit I, scheme I was assigned to 390 patients (55.6%), scheme II - 190 (27.1%), scheme III - 122 (17.4%). In 147 patients (20.9%), TG level was >2.3 mmol/l, which required additional fenofibrate intake in a dose of 145 mg/day. Adherence level was 89.5%, including scheme I - 91.7%, scheme II - 90.5%, scheme III - only 81.8%. In general, among compliant patients (n = 590), the decrease in TCh level was 41.0%, LDL-C - 47.4%. 16.6% of patients reached target levels of LDL-C <2.5 mmol/l, 5.6% - <1.8 mmol/l. In the fenofibrate subgroup, TG level decrease was 34.6%. During the follow-up period, 47 cases of side effects were observed in 27 patients (4.6%), that did not require modification of therapy. Systolic BP reduction in compliant patients of schemes II and III was 20 mm. Hg (13.1%), diastolic BP - 12 mm. Hg (13.6%), target BP levels (<140/90 mm. Hg) reached 83.7% and 80.8% of patients, respectively, target levels of BP and LDL-C <2.5 mmol/l reached 14.5% and 13.1% of patients, respectively, <1.8 mmol/l - 5.8% and 5.1%, respectively. During the observation period no deaths were recorded, other components of MACE were observed in 38 patients (5.8%), including 27 among compliant patients (4.6%) and 11 among non-compliant (15.9%, p<0.01). In 19 out of 38 patients (50%), hospitalization for routine PCI was the end point, ACS - in 12 (31.6%), and stroke - in 7 (18.4%). CONCLUSION: The results of the study demonstrated a sufficient hypolipidemic effect and high safety of Mertenil® and Ekvamer®. A higher adherence to the combined preparation than to two monodrugs was noted. Achieving target levels of BP and LDL-C is problematic, which dictates the expediency of using fixed combinations of drugs, especially in primary prevention.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Anlodipino , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lipídeos , Lisinopril , Moscou , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1437-1449, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased cardiovascular event (CVE) risk. The impact of statins in RA is not established. We assessed whether atorvastatin is superior to placebo for the primary prevention of CVEs in RA patients. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was designed to detect a 32% CVE risk reduction based on an estimated 1.6% per annum event rate with 80% power at P < 0.05. RA patients age >50 years or with a disease duration of >10 years who did not have clinical atherosclerosis, diabetes, or myopathy received atorvastatin 40 mg daily or matching placebo. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or any arterial revascularization. Secondary and tertiary end points included plasma lipids and safety. RESULTS: A total of 3,002 patients (mean age 61 years; 74% female) were followed up for a median of 2.51 years (interquartile range [IQR] 1.90, 3.49 years) (7,827 patient-years). The study was terminated early due to a lower than expected event rate (0.70% per annum). Of the 1,504 patients receiving atorvastatin, 24 (1.6%) experienced a primary end point, compared with 36 (2.4%) of the 1,498 receiving placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0.66 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.39, 1.11]; P = 0.115 and adjusted HR 0.60 [95% CI 0.32, 1.15]; P = 0.127). At trial end, patients receiving atorvastatin had a mean ± SD low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level 0.77 ± 0.04 mmoles/liter lower than those receiving placebo (P < 0.0001). C-reactive protein level was also significantly lower in the atorvastatin group than the placebo group (median 2.59 mg/liter [IQR 0.94, 6.08] versus 3.60 mg/liter [IQR 1.47, 7.49]; P < 0.0001). CVE risk reduction per mmole/liter reduction in LDL cholesterol was 42% (95% CI -14%, 70%). The rates of adverse events in the atorvastatin group (n = 298 [19.8%]) and placebo group (n = 292 [19.5%]) were similar. CONCLUSION: Atorvastatin 40 mg daily is safe and results in a significantly greater reduction of LDL cholesterol level than placebo in patients with RA. The 34% CVE risk reduction is consistent with the Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaboration meta-analysis of statin effects in other populations.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(4): 223-231, abr. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183172

RESUMO

Objetivo: Valorar el control del cLDL de pacientes con diabetes, medir la influencia en este control de la inercia con los hipolipidemiantes y explorar sus factores predictores. Métodos: Estudio de cohortes históricas de pacientes con diabetes. Se midió el porcentaje que alcanzó un cLDL dentro de objetivo. Se consideró inercia terapéutica cuando no se ajustó la dosis de los hipolipidemiantes, ni se cambió ni añadió ningún nuevo hipolipidemiante en los pacientes con cLDL inicial fuera de objetivo. Se estudiaron el cambio experimentado en el cLDL entre la primera y la última visita y la inercia con los hipolipidemiantes en función de las comorbilidades, factores de riesgo cardiovascular asociados y tratamientos utilizados. Resultados: Se incluyó a 639 pacientes (tiempo medio de seguimiento 11,1±11,2 meses). El 27,5% alcanzó un cLDL dentro de objetivo. Se produjo inercia en el 43,6% de los pacientes con un cLDL inicial fuera de objetivo. Resultaron predictores independientes de la inercia el cLDL inicial (p<0,001), la polineuropatía (p=0,014), el ajuste de los antihipertensivos (p=0,002), la adecuación de los hipolipidemiantes (p<0,001), el uso de ezetimiba (p=0,001) y la adherencia a los hipolipidemiantes (p=0,015). Conclusiones: La inercia en el tratamiento hipolipidemiante de un paciente con diabetes es menos frecuente ante valores iniciales de cLDL más altos, en los casos de polineuropatía, cuando se ajustan o cambian los antihipertensivos y cuando se detecta falta de adherencia. La prescripción inicial adecuada de estatinas y la asociación con ezetimiba disminuyen la probabilidad de caer en la inercia


Objective: To assess the control of cLDL in diabetic patients, to measure the impact on such control of inertia with lipid-lowering agents and to explore factors that allow for predicting this inertia. Methods: Study of historical cohorts of diabetic patients. The proportion of patients who achieved the target cLDL levels was estimated. Therapeutic inertia was considered when the dose of the lipid-lowering agents was not adjusted, or a lipid-lowering agent was not changed or added in patients with initial cLDL outside the target. Change in cLDL from the first to the last visit and inertia with lipid-lowering drugs were analyzed according to comorbidities, cardiovascular risk factors and treatments used. Results: The study simple consisted of 639 patients (mean follow-up time 11.1±11.2 months), of whom 27.5% achieved target cLDL levels. Inertia occurred in 43,6% of patients with initial cLDL outside the target. Independent predictors of inertia were the initial cLDL (P<0.001), polyneuropathy (P=0.014), adjustment of antihypertensive agents (P=0.002), adequacy of lipid-lowering agents (P<0.001), use of ezetimibe (P=0.001) and adherence to lipid-lowering drugs (P=0.015). Conclusions: Inertia with lipid-lowering agents in a diabetic patient is less frequent in the presence of higher cLDL values, in cases of polyneuropathy, when antihypertensive agents are adjusted or changed, and when non-adherence is detected. The adequate initial prescription of statins and the association with ezetimibe decrease the likelihood of committing inertia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Resultado do Tratamento
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