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1.
Lancet ; 394(10199): 672-683, 2019 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A fixed-dose combination therapy (polypill strategy) has been proposed as an approach to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease, especially in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). The PolyIran study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of a four-component polypill including aspirin, atorvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, and either enalapril or valsartan for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The PolyIran study was a two-group, pragmatic, cluster-randomised trial nested within the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), a cohort study with 50 045 participants aged 40-75 years from the Golestan province in Iran. Clusters (villages) were randomly allocated (1:1) to either a package of non-pharmacological preventive interventions alone (minimal care group) or together with a once-daily polypill tablet (polypill group). Randomisation was stratified by three districts (Gonbad, Aq-Qala, and Kalaleh), with the village as the unit of randomisation. We used a balanced randomisation algorithm, considering block sizes of 20 and balancing for cluster size or natural log of the cluster size (depending on the skewness within strata). Randomisation was done at a fixed point in time (Jan 18, 2011) by statisticians at the University of Birmingham (Birmingham, UK), independent of the local study team. The non-pharmacological preventive interventions (including educational training about healthy lifestyle-eg, healthy diet with low salt, sugar, and fat content, exercise, weight control, and abstinence from smoking and opium) were delivered by the PolyIran field visit team at months 3 and 6, and then every 6 months thereafter. Two formulations of polypill tablet were used in this study. Participants were first prescribed polypill one (hydrochlorothiazide 12·5 mg, aspirin 81 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg, and enalapril 5 mg). Participants who developed cough during follow-up were switched by a trained study physician to polypill two, which included valsartan 40 mg instead of enalapril 5 mg. Participants were followed up for 60 months. The primary outcome-occurrence of major cardiovascular events (including hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, fatal myocardial infarction, sudden death, heart failure, coronary artery revascularisation procedures, and non-fatal and fatal stroke)-was centrally assessed by the GCS follow-up team, who were masked to allocation status. We did intention-to-treat analyses by including all participants who met eligibility criteria in the two study groups. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01271985. FINDINGS: Between Feb 22, 2011, and April 15, 2013, we enrolled 6838 individuals into the study-3417 (in 116 clusters) in the minimal care group and 3421 (in 120 clusters) in the polypill group. 1761 (51·5%) of 3421 participants in the polypill group were women, as were 1679 (49·1%) of 3417 participants in the minimal care group. Median adherence to polypill tablets was 80·5% (IQR 48·5-92·2). During follow-up, 301 (8·8%) of 3417 participants in the minimal care group had major cardiovascular events compared with 202 (5·9%) of 3421 participants in the polypill group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·66, 95% CI 0·55-0·80). We found no statistically significant interaction with the presence (HR 0·61, 95% CI 0·49-0·75) or absence of pre-existing cardiovascular disease (0·80; 0·51-1·12; pinteraction=0·19). When restricted to participants in the polypill group with high adherence, the reduction in the risk of major cardiovascular events was even greater compared with the minimal care group (adjusted HR 0·43, 95% CI 0·33-0·55). The frequency of adverse events was similar between the two study groups. 21 intracranial haemorrhages were reported during the 5 years of follow-up-ten participants in the polypill group and 11 participants in the minimal care group. There were 13 physician-confirmed diagnoses of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the polypill group and nine in the minimal care group. INTERPRETATION: Use of polypill was effective in preventing major cardiovascular events. Medication adherence was high and adverse event numbers were low. The polypill strategy could be considered as an additional effective component in controlling cardiovascular diseases, especially in LMICs. FUNDING: Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Barakat Foundation, and Alborz Darou.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Combinação de Medicamentos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Enalapril/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroclorotiazida/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Valsartana/administração & dosagem
2.
Lancet ; 394(10199): 697-708, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448741

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestation as ischaemic heart disease remains a considerable health burden. Given that many factors contribute to ischaemic heart disease, a multifactorial approach to prevention is recommended, starting with lifestyle advice, smoking cessation, and control of known cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure and lipids. Within the lipid profile, the principal target is lowering LDL cholesterol, firstly with lifestyle interventions and subsequently with pharmacological therapy. Statins are the recommended first-line pharmacological treatment. Some individuals might require further lowering of LDL cholesterol or be unable to tolerate statins. Additional therapies targeting different pathways in cholesterol metabolism are now available, ranging from small molecules taken orally, to injectable therapies. Examples include ezetimibe, which targets Niemann-Pick C1-like protein, and monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9. Phase 3 trials have also been completed for bempedoic acid (targeting ATP-citrate lyase) and inclisiran (an interference RNA-based therapeutic targeting hepatic PCSK9 synthesis). In addition to LDL cholesterol, mendelian randomisation studies support a causal role for lipoprotein(a) and triglycerides in ischaemic heart disease. In this Series paper, we appraise currently available and emerging therapies for lowering LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), and triglycerides for prevention of ischaemic heart disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Lipoproteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
3.
Phytother Res ; 33(11): 2862-2869, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423665

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of corn silk decoction on lipid profile in patients with angina pectoris. PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Google Scholar, Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang database were searched up to January 2019 for randomized controlled trials that assessed the impact of corn silk decoction on total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with angina pectoris. Study evaluation and synthesis methods were in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook, and data were analyzed using Review Manager (version 5.3) software. Random effects model was applied in this systematic review and meta-analysis to compensate for potential heterogeneity among the included studies. A total of four randomized controlled trials were eligible for meta-analysis. Pooled results of these studies indicated that corn silk decoction might improve high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduce total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with angina pectoris. Subgroup analyses showed that corn silk decoction or modified corn silk decoction plus conventional pharmaceutical treatment could have favorable effects on blood lipids. However, the lack of blinding in most studies may have led to overestimation of these effects. Further studies with better design are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/tratamento farmacológico , Flores/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Zea mays/química , Angina Pectoris/sangue , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
4.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(4): 141-151, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182708

RESUMO

Objetivos: Conocer el grado de control lipídico previo al primer accidente cardiovascular en población atendida durante 2013 en Atención Primaria. Analizar la distribución de dichos eventos según intervalos de control de colesterol LDL (LDL-col), colesterol HDL (HDL-col) y triglicéridos (TG). Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal multicéntrico. Sujetos: mayores de 18 años atendidos en centros del Servicio (SAP) Baix Llobregat Nord, que habían sufrido un primer evento (ECV) isquémico cardiaco (CI) o cerebral (CV) del 01/01/2013 al 31/12/2013. Mediciones: edad, sexo, tabaquismo, hipertensión arterial, diabetes, dislipemia, obesidad, colesterol total (col-tot), LDL-col, HDL-col, TG, presión arterial sistólica, diastólica, IMC, HbA1c, índices aterogénicos, REGICOR, fármacos. Resultados: Trescientos setenta y nueve sujetos afectos, 197 (52%) cardiaco y 182 (48%) cerebral. Doscientos veinticinco (59,4%) varones; edad media en el diagnóstico 68,9 años (DS 13,7), 71,2 (DS 14,4) en CV (p: 0,001). Hipertensión 214 (56,5%), diabetes 113 (29,8%), DLP 193 (50,9%). Casos en LDL < 100-159: 88%, HDL ≥ 40/50: 72,8%, TG < 150: 71,3%. Media col-tot: 198,3 mg/dl (DS 40,2); LDL-col 121 (DS 33,8), LDL-col < 130: 170 (58,6%). Media HDL-col: 52,5 mg/dl (DS 15,4) y TG: 130,9 mg/dl (DS 73,2) (CI: 139,5 [DS 84,2] vs. CV: 120,9 [DS 55,9] [p: 0,003]). col-tot/HDL-col óptimo 67%, TG/HDL-col óptimo 39,8%. CI: col-tot/HDL-col óptimo varón vs. mujer: 51,2 vs. 76,9% (p 0,002); TG/HDL-col óptimo varón vs. mujer: 28% vs. 53,8% (p 0,004). Conclusiones: La cuantía de eventos fue similar en ambos territorios, y la edad media en el diagnóstico algo mayor en CV. Hipertensión, DLP y obesidad son los FRCV más prevalentes, y su control en prevención primaria es susceptible de mejora. La mayor parte de los casos se agruparon en los intervalos lipídicos LDL < 100-159 mg/dl, HDL ≥ 40/50 mg/dl y TG < 150 mg/dl


Objective: To ascertain the degree of lipidic control before the first cardiovascular accident in population attended during 2013 at Primary Care. To analyze the distribution of these events depending on control intervals of cholesterol LDL (LDL-chol), cholesterol HDL (HDL-chol) and triglycerides (TG). Method: A multicentric cross-sectional, descriptive study on above 18-year-old people attended at the centres of the Primari Care Service (PCS) Baix Llobregat Nord, who had suffered a first cardiac or cerebral ischemic attack from 01/01/2013 to 31/12/2013. Variables collected included age,sex, smoking, high blood preassure,diabetes, dyslipidemia (DLP), obesity, total cholesterol (chol-tot), LDL-chol, HDL-chol, TG, systolic and diastolic blood preassure (SBP,DBP), IMC, HbA1c, atherogenic indices, REGICOR, drugs. Results: 379 affected people, among them 197 (52%) heart attack and 182 (48%) stroke (ictus). Two hundred and twenty-five (54.4%) males, diagnosis median age 68.9 years (DS 13.7), 71.2 (DS 14.4) in CV (p: .001). High blood preassure 214 (56.5%), diabetes 113 (29.8%), DLP 193 (50.9%). Cases in LDL< 100-159: 88%, HDL ≥ 40/50: 72.8%, TG < 150: 71.3%. chol-tot average: 198.3 mg/dl (DS 40.2), LDL-chol:121 (DS 33.8), LDL-chol < 130:170 (58.6%). HDL-chol average: 52.5 mg/dl (DS 15.4) and TG: 130.9 mg/dl (DS 73.2) (CI:139.5 [DS 84.2] vs. CV: 120.9 [DS 55.9] [p: .003]). Optimal chol-tot/HDL-chol 67%, optimal TG/HDL-chol 39.8%. CI:optimal chol-tot/HDL-chol male vs. female: 51.2% vs. 76.9% (p: .002); optimal TG/HDL-chol male vs. female: 28% vs. 53.8% (p: .004). Conclusions: The quantity of events was similar in both cardiac and cerebral territories, whereas the median age in the diagnosis was a little higher in CV. High blood preassure, DLP and obesity are the most prevalent FRCV, and its control at primary prevention is improvable. Most of the cases were grouped in the LDL lipid ranges < 100-159 mg/dl, HDL ≥ 40/50 mg/dl and TG < 150 mg/dl


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , HDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Triglicerídeos , Lipídeos/sangue
5.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 38(6): 391-405, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324407

RESUMO

Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels is one of the most important strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. However, in clinical practice, a high proportion of patients do not achieve recommended LDL-C levels through lifestyle and lipid-lowering therapy with statins and ezetimibe. PCSK9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) are a new therapeutic option that significantly (50-60%) reduces LDL-C levels, which in clinical trials translates into an additional reduction in risk for cardiovascular events, and has a good safety profile. However, it is a high-cost therapy, and therefore its use in clinical practice should take its cost-effectiveness into account. Priority should be given to use in patients at higher cardiovascular risk and those in whom high LDL-C levels persist despite optimal lipid-lowering therapy. This consensus document aims to summarize the main data on the clinical use of PCSK9i and to make recommendations for Portugal on the profile of patients who may benefit most from this therapy.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Portugal/epidemiologia
6.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4399, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pre-hospital statin use is associated with lower renal replacement therapy requirement and/or death during intensive care unit stay. METHODS: Prospective cohort analysis. We analyzed 670 patients consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit of an academic tertiary-care hospital. Patients with ages ranging from 18 to 80 years admitted to the intensive care unit within the last 48 hours were included in the study. RESULTS: Mean age was 66±16.1 years old, mean body mass index 26.6±4/9kg/m2 and mean abdominal circumference was of 97±22cm. The statin group comprised 18.2% of patients and had lower renal replacement therapy requirement and/or mortality (OR: 0.41; 95%CI: 0.18-0.93; p=0.03). The statin group also had lower risk of developing sepsis during intensive care unit stay (OR: 0.42; 95%CI: 0.22-0.77; p=0.006) and had a reduction in hospital length-of-stay (14.7±17.5 days versus 22.3±48 days; p=0.006). Statin therapy was associated with a protective role in critical care setting independently of confounding variables, such as gender, age, C-reactive protein, need of mechanical ventilation, use of pressor agents and presence of diabetes and/or coronary disease. CONCLUSION: Statin therapy prior to hospital admission was associated with lower mortality, lower renal replacement therapy requirement and sepsis rates.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , HDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Triglicerídeos , APACHE , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Terapia de Substituição Renal/mortalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
7.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 323-330, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177906

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite statins, many patients fail to adequately lower lipids and remain at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Selective ETA (endothelin-A) receptor antagonists reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors. Preclinical data suggest that ETA antagonism has beneficial effects on circulating lipids. We assessed the effects of selective ETA antagonism on circulating lipids and PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) in CKD. This was a secondary analysis of a fully randomized, double-blind, 3-phase crossover study. Twenty-seven subjects with predialysis CKD on optimal cardio- and renoprotective treatment were randomly assigned to receive 6 weeks dosing with placebo, the selective ETA receptor antagonist, sitaxentan, or long-acting nifedipine. We measured circulating lipids and PCSK9 at baseline and then after 3 and 6 weeks. Baseline lipids and PCSK9 did not differ before each study phase. Whereas placebo and nifedipine had no effect on lipids, 6 weeks of ETA antagonism significantly reduced total (-11±1%) and low-density lipoprotein-associated (-20±3%) cholesterol, lipoprotein (a) (-16±2%) and triglycerides (-20±4%); high-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol increased (+14±2%), P<0.05 versus baseline for all. Additionally, ETA receptor antagonism, but neither placebo nor nifedipine, reduced circulating PCSK9 (-19±2%; P<0.001 versus baseline; P<0.05 versus nifedipine and placebo). These effects were independent of statin use and changes in blood pressure or proteinuria. Selective ETA antagonism improves lipid profiles in optimally-managed patients with CKD, effects that may occur through a reduction in circulating PCSK9. ETA receptor antagonism offers a potentially novel strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in CKD. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00810732.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas do Receptor de Endotelina A/uso terapêutico , Nifedipino/administração & dosagem , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(3): 93-100, mayo-jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182702

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: El adecuado control lipídico tras un síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) es una estrategia de prevención secundaria crucial para disminuir el riesgo de reinfarto y muerte cardiovascular. Existen tablas que predicen la dosificación necesaria del tratamiento hipolipidemiante según el colesterol LDL (cLDL) inicial pero no han sido probadas en el SCA. Analizamos los factores asociados al control del cLDL tras un SCA y la utilidad de las tablas de Masana y Plana en este contexto. Métodos: Entre enero de 2015 y mayo de 2016 se incluyeron 326 pacientes con SCA. Se registraron las concentraciones basales de cLDL y el tratamiento hipolipidemiante al alta. Se analizaron las variables asociadas a un adecuado control del cLDL (< 70 mg/dL) en el seguimiento. Resultados: La edad media fue 66 ± 13 años, el 72% varones. El tratamiento hipolipidemiante al alta se ajustó a las recomendaciones de Masana en 196 (60%) pacientes. Tras 122 [66-184] días, en 148 (45%) se alcanzó el objetivo de cLDL, siendo este porcentaje mayor (109/196 -56%- vs. 39/130 -30%- pacientes) cuando el tratamiento fue planificado según las tablas de Masana y Plana (p < 0,001). En el análisis multivariante, el género masculino (p < 0,001), la ausencia de dislipidemia previa (p < 0,001) y la aplicación de las tablas de Masana y Plana (p = 0,007) fueron predictores independientes para alcanzar el cLDL objetivo. Conclusiones: El control lipídico adecuado tras un SCA se alcanza en menos de la mitad de casos. La dosificación de la terapia hipolipidemiante según las tablas de Masanay Plana mejora la consecución de este crucial objetivo terapéutico


Introduction and objectives: Adequate LDL cholesterol (LDLc) control after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a crucial secondary prevention strategy to minimize the incidence of recurrent myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. There are tables that predict the necessary dosage of lipid-lowering treatment from the initial LDLc but have not been tested in ACS. Variables associated with optimal LDLc after an ACS were analyzed and the therapeutic yield of the use of Masana's recommendations in this setting. Methods: A total number of 326 ACS-patients were included between January-2015 and May-2016. Baseline LDLc concentration and prescribed hypolipemiant treatment at hospital discharge were registered. We analyzed the variables associated with optimal LDLc levels (< 70 mg/dL) control during follow-up. Results: Among our patient population (72% male, age 66 ± 13 years), the hypolipemiant treatment at hospital discharge fulfilled the Masana's recommendations in 196 (60%) patients. After a follow-up period of 122 [66-184] days the targeted LDLc levels were achieved in 148 (45%) patients, being this percentage greater among those in whom the Masana's recommendations were fulfilled (109/196, 56%), as compared with the remaining (39/130, 30%; P < .001). The male gender (P < .001), the absence of prior history of dyslipemia (P < .001) and the adherence to Masana's recommendations (P = .007) were independent predictors for the achievement of targeted LDLc levels during follow-up. Conclusions: In less than half of ACS-patients adequate mid-term LDLc control is obtained. The dosage of the lipid-lowering therapy according to Masana's recommendations helps to achieve this important therapeutic goal


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores de Risco , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/prevenção & controle , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Dislipidemias , Análise Multivariada , Lipídeos/sangue
11.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(5): 544-554, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins are effective in helping prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, studies suggest that only 20%-64% of patients taking statins achieve reasonable low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) thresholds. On-treatment levels of LDL-C remain a key predictor of residual CVD event risk. OBJECTIVES: To (a) determine how many patients on statins achieved the therapeutic threshold of LDL-C < 100 mg per dL (general cohort) and < 70 mg per dL (secondary prevention cohort, or subcohort, with preexisting CVD); (b) estimate the number of potentially avoidable CVD events if the threshold were reached; and (c) forecast potential cost savings. METHODS: A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study using electronic health record data from the Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC) was conducted. The INPC provides comprehensive information about patients in Indiana across health care organizations and care settings. Patients were aged > 45 years and seen between January 1, 2012, and October 31, 2016 (ensuring study of contemporary practice), were statin-naive for 12 months before the index date of initiating statin therapy, and had an LDL-C value recorded 6-18 months after the index date. Subsequent to descriptive cohort analysis, the theoretical CVD risk reduction achievable by reaching the threshold was calculated using Framingham Risk Score and Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaboration formulas. Estimated potential cost savings used published first-year costs of CVD events, adjusted for inflation and discounted to the present day. RESULTS: Of the 89,267 patients initiating statins, 30,083 (33.7%) did not achieve the LDL-C threshold (subcohort: 58.1%). In both groups, not achieving the threshold was associated with patients who were female, black, and those who had reduced medication adherence. Higher levels of preventive aspirin use and antihypertensive treatment were associated with threshold achievement. In both cohorts, approximately 64% of patients above the threshold were within 30 mg per dL of the respective threshold. Adherence to statin therapy regimen, judged by a medication possession ratio of ≥ 80%, was 57.4% in the general cohort and 56.7% in the subcohort. Of the patients who adhered to therapy, 23.7% of the general cohort and 50.5% of the subcohort had LDL-C levels that did not meet the threshold. 10-year CVD event risk in the at-or-above threshold group was 22.78% (SD = 17.24%) in the general cohort and 29.56% (SD = 18.19%) in the subcohort. By reducing LDL-C to the threshold, a potential relative risk reduction of 14.8% in the general cohort could avoid 1,173 CVD events over 10 years (subcohort: 15.7% and 454 events). Given first-year inpatient and follow-up costs of $37,300 per CVD event, this risk reduction could save about $1,455 per patient treated to reach the threshold (subcohort: $1,902; 2017 U.S. dollars) over a 10-year period. CONCLUSIONS: Across multiple health care systems in Indiana, between 34% (general cohort) and 58% (secondary prevention cohort) of patients treated with statins did not achieve therapeutic LDL-C thresholds. Based on current CVD event risk and cost projections, such patients seem to be at increased risk and may represent an important and potentially preventable burden on health care costs. DISCLOSURES: Funding support for this study was provided by Merck (Kenilworth, NJ). Chase and Boggs are employed by Merck. Simpson is a consultant to Merck and Pfizer. The other authors have nothing to disclose.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/economia , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/economia , Indiana , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Ter Arkh ; 91(4): 90-98, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094482

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to assess cardiovascular risk in patients with elevated levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C and concomitant AH, a comparative analysis of adherence, efficacy and safety of various forms of combined therapy in outpatient practice, including promising lisinopril/amlodipine/rosuvastatin FC (Ekvamer®). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ANICHKOV study included 702 patients in Moscow and the Moscow region over 18 years old with a -chole-sterol level ≥7.5 mmol/l and/or LDL-C ≥4.9 mmol/l from March 2017 to December 2018 based on 2 federal centers. According to the results of visit I, patients were prescribed with one of three therapy schemes. In the absence of AH, patients received scheme I -(Mertenil® at initial dosage of 10 mg/day). When history of AH existed or AH detected at visit I, patients were randomized to scheme II (Ekvamer® 5/10/10 mg/day) or III (Mertenil® 10 mg/day + Ekvator® 5/10 mg/day). During the observation, the treatment scheme remained unchanged, however, if the target levels of LDL-C and/or BP were not reached, the doses could be increased. The analysis of the main effects of the prescribed therapy were carried out for 12 months, and the frequency of MACE (CVD, ACS, stroke, or hospitalization to perform PCI) was also evaluated. RESULTS: Following the visit I, scheme I was assigned to 390 patients (55.6%), scheme II - 190 (27.1%), scheme III - 122 (17.4%). In 147 patients (20.9%), TG level was >2.3 mmol/l, which required additional fenofibrate intake in a dose of 145 mg/day. Adherence level was 89.5%, including scheme I - 91.7%, scheme II - 90.5%, scheme III - only 81.8%. In general, among compliant patients (n = 590), the decrease in TCh level was 41.0%, LDL-C - 47.4%. 16.6% of patients reached target levels of LDL-C <2.5 mmol/l, 5.6% - <1.8 mmol/l. In the fenofibrate subgroup, TG level decrease was 34.6%. During the follow-up period, 47 cases of side effects were observed in 27 patients (4.6%), that did not require modification of therapy. Systolic BP reduction in compliant patients of schemes II and III was 20 mm. Hg (13.1%), diastolic BP - 12 mm. Hg (13.6%), target BP levels (<140/90 mm. Hg) reached 83.7% and 80.8% of patients, respectively, target levels of BP and LDL-C <2.5 mmol/l reached 14.5% and 13.1% of patients, respectively, <1.8 mmol/l - 5.8% and 5.1%, respectively. During the observation period no deaths were recorded, other components of MACE were observed in 38 patients (5.8%), including 27 among compliant patients (4.6%) and 11 among non-compliant (15.9%, p<0.01). In 19 out of 38 patients (50%), hospitalization for routine PCI was the end point, ACS - in 12 (31.6%), and stroke - in 7 (18.4%). CONCLUSION: The results of the study demonstrated a sufficient hypolipidemic effect and high safety of Mertenil® and Ekvamer®. A higher adherence to the combined preparation than to two monodrugs was noted. Achieving target levels of BP and LDL-C is problematic, which dictates the expediency of using fixed combinations of drugs, especially in primary prevention.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Anlodipino , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lipídeos , Lisinopril , Moscou , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(4): 223-231, abr. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183172

RESUMO

Objetivo: Valorar el control del cLDL de pacientes con diabetes, medir la influencia en este control de la inercia con los hipolipidemiantes y explorar sus factores predictores. Métodos: Estudio de cohortes históricas de pacientes con diabetes. Se midió el porcentaje que alcanzó un cLDL dentro de objetivo. Se consideró inercia terapéutica cuando no se ajustó la dosis de los hipolipidemiantes, ni se cambió ni añadió ningún nuevo hipolipidemiante en los pacientes con cLDL inicial fuera de objetivo. Se estudiaron el cambio experimentado en el cLDL entre la primera y la última visita y la inercia con los hipolipidemiantes en función de las comorbilidades, factores de riesgo cardiovascular asociados y tratamientos utilizados. Resultados: Se incluyó a 639 pacientes (tiempo medio de seguimiento 11,1±11,2 meses). El 27,5% alcanzó un cLDL dentro de objetivo. Se produjo inercia en el 43,6% de los pacientes con un cLDL inicial fuera de objetivo. Resultaron predictores independientes de la inercia el cLDL inicial (p<0,001), la polineuropatía (p=0,014), el ajuste de los antihipertensivos (p=0,002), la adecuación de los hipolipidemiantes (p<0,001), el uso de ezetimiba (p=0,001) y la adherencia a los hipolipidemiantes (p=0,015). Conclusiones: La inercia en el tratamiento hipolipidemiante de un paciente con diabetes es menos frecuente ante valores iniciales de cLDL más altos, en los casos de polineuropatía, cuando se ajustan o cambian los antihipertensivos y cuando se detecta falta de adherencia. La prescripción inicial adecuada de estatinas y la asociación con ezetimiba disminuyen la probabilidad de caer en la inercia


Objective: To assess the control of cLDL in diabetic patients, to measure the impact on such control of inertia with lipid-lowering agents and to explore factors that allow for predicting this inertia. Methods: Study of historical cohorts of diabetic patients. The proportion of patients who achieved the target cLDL levels was estimated. Therapeutic inertia was considered when the dose of the lipid-lowering agents was not adjusted, or a lipid-lowering agent was not changed or added in patients with initial cLDL outside the target. Change in cLDL from the first to the last visit and inertia with lipid-lowering drugs were analyzed according to comorbidities, cardiovascular risk factors and treatments used. Results: The study simple consisted of 639 patients (mean follow-up time 11.1±11.2 months), of whom 27.5% achieved target cLDL levels. Inertia occurred in 43,6% of patients with initial cLDL outside the target. Independent predictors of inertia were the initial cLDL (P<0.001), polyneuropathy (P=0.014), adjustment of antihypertensive agents (P=0.002), adequacy of lipid-lowering agents (P<0.001), use of ezetimibe (P=0.001) and adherence to lipid-lowering drugs (P=0.015). Conclusions: Inertia with lipid-lowering agents in a diabetic patient is less frequent in the presence of higher cLDL values, in cases of polyneuropathy, when antihypertensive agents are adjusted or changed, and when non-adherence is detected. The adequate initial prescription of statins and the association with ezetimibe decrease the likelihood of committing inertia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e022843, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782687

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To detect patients at high risk of developing myocardial infarction, plaque characteristics as well as the degree of stenosis in coronary arteries should be evaluated. However, unstable plaque or severe calcification detected via coronary artery CT (CACT) is not reflected in risk stratification according to current guidelines. It is hypothesised that patients with high-risk findings on CACT (even those without proven history of coronary artery diseases; CAD) should be strictly managed to lower their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to targets of secondary prevention. Currently, however, there is no evidence based on prospective randomised intervention studies to prove this hypothesis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Patients with mild-to-moderate stenotic lesions with positive remodelling or severe calcification, but without any history of CAD, will be randomly allocated to group A (reduce LDL-C to <120~160 mg/dL according to the primary prevention criteria based on the Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) Guideline for Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2017) and group B (reduce LDL-C to <70 mg/dL according to the secondary prevention criteria for high risk based on the JAS Guideline). They will be strictly managed to achieve the LDL-C targets. We will follow-up and evaluate the composite endpoints consisting of major cardiovascular events (death from CAD, non-fatal myocardial infarction, operation for coronary revascularisation and stroke) and stenosis progression or new stenosis development for 3 years. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the National Hospital Organization Central Research Ethics Committee. The results of this study are scheduled to be published within 2 years after study completion via conference presentation or journal publication. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000031136.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Constrição Patológica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Postgrad Med J ; 95(1120): 61-66, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors are a major development in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is one of the most significant discoveries since the development of statin therapy. Administration of two human monoclonal antibodies to PCSK9 (alirocumab and evolocumab) can significantly reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations, thus improving lipid management. Accordingly, guidelines on the specific indications for alirocumab and evolocumab usage have been released. This multicentre study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients treated for an acute myocardial infarction (MI) who could be considered for PCSK9 inhibitors under the current National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) lipid targets criteria. METHODS: The records of 596 patients in two large hospitals in Liverpool, UK were analysed. Information was collected on lipid profiles during and after admission, lipid-lowering therapy and previous CVD. RESULTS: At least 2.2% of patients were eligible for PCSK9 inhibitors post-MI under the current NICE guidance. Additionally, 29% of patients failed to achieve LDL-c concentrations <2.0 mmol/L despite maximum statin therapy and failed to meet eligibility for PCSK9 inhibitors as per the NICE criteria. This cohort represents a group of patients 'in limbo', in which statin therapy alone is not sufficient to reduce LDL-c. CONCLUSIONS: PCSK9 inhibitors are expensive and so their use must be highly selective. At present, in a real-world setting with ezetimibe underprescribing, ~2% of patients are eligible and a further 30% are deprived of benefit and improved outcomes by lack of optimisation and/or potential use of PCSK9 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prevenção Secundária , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
17.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 316(5): E908-E921, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807216

RESUMO

The prevalence of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is increased in women after menopause. While hormone replacement therapy has been prescribed to relieve several components of CMS in postmenopausal women, some aspects of cardiometabolic dysfunction cannot be completely restored. The present study examined the effectiveness of estrogen replacement alone and in combination with exercise by voluntary wheel running (VWR) for alleviating the risks of CMS, insulin-mediated skeletal muscle glucose transport, and hepatic fat accumulation in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat high-fructose diet (OHFFD). We compared a sham-operated group with OHFFD rats that were subdivided into a sedentary, estradiol replacement (E2), and E2 plus VWR for 12 wk. E2 prevented the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle glucose transport and decreased hepatic fat accumulation in OHFFD rats. Furthermore, E2 treatment decreased visceral fat mass and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in OHFFD rats, while VWR further decreased LDL-cholesterol and increased the ratio of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol to total cholesterol to a greater extent. Although E2 treatment alone did not reduce serum triglyceride levels in OHFFD rats, the combined intervention of E2 and VWR lowered serum triglycerides in E2-treated OHFFD rats. The addition of VWR to E2-treated OHFFD rats led to AMPK activation and upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α and PPARδ in skeletal muscle along with increased fatty acid oxidation and suppressed fatty acid synthesis in the liver. Collectively, our findings indicate that, to achieve greater health benefits, physical exercise is required for E2-treated individuals under ovarian hormone deprivation with high-energy consumption.


Assuntos
Estradiol/farmacologia , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Atividade Motora , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , HDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Açúcares da Dieta , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Feminino , Frutose , Glucose/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Menopausa , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , PPAR delta/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR delta/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 32, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696435

RESUMO

ᅟ: The present study comprised 17,096 Chinese hypertensive dyslipidemia patients who received lipid-lowering treatment for > 3 months in order to investigate blood pressure (BP) as well as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment rates in Chinese hypertensive dyslipidemia patients on antidyslipidemia drugs. The factors that interfered with BP, or BP and LDL-C goal attainment rates and antihypertensive treatment patterns, were analyzed. In total, 89.9% of the 17,096 hypertensive dyslipidemia patients received antihypertensive medications mainly consisting of a calcium channel blocker (CCB) (48.7%), an angiotensin receptor antagonist (ARB) (25.4%) and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) (15.1%). In cardiology departments, usage rates of ß-blockers (19.2%) were unusually high compared to other departments (4.0-8.3%), whereas thiazide diuretics were prescribed at the lowest rate (0.3% vs 1.2-3.6%). The overall goal attainment rates for combined BP and LDL-C as well as BP or LDL-C targets were 22.9, 31.9 and 60.1%, respectively. The lowest BP, LDL-C and BP combined with LDL-C goal attainment rates were achieved in endocrine departments (19.9, 48.9 and 12.4%, respectively). Combination therapies showed no benefit particularly for BP goal achievement. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age < 65 years, alcohol consumption, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2 and not achieving total cholesterol goals were independent predictors for achieving BP, LDL-C or combined BP and LDL-C goals. In summary, the BP and LDL-C goal achievement rates in Chinese dyslipidemia outpatients with hypertension were low, especially in endocrine departments. Combination therapies were not associated with improvement of the goal achievement rates. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registration number NCT01732952.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/patologia , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/complicações , Dislipidemias/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/patologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem
19.
Pathology ; 51(2): 177-183, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522786

RESUMO

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a crucial protein governing the circulating levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), by virtue of its pivotal role in the degradation of the LDL receptor (LDLR). In the last 15 years, in vitro and in vivo studies have allowed our understanding of the physiological role of PCSK9. In the current report, we review the key studies that have established the mode of action of PCSK9, leading to the development of PCSK9 inhibitors for clinical use. Data from clinical trials investigating these therapies clearly and unambiguously demonstrate the safety and efficacy of these new drugs that have the power to dramatically reduce LDL-C and associated cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Humanos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo
20.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(4): 1615-1624, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725824

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The primary and secondary objectives were to investigate the triglyceride (TG) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering effects of a spread with added plant sterols (PS) and fish oil as compared to a placebo spread. METHODS: This study had a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design with two intervention arms. Following a 2-week placebo run-in period, 260 healthy individuals with modestly elevated blood TG (≥ 1.4 mmol/L) and LDL-C (≥ 3.4 mmol/L) concentrations consumed either the placebo or intervention spread for 4 weeks. The intervention spread contained 2.0 g/day PS and 1.0 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexanoic acid (DHA) from fish oil. Fasting serum lipids and apolipoproteins (Apo) (exploratory) were measured at the end of the run-in and intervention phases. RESULTS: Four-week consumption of the intervention spread resulted in significantly lower TG (- 10.6%, 95% CI - 16.0 to - 4.9%; P < 0.001) and LDL-C concentrations (- 5.2%; 95% CI - 7.8 to - 2.4%) as compared to placebo. Total cholesterol (- 3.9%; 95% CI - 6.1 to - 1.5%), non-HDL-C (- 5.4%; 95% CI - 8.1 to - 2.7%), remnant-cholesterol (- 8.1%; 95% CI - 3.4 to - 12.5%), ApoAII (- 2.9%; 95% CI - 5.5 to - 0.2%), ApoCIII (- 7.7%; 95% CI - 12.1 to - 3.1%) and ApoB (- 3.2%; 95% CI - 5.9 to - 0.4%) concentrations were also significantly lower, as compared to placebo. No significant treatment effects were found for HDL-cholesterol, ApoAI, ApoCII, Apo E or ApoB/ApoAI. CONCLUSIONS: Four-week consumption of the intervention spread led to significant and clinically relevant decreases in serum TG, LDL-C and other blood lipid concentrations. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02728583).


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Hipertrigliceridemia/dietoterapia , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Masculino , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
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