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1.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203025

RESUMO

Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are data aggregation tools based on computer technology that assist clinicians to promote healthy weight management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We carried out a randomised controlled 3-month trial to implement lifestyle modifications in breast cancer (BC) patients by means of CDSS during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 55 BC women at stages I-IIIA were enrolled. They were randomly assigned either to Control group, receiving general lifestyle advice (n = 28) or the CDSS group (n = 27), to whom the CDSS provided personalised dietary plans based on the Mediterranean diet (MD) together with physical activity guidelines. Food data, anthropometry, blood markers and quality of life were evaluated. At 3 months, higher adherence to MD was recorded in the CDSS group, accompanied by lower body weight (kg) and body fat mass percentage compared to control (p < 0.001). In the CDSS arm, global health/quality of life was significantly improved at the trial endpoint (p < 0.05). Fasting blood glucose and lipid levels (i.e., cholesterol, LDL, triacylglycerols) of the CDSS arm remained unchanged (p > 0.05) but were elevated in the control arm at 3 months (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CDSS could be a promising tool to assist BC patients with lifestyle modifications during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglicerídeos/sangue
2.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064496

RESUMO

The health effects of saturated fat, particularly tropical oil, on cardiovascular disease are unclear. We investigated the effect of tropical oil (palm and coconut oils), lard, and other common vegetable oils (soybean and rice bran oils) that are widely used in tropical and Asian countries on lipid profiles. We performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Electronic databases (Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane) were searched up to December 2018 without language restriction. We identified nine meta-analyses that investigated the effect of dietary oils on lipid levels. Replacement of polyunsaturated fatty-acid-rich oils (PUFAs) and monounsaturated FA-rich oils (MUFAs) with palm oil significantly increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), by 3.43 (0.44-6.41) mg/dL and 9.18 (6.90-11.45) mg/dL, respectively, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), by 1.89 (1.23-2.55) mg/dL and 0.94 (-0.07-1.97) mg/dL, respectively. Replacement of PUFAs with coconut oil significantly increased HDL-c and total cholesterol -by 2.27 (0.93-3.6) mg/dL and 5.88 (0.21-11.55) mg/dL, respectively-but not LDL-c. Substituting lard for MUFAs and PUFAs increased LDL-c-by 8.39 (2.83-13.95) mg/dL and 9.85 (6.06-13.65) mg/dL, respectively-but not HDL-c. Soybean oil substituted for other PUFAs had no effect on lipid levels, while rice bran oil substitution decreased LDL-c. Our findings show the deleterious effect of saturated fats from animal sources on lipid profiles. Replacement of unsaturated plant-derived fats with plant-derived saturated fats slightly increases LDL-c but also increases HDL-c, which in turn may exert a neutral effect on cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Óleo de Coco/farmacologia , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Óleo de Palmeira/farmacologia , Animais , Ásia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleo de Farelo de Arroz/farmacologia , Óleo de Soja/farmacologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Clima Tropical
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071276

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and its prevalence is increasing due to the aging of societies. Atherosclerosis, a type of chronic inflammatory disease that occurs in arteries, is considered to be the main cause of cardiovascular diseases such as ischemic heart disease or stroke. In addition, the inflammatory response caused by atherosclerosis confers a significant effect on chronic inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis and rheumatic arthritis. Here, we review the mechanism of action of the main causes of atherosclerosis such as plasma LDL level and inflammation; furthermore, we review the recent findings on the preclinical and clinical effects of antibodies that reduce the LDL level and those that neutralize the cytokines involved in inflammation. The apolipoprotein B autoantibody and anti-PCSK9 antibody reduced the level of LDL and plaques in animal studies, but failed to significantly reduce carotid inflammation plaques in clinical trials. The monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 (alirocumab, evolocumab), which are used as a treatment for hyperlipidemia, lowered cholesterol levels and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Antibodies that neutralize inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-12/23) have shown promising but contradictory results and thus warrant further research.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Apolipoproteínas B , Autoanticorpos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073163

RESUMO

Background: Chronic sympathetic nervous system activation is associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiometabolic disease, which may be modulated by resveratrol (RSV) and energy restriction (ER). This study aimed to examine the effects of RSV and ER on plasma noradrenaline (NA), flow-mediated vasodilation (ed-FMD), and endothelium-independent nitrate-mediated vasodilation (ei-NMD). Methods: The study included 48 healthy adults randomized to 30-days intervention of RSV or ER. Results: Waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, apoA-I, and plasma NA decreased in the ER group, whilst RSV increased apoB and total cholesterol, without changing plasma NA. No effects on vascular reactivity were observed in both groups. Plasma NA change was positively correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.443; p = 0.002), triglycerides (r = 0.438; p = 0.002), apoA-I (r = 0.467; p = 0.001), apoB (r = 0.318; p = 0.032) changes, and ei-NMD (OR = 1.294; 95%CI: 1.021-1.640). Conclusions: RSV does not improve cardiometabolic risk factors, sympathetic activity, and endothelial function. ER decreases plasma NA and waist circumference as well as improves blood lipids, but does not modify endothelial function. Finally, plasma NA was associated with ei-NMD, which could be attributed to a higher response to nitrate in patients with greater resting sympathetic vasoconstriction.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Restrição Calórica , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Vasoconstrição , Vasodilatação , Circunferência da Cintura
5.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(6): 1714-1727, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There has been conflicting results on the effect of red meat and processed meat intake on the dyslipidemia risk. Moreover, studies in Asian population with lower meat intake than the Western population are lacking. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between red and processed meat consumption and the dyslipidemia risk by sex among Koreans. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 20,407 participants from a prospective cohort were divided into quintiles according to their red meat consumption and tertiles according to their processed meat consumption based on the validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the relative risk and 95% confidence interval of dyslipidemia according to red and processed meat consumption. Higher red meat consumption was associated with a 34% and 10% increased risk of hypercholesterolemia in both men and women, and further, a 58% and 17% increased risk of hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia and dyslipidemia, in men, compared to the lowest consumption group. Higher processed meat consumption was associated with a 38% and 9% increased risk of hypercholesterolemia, 29% and 18% increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia, and 32% and 10% increased risk of dyslipidemia in both men and women, respectively, compared to the lowest consumption group. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study can provide compelling evidence on Asian population that red and processed meat consumption can lead to a higher risk of dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Produtos da Carne , Carne Vermelha , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
6.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 209, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia and has been identified as a major risk factor for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Gender differences in the disease process, causative mechanisms and outcomes of AF have been investigated. In the current study, we determined whether there is a gender-based disparity in AIS patients with baseline AF, and whether such a discrepancy is associated with specific risk factors and comorbidities. METHODS: Baseline factors including comorbidities, risk and demographic factors associated with a gender difference were examined using retrospective data collected from a registry from January 2010 to June 2016 in a regional stroke center. Univariate analysis was used to differentiate between genders in terms of clinical risk factors and demographics. Variables in the univariate analysis were further analyzed using logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each factor were used to predict the increasing odds of an association of a specific comorbidity and risk factor with the male or female AIS with AF. RESULTS: In the population of AIS patients with AF, a history of drug and alcohol use (OR = 0.250, 95% CI, 0.497-1.006, P = 0.016), sleep apnea (OR = 0.321, 95% CI, 0.133-0.777, P = 0.012), and higher serum creatinine (OR = 0.693, 95% CI, 0.542-0.886 P = 0.003) levels were found to be significantly associated with the male gender. Higher levels of HDL-cholesterol (OR = 1.035, 95% CI, 1.020-1.050, P < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (OR = 1.006, 95% CI, 1.001-1.011, P = 0.012), and the inability to ambulate on admission to hospital (OR = 2.258, 95% CI, 1.368-3.727, P = 0.001) were associated with females. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal that in the AIS patients with atrial fibrillation, migraines, HDL, LDL and poor ambulation were associated with females, while drugs and alcohol, sleep apnea, and serum creatinine level were associated with male AIS patients with AF. Further studies are necessary to determine whether gender differences in risk factor profiles and commodities require consideration in clinical practice when it comes to AF as a risk factor management in AIS patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Maturitas ; 148: 33-39, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: . To compare the metabolic profile of women with spontaneous premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) with that of age-matched healthy controls. STUDY DESIGN: . A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted using 1:1 matching by age. Women below the age of 40 with spontaneous POI who did not receive any medication (n = 303) and age-matched healthy women (n = 303) were included in this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: . Metabolic profiles, including serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine, were compared between women with POI and controls. For women with POI, factors associated with the metabolic profile were analyzed. RESULTS: . Women with POI were more likely to exhibit increased serum levels of TG (ß, 0.155; 95% CI, 0.086, 0.223) and glucose (0.067; 0.052, 0.083), decreased levels of HDL-C (-0.087; -0.123, -0.051), LDL-C (-0.047; -0.091, -0.003) and uric acid (-0.053; -0.090, -0.015), and impaired kidney function (urea [0.070; 0.033, 0.107]; creatinine [0.277; 0.256, 0.299]; eGFR [-0.234; -0.252, -0.216]) compared with controls after adjusting for age and BMI. BMI, parity, gravidity, FSH and E2 levels were independent factors associated with the metabolic profile of women with POI. CONCLUSION: . Women with POI exhibited abnormalities in lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and a decrease in kidney function. In women with POI, early detection and lifelong management of metabolic abnormalities are needed.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Menopausa Precoce/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/patologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(5): 743-752, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975429

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to quantify the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the cardiometabolic health of obese children and adolescents. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Relevant articles were sourced from PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, EBSCO, the Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Randomized controlled trials were included if they employed participants aged 7-19 years. Outcomes included fasting glucose (FG), fasting insulin (FI), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at baseline and postintervention and compared with those in the control group. Data analysis and synthesis were completed by Revman 5.3 software and Stata 12.0 software (StataCorp LLC., College Station, TX, USA). EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Eight trials involving 379 participants were identified. HIIT significantly decreased the FI, HOMA-IR, TC, TG, LDL-c and SBP in participants with obesity. With regard to changes in blood glucose and lipids, participants who underwent HIIT showed great improvement in FI (mean difference: -3.09 µU/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -3.71 to -2.46, P<0.0001), HOMA-IR (mean difference: -0.64, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.46, P<0.0001), TG (mean difference: -0.21 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.10, P<0.0001) and LDL-c (mean difference: -0.35 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.22, P<0.001) than the control group. Similar results were found for SBP (mean difference: -3.61 mmHg, 95% CI -5.85 to -1.37, P=0.002). However, no significant differences in changes in FG, HDL-c and DBP were observed between HIIT and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: HIIT can produce a positive effect on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents. HIIT may be an alternative and effective training method for managing childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Adolescente , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Criança , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
9.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 1074-1082, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the metabolomic profiles of shift workers and day workers and to discover the effect of shift work on workers' metabolic health. METHODS: A total of 824 participants aged 25 to 55 years were recruited, and 485 (275 shift workers and 210 day workers) completed the study. The mean age of the shift workers was 37.32 (5.53) years old, and that of day workers was 36.50 (7.83) years old. Serum and salivary samples were collected for the detection of key biochemical indicators (melatonin, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and for metabolome profile analyses. RESULTS: Compared with female day workers, female shift workers had a higher BMI, waist circumference, and hip circumference. Correspondingly, we identified 76 significant metabolites (false discovery rate < 0.05) in shift workers, including L-tryptophan, acylcarnitines, and several fatty acids. Three pathways that presented significant differences were biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid metabolism, and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with day workers, shift workers were more prone to weight gain and central obesity and were at a higher risk for impaired lipid metabolism with disrupted circadian rhythms.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Melatonina/sangue , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/complicações , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/metabolismo , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 176: 108858, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015391

RESUMO

AIMS: Atherogenic dyslipidemia, associated with small, dense low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (S-LDL) particles and impaired metabolism of triglycerides (TGs) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), leads to the development of atherosclerosis-related complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Based on the hypothesis that an LDL-c-to-apolipoprotein B ratio (LDL/ApoB) < 1.2 may predict the prevalence of S-LDL, this study aimed to evaluate the LDL/ApoB ratio in patients with type 2 diabetes with moderately elevated TG levels. METHODS: The study population consisted of 121 outpatients with type 2 diabetes (S-LDL group, LDL/ApoB < 1.2, n = 79; L-LDL group, LDL/ApoB > 1.2, n = 42) and 58 healthy subjects. The LDL/ApoB ratio was calculated from the measured LDL-c and ApoB levels in participants with TG levels lower than 4.5 mmol/L. Since TGs and HDL-c are included in the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), we evaluated the relationship between LDL/ApoB and the AIP. RESULTS: Higher levels of AIP, TG (both P < 0.0001), and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) (P < 0.001) and lower levels of HDL-c, total cholesterol, and non-HDL-c (P < 0.001, <0.01, <0.05, respectively) were found in the S-LDL group compared to the L-LDL group. There were significant relationships between the LDL/ApoB ratio and the AIP, TG (both P < 0.0001), LOOH (P < 0.0005), and HDL-c levels (P < 0.05) in the S-LDL group. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of S-LDL particles (65%) and the close association of LDL/ApoB with the AIP suggest that this ratio may be a potential indicator of increased cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína B-100/sangue , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Aterosclerose/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Prognóstico , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(6): 1911-1915, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In epidemiological trials and in clinical practices, it is relevant to have affordable and reliable methods to measure the main lipid cardiovascular risk factors, and in particular low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) plasma level. In this context, we aimed to compare the reliability of the Friedewald's (LDL-Cf) and Sampson's (LDL-Cs) equations with the LDL-value dosed by a validated dosage method (LDL-Cd) in a large cohort of children. METHODS AND RESULTS: We considered the lipid values of 145 infants, 278 preschoolers, 810 scholar children, and 1372 adolescents (Total N. 2605, 1291 males, 1314 females), with mean total cholesterol (TC) = 169.8 ± 39.7 mg/dL, HDL-Cholesterol = 50.8 ± 12.7 mg/dL, non HDL-Cholesterol = 118.9 ± 35.9 mg/dL, Triglycerides (TG) = 90.3 ± 77.9 mg/dL, LDL-Cd = 106.2 ± 29.9 mg/dL, LDL-Cf = 100.9 ± 33.8 mg/dL, and LDL-Cs = 102.2 ± 33.4 mg/dL. Comparing the distance to the LDL-Cd, Friedewald's equation mildly but significantly underestimated in infants (3.4 ± 5.3 mg/dL), preschoolers (1.5 ± 7.1 mg/dL). Children (1.2 ± 2.2 mg/dL) and adolescents (1.1 ± 5.9 mg/dL) compared to Sampson's equation (all comparisons, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis, being carried out on a large population sample, shows that Sampson's equation is more reliable than Friedewald's one at each considered age class and even for extreme TG values.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Modelos Biológicos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Triglicerídeos/sangue
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(6): 1756-1766, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Phytosterol (PS) consumption is associated with lower total and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations, but its impact on cardiovascular risk is unclear. This study assessed the effect of usual intake of PS on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). METHODS AND RESULTS: This cross-sectional study included 2560 participants of ELSA-Brasil, aged 48 (43-54) years, with available food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), at baseline. Several logistic and linear regression models were used, and significance level was set at a P < 0.05. Mean values (SD) for PS consumption were 256 (198) mg/day, CAC 22.78 (110.54) Agatston Units, cf-PWV 9.07 (1.60) m/s and cIMT 0.57 (0.12) mm. PS consumption in Q4 was associated with lower total- and LDL-c levels, and with higher percentiles of cf-PWV (P < 0.001). Proportion of subjects in Q4 of PS consumption was 1.5 times higher among individuals in cf-PWV Q4, than in Q1 (P = 0.002, for comparisons among quartiles). There was a trend (P = 0.003) for higher cf-PWV with higher PS intake. In crude logistic and linear regressions, PS intake was associated with cf-PWV. In the adjusted models, these associations disappeared. No associations were found between PS and cIMT or CAC. CONCLUSIONS: In this large and apparently healthy cross-sectional sample from ELSA-Brasil, usual PS consumption was associated with lower total- and LDL-cholesterol, but not with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Dieta , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/prevenção & controle , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Velocidade da Onda de Pulso Carótido-Femoral , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitosteróis/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/prevenção & controle , Rigidez Vascular
13.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 35, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being a major cardiovascular risk factor, dyslipidemia is a critical problem in public health. Recommendations in performing regular physical exercise are important to prevent dyslipidemia. METHODS: Based on a discovery cohort with 27,735 subjects and a replication cohort with 67,512 subjects, we evaluated the associations of regularly performing 23 exercises with 4 dyslipidemia indices measured from serum, including triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and TG/HDL-C ratio. Regular exercise was defined as performing 30 min of "exercise" three times a week. "Exercise" includes leisure-time activities such as jogging, swimming, etc. Sex, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and education level were adjusted in all statistical analyses. RESULTS: Among the 23 exercises, only jogging was associated with a decreased level of TG (95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 5.9-14.5 mg/dL) and TG/HDL-C ratio (95% C.I. = 0.22-0.49). A total of 5 exercises were associated with an increased level of HDL-C, including jogging (95% C.I. = 2.1-3.3 mg/dL), swimming (95% C.I. = 1.6-3.3 mg/dL), dance dance revolution (95% C.I. = 1.5-3.4 mg/dL), international standard dancing (95% C.I. = 1.0-2.7 mg/dL), and cycling (95% C.I. = 0.6-1.8 mg/dL). These significant findings were further well replicated in the cohort of 67,512 subjects. CONCLUSION: Regular jogging was not only associated with an increased level of HDL-C, but also the only one exercise associated with a decreased level of TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. Nonetheless, jogging may be difficult to engage in for subjects with limited exercise capacity. We here found that swimming, dancing, and cycling are also significantly associated with an increased level of HDL-C. People who are seeking exercise to improve their lipoprotein-lipid profiles can have other choices now.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Dança/fisiologia , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Corrida Moderada/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Natação/fisiologia
14.
Phytother Res ; 35(6): 3145-3156, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880813

RESUMO

Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is the richest green leafy vegetable source of omega-3, especially alpha linolenic acid (ALA). Experimental studies have shown beneficial effects of purslane extract on liver enzymes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of purslane hydroalcohoic extract in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial, 74 patients were randomly assigned to receive either 300 mg purslane extract or placebo capsules for 12 weeks. Compared with baseline, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (-9 [-17, 0.50] mg/dl; p = .007), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (-4 [-10, -0.50] mg/dl; p = .001), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) (-6.21 ± 9.85 mg/dL; p < .001), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (-8 [-11, -1.50] mg/dl; p < .001) insulin resistance (-0.95 ± 2.23; p = .020), triglyceride (-20 [-67.50, 3.50] mg/dl; p = .010), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (-5 [-12, -1] mg/dl; p < .001) decreased significantly in the purslane group. At the end of study, no significant changes were observed in liver steatosis grade, insulin, liver enzymes, total bilirubin, lipid profile, and blood pressure between the two groups. The findings of our study show that purslane extract at the dose of 300 mg/day for 12 weeks has no significant effects on liver enzymes, lipid profile, and glycemic indices in patients with NAFLD.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Portulaca/química , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
15.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements have been proposed to help manage blood cholesterol, including red yeast rice (RYR) extracts, plant sterols and stanols, beta-glucans, and some probiotics. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of RYR (containing 10 mg of monacolin K) combined with 109 CFU of three Lactoplantibacillus plantarum strains (CECT7527, CECT7528, and CECT7529). METHODS: A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. In total, 39 adult patients were enrolled, having total cholesterol (TC) ≥200 mg/dL, and being statin-naïve or having recently stopped statin treatment because of intolerance. Active product or placebo were taken once daily, and subjects were evaluated at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. RESULTS: Study groups were comparable at baseline, except for history of recent hypercholesterolemia treatment (81% in active vs. 22% in placebo). Changes in LDL cholesterol and TC became significant compared to placebo (mean difference between groups and standard error of the mean = 23.6 ± 1.5 mg/dL, p = 0.023 and 31.4 ± 1.9 mg/dL, p = 0.011, respectively) upon adjusting for the baseline imbalance in hypercholesterolemia treatment. No adverse effects were noted during the study. CONCLUSION: This combination of 10 mg of monacolin K and L. plantarum strains was well tolerated and achieved a statistically significant greater reduction in LDL-C and TC in the intervention group compared to the placebo, once adjusting for recent history of hypercholesterolemia treatment.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Lactobacillaceae , Lovastatina/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801247

RESUMO

Ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are popular among young, healthy, normal-weight individuals for various reasons. We aimed to investigate the effect of a ketogenic LCHF diet on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (primary outcome), LDL cholesterol subfractions and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in the blood of healthy, young, and normal-weight women. The study was a randomized, controlled, feeding trial with crossover design. Twenty-four women were assigned to a 4 week ketogenic LCHF diet (4% carbohydrates; 77% fat; 19% protein) followed by a 4 week National Food Agency recommended control diet (44% carbohydrates; 33% fat; 19% protein), or the reverse sequence due to the crossover design. Treatment periods were separated by a 15 week washout period. Seventeen women completed the study and treatment effects were evaluated using mixed models. The LCHF diet increased LDL cholesterol in every woman with a treatment effect of 1.82 mM (p < 0.001). In addition, Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB), small, dense LDL cholesterol as well as large, buoyant LDL cholesterol increased (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively). The data suggest that feeding healthy, young, normal-weight women a ketogenic LCHF diet induces a deleterious blood lipid profile. The elevated LDL cholesterol should be a cause for concern in young, healthy, normal-weight women following this kind of LCHF diet.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas , Fatores de Risco , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806985

RESUMO

Diet shapes the gut microbiota which impacts hepatic lipid metabolism. Modifications in liver fat content are associated with metabolic disorders. We investigated the extent of dietary fat and fiber-induced alterations in the composition of gut microbiota and hepatic fatty acids (FAs). Mice were fed a purified low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing non-soluble fiber cellulose or soluble fiber inulin. HFD induced hepatic decreases in the amounts of C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-7 and increases in the amounts of C17:0, C20:0, C16:1n-9, C22:5n-3, C20:2n-6, C20:3n-6, and C22:4n-6. When incorporated in a LFD, inulin poorly affected the profile of FAs. However, when incorporated in a HFD, it (i) specifically led to an increase in the amounts of hepatic C18:0, C22:0, total polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), total n-6 PUFAs, C18:3n-3, and C18:2n-6, (ii) exacerbated the HFD-induced increase in the amount of C17:0, and (iii) prevented the HFD-induced increases in C16:1n-9 and C20:3n-6. Importantly, the expression/activity of some elongases and desaturases, as well as the gut microbiota composition, were impacted by the dietary fat and fiber content. To conclude, inulin modulated gut microbiota and hepatic fatty acid composition, and further investigations will determine whether a causal relationship exists between these two parameters.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 67-75, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914702

RESUMO

Objective: Female childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at risk of several late effects, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). The objective is to study if POI is associated with risk of MetS and increased cardiovascular risk in CSS. Design: A cross-sectional study with a median time since the cancer diagnosis of 25 (12-41) years. Patients and controls were recruited from the South Medical Region of Sweden. Methods: The study included 167 female CCS, median age 34 (19-57) years, diagnosed with childhood cancer at median age 8.4 (0.1-17.9) years together with 164 controls, matched for age, sex, ethnicity, residence, and smoking habits. All subjects were examined with fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and lipid profile. Fat mass was calculated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and questionnaires for medication were obtained. Detailed information of cancer treatment was available. Results: POI was present in 13% (22/167) among CCS (hypothalamic/pituitary cause excluded) and in none among controls. MetS was present in 14% (24/167) among all CCS (P = 0.001), in 23% (5/22) of those with POI (P < 0.001), compared with 4% (6/164) among controls. OR for MetS in all CCS compared with controls was 4.4 (95% CI: 1.8, 11.1) (P = 0.002) and among CCS with POI the OR was 7.7 (CI: 2.1, 28.1) (P = 0.002). Conclusion: The prevalence of MetS was higher in females treated for childhood cancer compared with controls, and the presence of POI significantly increased the risk of developing MetS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/epidemiologia , Radioterapia/métodos , Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801152

RESUMO

The aim of this meta-analysis was to review the impact of a Paleolithic diet (PD) on selected health indicators (body composition, lipid profile, blood pressure, and carbohydrate metabolism) in the short and long term of nutrition intervention in healthy and unhealthy adults. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of 21 full-text original human studies was conducted. Both the PD and a variety of healthy diets (control diets (CDs)) caused reduction in anthropometric parameters, both in the short and long term. For many indicators, such as weight (body mass (BM)), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), impact was stronger and especially found in the short term. All diets caused a decrease in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), albeit the impact of PD was stronger. Among long-term studies, only PD cased a decline in TC and LDL-C. Impact on blood pressure was observed mainly in the short term. PD caused a decrease in fasting plasma (fP) glucose, fP insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the short run, contrary to CD. In the long term, only PD caused a decrease in fP glucose and fP insulin. Lower positive impact of PD on performance was observed in the group without exercise. Positive effects of the PD on health and the lack of experiments among professional athletes require longer-term interventions to determine the effect of the Paleo diet on athletic performance.


Assuntos
Atletas , Dieta Paleolítica , Nível de Saúde , Adulto , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922576

RESUMO

Background and aims: Dietary berries, such as strawberries, are rich in bioactive compounds and have been shown to lower cardiometabolic risk. We examined the effects of two dietary achievable doses of strawberries on glycemic control and lipid profiles in obese adults with elevated serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Methods: In this 14-week randomized controlled crossover study, participants were assigned to one of the three arms for four weeks separated by a one-week washout period: control powder, one serving (low dose: 13 g strawberry powder/day), or two-and-a -half servings (high dose: 32 g strawberry powder/day). Participants were instructed to follow their usual diet and lifestyle while refraining from consuming other berries and related products throughout the study interval. Blood samples, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and dietary and physical activity data were collected at baseline and at the end of each four-week phase of intervention. Results: In total, 33 participants completed all three phases of the trial [(mean ± SD): Age: 53 ± 13 y; BMI: 33 ± 3.0 kg/m2). Findings revealed significant reductions in fasting insulin (p = 0.0002) and homeostatic model of assessment of insulin resistance (p = 0.0003) following the high dose strawberry phase when compared to the low dose strawberry and control phases. Glucose and conventional lipid profiles did not differ among the phases. Nuclear magnetic resonance-determined particle concentrations of total VLDL and chylomicrons, small VLDL, and total and small LDL were significantly decreased after the high dose strawberry phase, compared to control and low dose phases (all p < 0.0001). Among the biomarkers of inflammation and adipokines measured, only serum PAI-1 showed a decrease after the high dose strawberry phase (p = 0.002). Conclusions: These data suggest that consuming strawberries at two-and-a-half servings for four weeks significantly improves insulin resistance, lipid particle profiles, and serum PAI-1 in obese adults with elevated serum LDL-C.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta , Fragaria/química , Obesidade/sangue , Adipocinas/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
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