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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141635, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882497

RESUMO

It is well known that the indoor environment, particularly indoor air quality (IAQ), has significant effects on building-related symptoms (BRSs) in humans, such as irritation of mucosal membranes, headaches, and allergies, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. In 2017, Chiba University launched the "Chemiless Town Project Phase 3" to investigate the relationship between IAQ and human health. Two laboratory houses (LHs) were built on a university campus in which the interiors and exteriors were similar, but the levels of indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were different. A total of 141 participants evaluated IAQ using their sensory perception. There was a significant relationship between differences in VOC levels and BRSs occurrence (OR: 6.89, 95% CI: 1.40-33.98). It was suggested that people with a medical history of allergies (OR: 5.73, 95% CI: 1.12-29.32) and those with a high sensitivity to chemicals (OR: 8.82, 95% CI: 1.16-67.16) tended to experience BRSs. Thus, when buildings are constructed, people with a history of allergies or with a sensitivity to chemicals may be at high risk to BRSs, and it is important to pay attention to IAQ to prevent BRSs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , Laboratórios , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 809, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an emerging global health threat. Surveillance of AMR in N. gonorrhoeae in the Western Pacific Region is important, as resistant strains have typically emerged from this region. There are sparse data regarding antibiotic susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae from Vietnam. This study aimed to provide updated data on antibiotic susceptibilities in N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: From 2017 to 2019, 409 N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates were collected at the National Hospital for Venereology and Dermatology in Hanoi, Vietnam. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocol. The zone diameters of inhibition were recorded and interpreted according to standard CLSI criteria, except for azithromycin, due to the absence of CLSI interpretation. Categorical variables were analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Linear regression was used to evaluate zones of inhibition by year. RESULTS: Among the 409 isolates, no isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 98.3% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. There were 122/407 (30.0%) isolates resistant to azithromycin and there was an association between resistance and year (p <  0.01), ranging from 15.3% of isolates in 2017 to 46.7% of the isolates in 2018. Resistance to cefixime was found in 13/406 (3.2%) of isolates and there was no association by year (p = 0.30). Resistance to ceftriaxone occurred in 3/408 (0.7%) of isolates. Linear regression indicated the zone of inhibition diameters decreased by 0.83 mm each year for ceftriaxone (95% CI: - 1.3, - 0.4; p <  0.01) and decreased by 0.83 mm each year (95% CI: - 1.33, - 0.33; p <  0.01) for azithromycin; the association was not significant for cefixime (p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: We found decreasing susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone and azithromycin, as well as a high prevalence of resistance to azithromycin, among isolates in Hanoi, Vietnam from 2017 to 2019. The trends of decreasing susceptibility to first-line treatments are concerning and highlight the urgency of addressing antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae. Expanded surveillance efforts within the Western Pacific Region are critical to monitoring trends and informing treatment guidelines.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 819, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Finland, the routine surveillance of Lyme borreliosis (LB) is laboratory-based. In addition, we have well established national health care registers where countrywide data from patient visits in public health care units are collected. In our previous study based on these registers, we reported an increasing incidence of both microbiologically confirmed and clinically diagnosed LB cases in Finland during the past years. Here, we evaluated our register data, refined LB incidence estimates provided in our previous study, and evaluated treatment practices considering LB in the primary health care. METHODS: Three national health care registers were used. The Register for Primary Health Care Visits (Avohilmo) and the National Hospital Discharge Register (Hilmo) collect physician-recorded data from the outpatient and inpatient health care visits, respectively, whereas the National Infectious Diseases Register (NIDR) represents positive findings in LB diagnostics notified electronically by microbiological laboratories. We used a personal identification number in register-linkage to identify LB cases on an individual level in the study year 2014. In addition, antibiotic purchase data was retrieved from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution in order to evaluate the LB treatment practices in the primary health care in Finland. RESULTS: Avohilmo was found to be useful in monitoring clinically diagnosed LB (i.e. erythema migrans (EM) infections), whereas Hilmo did not add much value next to existing laboratory-based surveillance of disseminated LB. However, Hilmo gave valuable information about uncertainties related to physician-based surveillance of disseminated LB and the total annual number of EM infections in our country. Antibiotic purchases associated with the LB-related outpatient visits in the primary health care indicated a good compliance with the recommended treatment guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Avohilmo and laboratory-based NIDR together are useful in monitoring LB incidence in Finland. A good compliance was observed with the recommended treatment guidelines of clinically diagnosed LB in the primary health care. In 2018, Avohilmo was introduced in the routine surveillance of LB in Finland next to laboratory-based surveillance of disseminated LB.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Eritema Migrans Crônico/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Eritema Migrans Crônico/tratamento farmacológico , Eritema Migrans Crônico/microbiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laboratórios , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Alta do Paciente , Médicos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Lab Med ; 51(6): 553, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135741
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1635-1640, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151917

RESUMO

Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness and might be at risk for preterm birth (1-3). The full impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in pregnancy is unknown. Public health jurisdictions report information, including pregnancy status, on confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.* Through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET), 16 jurisdictions collected supplementary information on pregnancy and infant outcomes among 5,252 women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported during March 29-October 14, 2020. Among 3,912 live births with known gestational age, 12.9% were preterm (<37 weeks), higher than the reported 10.2% among the general U.S. population in 2019 (4). Among 610 infants (21.3%) with reported SARS-CoV-2 test results, perinatal infection was infrequent (2.6%) and occurred primarily among infants whose mother had SARS-CoV-2 infection identified within 1 week of delivery. Because the majority of pregnant women with COVID-19 reported thus far experienced infection in the third trimester, ongoing surveillance is needed to assess effects of infections in early pregnancy, as well the longer-term outcomes of exposed infants. These findings can inform neonatal testing recommendations, clinical practice, and public health action and can be used by health care providers to counsel pregnant women on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including preterm births. Pregnant women and their household members should follow recommended infection prevention measures, including wearing a mask, social distancing, and frequent handwashing when going out or interacting with others or if there is a person within the household who has had exposure to COVID-19.†.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1654-1659, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151922

RESUMO

On June 3, 2020, a woman aged 73 years (patient A) with symptoms consistent with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1) was evaluated at the emergency department of the Hopi Health Care Center (HHCC, an Indian Health Services facility) and received a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The patient's symptoms commenced on May 27, and a sibling (patient B) of the patient experienced symptom onset the following day. On May 23, both patients had driven together and spent time in a retail store in Flagstaff, Arizona. Because of their similar exposures, symptom onset dates, and overlapping close contacts, these patients are referred to as co-index patients. The co-index patients had a total of 58 primary (i.e., direct) and secondary contacts (i.e., contacts of a primary contact); among these, 27 (47%) received positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. Four (15%) of the 27 contacts who became ill were household members of co-index patient B, 14 (52%) had attended family gatherings, one was a child who might have transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to six contacts, and eight (30%) were community members. Findings from the outbreak investigation prompted the HHCC and Hopi Tribe leadership to strengthen community education through community health representatives, public health nurses, and radio campaigns. In communities with similar extended family interaction, emphasizing safe ways to stay in touch, along with wearing a mask, frequent hand washing, and physical distancing might help limit the spread of disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Arizona/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1641-1647, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151921

RESUMO

Studies suggest that pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe illness associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1,2). This report provides updated information about symptomatic women of reproductive age (15-44 years) with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. During January 22-October 3, CDC received reports through national COVID-19 case surveillance or through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) of 1,300,938 women aged 15-44 years with laboratory results indicative of acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Data on pregnancy status were available for 461,825 (35.5%) women with laboratory-confirmed infection, 409,462 (88.7%) of whom were symptomatic. Among symptomatic women, 23,434 (5.7%) were reported to be pregnant. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions, pregnant women were significantly more likely than were nonpregnant women to be admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) (10.5 versus 3.9 per 1,000 cases; adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6-3.4), receive invasive ventilation (2.9 versus 1.1 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 2.9; 95% CI = 2.2-3.8), receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (0.7 versus 0.3 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.5-4.0), and die (1.5 versus 1.2 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.4). Stratifying these analyses by age and race/ethnicity highlighted disparities in risk by subgroup. Although the absolute risks for severe outcomes for women were low, pregnant women were at increased risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness. To reduce the risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19, pregnant women should be counseled about the importance of seeking prompt medical care if they have symptoms and measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection should be strongly emphasized for pregnant women and their families during all medical encounters, including prenatal care visits. Understanding COVID-19-associated risks among pregnant women is important for prevention counseling and clinical care and treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adolescente , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 2): 2073-2075, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To analyze the implementation of international standards ISO series, which ensures the creation of uniformity of measurements, the ability to use the results of laboratory studies to ensure their reliability and reproducibility. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The samples were taken from the ISO documents, the Regulation and the Quality Decree of clinical diagnostic laboratory (2017) that is the object of the research activities of the clinical diagnostic laboratory "City clinical hospital № 2 named after Prof. A. A. Shalimov". CONCLUSION: Сonclusions: The introduction of international standards of the ISO series into the domestic laboratory practice ensures the creation of a single medical space, the uniformity of measurements, the possibility of using the results of laboratory studies with an increase in their reliability and reproducibility.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1509-1513, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076608

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the detection capacities of the laboratories in medical institutions in national sexually transmitted disease (STD) surveillance areas in China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the applications of STD tests in laboratories of the medical institutions in 105 STD surveillance areas in China, the proportion of each STD test application was calculated and the differences among medical institutions were compared. Results: In 752 medical institutions, the proportions of Treponema pallidum serological test and non-Treponema pallidum serological test applications were 97.5% (733/752) and 91.4% (687/752), respectively. The proportions of gonococcal culture and Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid test applications were 48.4% (364/752) and 23.4% (176/752), respectively. The application proportions of all tests for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) were less than 40%. In medical institutions at provincial, prefectural and county levels, the application proportions of serological tests of Treponema and non-Treponema were all more than 90%, and the application proportions of gonococcal culture were 66.9% (83/124), 46.9% (197/420) and 47.4% (82/173) respectively, the application proportions of Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid test were 29.0% (36/124), 25.0% (105/420) and 19.7% (34/173) respectively. The application proportions of syphilis and gonorrhea tests and chlamydia nucleic acid test in public medical institutions were higher than those in private/joint venture medical institutions and higher in dermatological specialized hospitals than those in general hospitals and maternal and child health centers. The application proportions of STD tests in medical institutions in eastern China and central southern China were generally higher than those in other areas, and the lowest was found in northwestern China. Conclusions: Serological tests for syphilis have been carried out widely in medical institutions in all STD surveillance areas in China, but there were insufficient use of tests for gonococcal culture and Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid. The application proportions of STD tests vary in medical institutions at different levels and with different types and ownerships, and the development of STD testing is unbalanced in different areas. It is necessary to strengthen the capacity building of gonococcal culture and Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid test, and strengthen the capacity building of STD testing in grassroots, private/joint venture medical institutions and those in underdeveloped western areas.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Vigilância da População , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
14.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 471-480, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046928

RESUMO

Enteric pathogens, such as non-typhoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, can reside in the intestinal tract of many animals, including livestock, companion animals, small mammals and reptiles. Often, these animals can appear healthy; nonetheless, humans can become infected after direct or indirect contact, resulting in a substantial illness burden. An estimated 14% of the 3.2 million illnesses that occur in the United States of America (USA) each year from such enteric pathogens are attributable to animal contact. Surveillance for enteric pathogens in the USA includes the compilation and interpretation of both laboratory and epidemiologic data. However, the authors feel that a collaborative, multisectoral and transdisciplinary - or One Health - approach is needed for data collection and analysis, at every level. In addition, they suggest that the future of enteric illness surveillance lies in the development of improved technologies for pathogen detection and characterisation, such as genomic sequencing and metagenomics. In particular, using whole-genome sequencing to compare genetic sequences of enteric pathogens from humans, food, animals and the environment, can help to predict antimicrobial resistance among these pathogens, determine their genetic relatedness and identify outbreaks linked to a common source. In this paper, the authors describe three recent, multi-state human enteric illness outbreaks linked to animal contact in the USA and discuss how integrated disease surveillance was essential to outbreak detection and response. Additional datasharing between public health and animal health laboratories and epidemiologists at the local, national, regional and international level may help to improve surveillance for emerging animal and human health threats and lead to new opportunities for prevention.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Saúde Única , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Humanos , Laboratórios , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária
15.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 393-398, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046936

RESUMO

This paper outlines the role of laboratories in animal-health-related disasters and emergencies, with a particular focus on biological threats - intentional, accidental and natural. Whilst multisectoral coordination is increasingly recognised as necessary for effective preparedness and response to all kinds of disasters, the role of the laboratory is often overlooked. The laboratories' involvement, not just in the response, but across all phases of disaster management - mitigation, planning, response and recovery - is essential, not only for improved animal health but for preservation of livelihoods and for food security, social cohesion and economic stability.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais , Emergências/veterinária , Laboratórios
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8397053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029526

RESUMO

Introduction: The Portuguese healthcare system had to adapt at short notice to the COVID-19 pandemic. We implemented workflow changes to our molecular pathology laboratory, a national reference center, to maximize safety and productivity. We assess the impact this situation had on our caseload and what conclusions can be drawn about the wider impact of the pandemic in oncological therapy in Portugal. Material and Methods. We reviewed our database for all oncological molecular tests requested between March and April of 2019 and 2020. For each case, we recorded age, sex, region of the country, requesting institution, sample type, testing method, and turnaround time (TAT). A comparison between years was made. Results: The total number of tests decreased from 421 in 2019 to 319 in 2020 (p = 0.0027). The greatest reduction was in clinical trial-related cases. Routine cases were similar between years (267 vs. 256). TAT was higher in 2019 (mean 15 days vs. 12.3 days; p = 0.0003). Medium- to large-sized public hospitals in the north of the country were mostly responsible for the reduction in cases (p = 0.0153). Conclusions: Case reduction was observed at hospitals that have mostly been involved in the treatment of COVID-19 and in the north of the country, the region worst-hit by the pandemic. Similar to other studies, our TAT decreased, even with a similar number of routine cases. Thus, we conclude that it is possible to successfully adapt the workflow of a molecular pathology laboratory to new safety standards without losing efficiency.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oncologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Patologia Molecular , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Laboratórios , Pessoal de Laboratório , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , Fluxo de Trabalho
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1642-1648, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876004

RESUMO

False-negative rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) results could mislead physicians to exclude an influenza diagnosis. We sought to evaluate the association between negative RIDT and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We reviewed data from hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infections in a tertiary referral hospital in Taiwan from July 2009 to February 2011. The diagnosis was documented by real-time PCR or virus culture. Of 134 hospitalized adults infected with influenza virus, 38 (28%) were admitted to the ICU. Compared with RIDT-positive patients, the percentage of ICU admission was significantly higher among RIDT-negative patients (46% versus 13%, P < 0.001). The RIDT-negative patients had higher percentages of lower respiratory symptoms and more chest radiograph infiltrates. The time interval between the RIDT and antiviral treatment was longer in RIDT-negative than RIDT-positive patients (1.94 days versus 0.03 days, P < 0.001). Among patients presenting with mild illness, only a negative RIDT and delayed antiviral treatment were associated with ICU admission after adjusting for potential confounding factors. To conclude, patients with a negative RIDT were more likely to have severe disease and a delay in initiating antiviral treatment. Our findings should help improve treatment outcomes of hospitalized patients with influenza infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867336

RESUMO

With the rapid development of the construction industry, an increasing amount of attention were paid by universities to the development of civil engineering experiment courses so as to improve the practical research abilities of students. In recent years, due to the frequent occurrence of civil engineering laboratory accidents, it has become an urgent issue regarding on what factors influencing safety risks and how to assess and reduce the safety risks in civil engineering laboratories. Based on the lab criticity index (LCI) model, the research specificities of civil engineering laboratories were analyzed through literature review and expert interviews and 13 risk factors of civil engineering laboratories, from the four aspects of man, object, management, and environment, identified. The data for each parameter in the LCI model was obtained through a questionnaire survey, and finally the LCI value was calculated to evaluate priority. Among them, insufficient safety awareness of operators, danger due to equipment failure, imperfect management policies, and complex floor conditions were listed as the most common risk factors. Based on the LCI model, the worsening factors of these four risk factors were further analyzed. The LCI model is applied to the new research field of safety risk assessment in civil engineering laboratories that few researchers have studied before and a risk list for civil engineering laboratories was created. We revealed the safety status of civil engineering laboratories in Jiangsu Province and provided feasible suggestions for improving the management and supervision of civil engineering laboratories at universities. It can strengthen operator awareness of the risks in civil engineering laboratories and improve the social group's attention to the safety risks of the laboratories, thus reducing the accidents' possibility and seriousness of civil engineering laboratories.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Laboratórios , Medição de Risco , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Universidades
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pakistan is among top five high burden countries for tuberculosis and drug resistant TB. Among rifampicin sensitive new pulmonary TB (PTB), prevalence of isoniazid resistance is 8.3% (95%CI: 7.0-10.7) and resistance to fluoroquinolone is higher (11·1%, 95%CI: 7·8-14·3) than isoniazid resistance. METHOD: Five year retrospective data (2015-2019) of drug susceptibility testing (DST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, performed using recommended phenotypic (pDST) and/or genotypic (gDST) methods was analyzed stratified by rifampicin results for isoniazid resistance profiles and associated levofloxacin and pyrazinamide resistance. FINDINGS: DST data was analyzed from 11045 TB patients. Isolates were tested using pDST (87%), gDST (92%) and both methods (79.5%). For both rifampicin and isoniazid, a significant difference (P < .001) was noted between resistance detected by pDST and gDST. Among isolates, tested by both methods (8787), 49% were resistant to rifampicin and 51.7% to isoniazid with discordance in resistant results of 15.8% for each, with 13.2% (570) of rifampicin resistance reported sensitive by pDST and 14.2% (660) of isoniazid resistance missed by gDST. Estimated isoniazid resistance among rifampicin sensitive new PTB, extrapulmonary TB and previously treated PTB was 9.8% (95%CI: 8.7-11.1), 6.8% (95%CI: 5.4-8.5) and 14.6% (95%CI: 11.8-17.9) respectively. Significant differences were reported between the genotypic profile of isoniazid resistance associated with rifampicin-resistant and sensitive isolates including detectable mutations (87% vs 71.6%), frequency of inhA (7.6% and 30.2%) and katG mutations (76.1% vs 41.2%) respectively. Among rifampicin resistant and sensitive isolates, a significantly higher level of resistance to levofloxacin and pyrazinamide was seen associated with isoniazid resistance. CONCLUSION: There are risks and many challenges in implementing WHO recommended treatment for isoniazid resistant tuberculosis. The laboratory based surveillance can complement random surveys in country specific planning for TB diagnostics and appropriate treatment regimens.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Levofloxacino/farmacologia , Pirazinamida/farmacologia , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Laboratórios , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986725

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arboviral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but can also cause illness in humans. The increasing impact of RVF in Africa and Middle East and the risk of expansion to other areas such as Europe, where competent mosquitos are already established, require the implementation of efficient surveillance programs in animal populations. For that, it is pivotal to regularly assess the performance of existing diagnostic tests and to evaluate the capacity of veterinary labs of endemic and non-endemic countries to detect the infection in an accurate and timely manner. In this context, the animal virology network of the MediLabSecure project organized between October 2016 and March 2017 an external quality assessment (EQA) to evaluate the RVF diagnostic capacities of beneficiary veterinary labs. This EQA was conceived as the last step of a training curriculum that included 2 diagnostic workshops that were organized by INIA-CISA (Spain) in 2015 and 2016. Seventeen veterinary diagnostic labs from 17 countries in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions participated in this EQA. The exercise consisted of two panels of samples for molecular and serological detection of the virus. The laboratories were also provided with positive controls and all the kits and reagents necessary to perform the recommended diagnostic techniques. All the labs were able to apply the different protocols and to provide the results on time. The performance was good in the molecular panel with 70.6% of participants reporting 100% correct results, and excellent in the serological panel with 100% correct results reported by 94.1% of the labs. This EQA provided a good overview of the RVFV diagnostic capacities of the involved labs and demonstrated that most of them were able to correctly identify the virus genome and antibodies in different animal samples.


Assuntos
Febre do Vale de Rift/diagnóstico , Animais , Mar Negro , Culicidae , Europa (Continente) , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Laboratórios , Mar Mediterrâneo , Febre do Vale de Rift/virologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/genética , Ruminantes
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