Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 43.147
Filtrar
1.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e254111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495171

RESUMO

This article presents the results of the level of feeding and the health status of dairy cows in a commercial dairy farm on the content of the main components in milk (fat, protein, urea). The aim of the research was to study the milk productivity and composition of milk of cows, to analyze the level of feeding and the content of basic nutrients in the diet of the farm. The farm breeds purebred Holstein cattle with a high genetic potential for productivity. The milking herd was formed in 2009 on the basis of 600 heads of Holstein-Friesian heifers imported from Hungary, as well as 65 heads of Holsteinized heifers of Ukrainian selection from Ukraine in 2015. Today the livestock numbers about 1,500 head of cattle, of which there are about 900 breeders. On the territory of the farm there are: 3 cowsheds for keeping cows, an insemination room, a milking parlor with a parallel installation of the Delaval company, in which 48 cows are milked for one milking, the ABK, where the manager's office, livestock technician, accounting is located, and a mini-hotel with dining room and lounges. Dairy bases are equipped with auto-drinkers, ventilation, plumbing, electric lighting, manure removal mechanisms, and a milking installation. The object of the research was Holstein cows in the amount of 483 heads of Aina Dairy Farm LLP. The studies were carried out according to generally accepted zootechnical methods using modern equipment for conducting analyzes and interstate and state standards. The research results showed that the milk productivity of cows averaged 19.5 kg per day, the fat content 4.3%, the protein 3.9%, the number of somatic cells 230.5 thousand units / ml, urea 45.3 mg / 100 ml respectively. Analyzing the level of urea in milk can suggest a high crude protein content in the diet. The ration of feeding dairy cows on the farm is concentrate-silage-haylage and there is an excess of dry matter by 16.2%, crude protein by 9.8%, starch by 29.4%, respectively.


Assuntos
Lactação , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Fazendas , Feminino
3.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495081

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus disease 2019 has had a wide range of effects on human health. This paper summarizes the data related to the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on human reproduction. Both the male and female reproductive tract express high levels of receptors and proteins needed for viral cell entry. There is presently no evidence that gametes are affected by the infection. Male fertility may be temporarily reduced due to inflammatory responses following infection. The endometrium is highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 cell entry; however, it remains unclear whether this could alter receptivity and embryo implantation. Menstrual cycle changes were reported in women who experienced severe infection; however, they tended to be reversible. For couples undergoing assisted reproduction treatment, the pandemic led to a significant psychological burden, with changes in lifestyle that could directly affect the success of the treatment. Human reproduction societies recommend screening all patients prior to cycle initiation and avoiding treatment of women with severe comorbidities until the pandemic is under control. Finally, for pregnant women, it is expected that the infection is more severe in women in the third trimester and in those with comorbidities. Those who are symptomatic for SARS-CoV-2 are more likely to have increased rates of prematurity and intrapartum fetal distress than those who are asymptomatic. Vertical transmission cannot be completely ruled out, but neonatal infection rates are low. Vaccination appears to be safe and is indicated for use in pregnant and lactating women because the benefits outweigh the risks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Reprodução , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Neurol India ; 69(4): 997-1001, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507428

RESUMO

Borrelia burgdorferi can affect the nervous system in various ways, which can generate significant confusion and dilemma regarding diagnosis. From India, a country until recently known to be a nonendemic zone for Lyme disease, several cases and one study of Lyme neuroborreliosis have been published. The aim of this study was to describe a young woman with bilateral facial nerve palsy as the presenting manifestation of Lyme neuroborreliosis. We herein report a case of a lactating woman with acute onset progressive ascending flaccid tetraparesis that was preceded by a misdiagnosed bilateral facial nerve palsy. She was finally diagnosed to be a case of acute Lyme neuroborreliosis, which responded favorably to intravenous and orally administered antibiotics. The possibility of Lyme neuroborreliosis should be considered more often from now on because in the last year four cases with the kindred clinical syndrome have been described from a so-called "nonendemic zone."


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial , Neuroborreliose de Lyme , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Nervo Facial , Paralisia Facial/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/complicações , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/diagnóstico , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 452, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535849

RESUMO

Forage allowance impacts dry matter (DM) intake and the use of nutrients by ruminants. The efficient use of protein and energy from pasture is related to better livestock performance and lower environmental impacts. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of forage allowance levels on intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and methane (CH4) emissions by lambs fed fresh pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke]. An indoor trial was performed using lambs in a completely randomized design with four treatments [forage allowance at 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg DM/100 kg of live weight (LW), and ad libitum allowing 20% of refusals] and four replicates (lambs). Forage intake, digestibility, total urine and feces excretion, and CH4 emission were measured to calculate N and energy balances. An increase in forage allowance resulted in a linear increase in lamb forage intake, N retention, and metabolizable energy intake. Moreover, lamb CH4 emission (g/day) also increased with greater forage allowance, while CH4 yield decreased linearly as forage allowance increased. Our results indicate that maximizing forage intake improves N and energy use efficiency and mitigates CH4 yield and decreases CH4 conversion factor (Ym) by lambs fed pearl millet forage. Thus, management strategies that optimize intake of tropical forages by ruminants improve the use of nutrients ingested and mitigates negative impacts to the environment.


Assuntos
Metano , Pennisetum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Lactação , Nitrogênio , Rúmen , Ovinos , Zea mays
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125862, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492810

RESUMO

Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plastic additive and it could induce reproduction defects and fertility in mammals as environmental endocrine disruptor. However, the effects and potential mechanism of DEHP exposure during lactation stage on follicular development of offspring are still unclear. In this study, we found that the total primordial follicle number and antral follicles in the suckling of mice exposed to DEHP during lactation was significantly reduced. RNA-seq analysis results showed that the transcription levels of genes related to steroid production, ovarian hormone secretion and oxidative stress were significantly changed, which led to a decrease in 17ß-estradiol and an increase in oxidative stress. The proportion of DNA damage marker γH2AX in the ovary of female suckling exposed to DEHP was significantly increased. We also found an increase in the level of ovarian apoptosis, and the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells was inhibited. These alterations also lead to abnormal spindle and chromosome misalignment during oocyte maturation. Overall, our data indicate that lactation exposure to DEHP can affect the secretion of hormones and the development of antral follicles in suckling mice by affecting the secretion pathways of ovarian hormone enzymes and oxidative stress pathway.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Ovário , Animais , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Estradiol , Feminino , Lactação , Camundongos , Folículo Ovariano
7.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468760

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of peripartal administration of a commercially available nonspecific immune stimulant (mycobacterium cell wall fraction; MCWF [Amplimune, NovaVive Inc., Napanee, ON, Canada]) on the incidence of disease during early lactation and subsequent fertility of dairy cows. A second objective was to characterize the dynamics of circulating white blood cells (WBC) and metabolic markers following treatment administration. Cows in an United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic-certified dairy herd were blocked by parity and, based on sequential calving dates, randomly assigned to receive two injections (5 mL s.c.) of either a placebo (saline solution) as a control (CON; n = 71) or MCWF (n = 65) at enrollment (7 d before expected calving) and within 24 h after calving. Blood samples were collected from a subsample of the study population (MCWF = 16; CON = 18) for WBC count at enrollment, at day 2 post enrollment, and at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after calving. Serum fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and Ca concentrations were determined at days 1 and 7 postpartum (MCWF = 21; CON = 21). Main outcome variables included incidence risk of peripartal and early lactation health disorders and pregnancy at first artificial insemination (AI), at 100, and at 150 days in milk (DIM). In addition, the average daily milk yield up to 90 DIM and death and live culling before 305 DIM were compared. Treatment effects were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, time-to-event analyses, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). A treatment effect on the incidence risk of some of the health disorders in the study was established. Incidence risk of metritis and clinical mastitis <28 DIM was smaller in MCWF than in CON cows (36.9% vs. 50.7% and 6.3% vs. 19.7%, respectively). On the contrary, the incidence risk of respiratory disease <28 DIM was smaller in CON (0%) than in MCWF (7.7%). Reproductive performance of multiparous cows was affected by MCWF administration: pregnancy at first AI and pregnancy at 100 and 150 DIM were greater in MCWF than in CON (35.6% vs. 19.2%; 51.1% vs. 25.0%; and 64.4% vs. 40.4%, respectively). Overall, median intervals from calving to pregnancy were 90 vs. 121 d in MCWF and CON cows, respectively. No treatment effects on the dynamics of circulating WBC or in postpartum metabolic status were established. No differences for milk yield or for the proportion of cows that survived up to 305 DIM were determined, although cows in MCWF left the herd earlier than cows in CON. In conclusion, incidence risks of metritis and mastitis in early lactation were smaller in cows receiving MCWF, whereas the incidence risk of respiratory disease was smaller in CON. Fertility significantly improved in MCWF compared with CON cows. As this study was performed in an organic-certified dairy, specific health and reproductive management practices may affect the external validity of the current findings.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mycobacterium , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Parede Celular , Feminino , Fertilidade , Lactação , Leite , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução
8.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 24(9): 789-795, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530560

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the significance of circulating tumor cell (CTC) monitoring in evaluating the efficacy of targeted therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed. The data of patients with locally advanced GIST or liver metastasis who were admitted to The Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from August 2013 to December 2018 were collected. Inclusion criteria: (1) patients aged older than 18 years; (2) patients who were diagnosed with GIST based on pathology; (3) patients without surgery, whose preoperative imaging evaluation of GIST found the violations of the surrounding organs or partial transfer of an estimated difficulty to achieve R0 resection, or the maximum diameter of the tumor > 10 cm, or the liver metastasis, or the expectation of higher risk of surgical complications; (4) patients who were treated with the imatinib 400 mg/d for the first time; (5) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score of 0-2. Exclusion criteria: (1) genetic testing revealed a D842V mutation in exon 18 of the PDGFRA gene; (2) alanine aminotransferase and/or aspartate aminotransferase > 2.5 times the normal upper limit; (3) serum total bilirubin >1.5 times of normal upper limit; (4) neutrophil count < 1.5×10(9)/L, or platelet count < 75×10(9)/L, or hemoglobin < 60 g/L; (5) creatinine > normal upper limit; (6) patients had serious cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases within 12 months before enrollment; (7) female patients were pregnant or lactating; (8) patients suffered from other serious acute and chronic physical or mental problems, and were not suitable for participating in this study judged by researchers. The patients who could not tolerate treatment regimen, or developed serious adverse reactions and did not follow the medication scheme after enrollment were excluded. Before imatinib treatment and 1-month and 2-month after treatment, quantitative PCR was used to detect the DOG-1 expression of monocytes in peripheral blood, and the ratio of DOG-1/ß-actin > 3×10(-5) was used as the CTC positive threshold of GIST. The positive rate of CTC, the efficacy of imatinib treatment (complete response, partial response, stable disease, progressive disease, and occurrence of adverse reactions), and the relationship between CTC positive rate and clinicopathological characteristics of patients were analyzed. Furthermore, the ratio of DOG-1 decrease/baseline DOG-1 after 1-month of treatment was used as an indicator to evaluate whether targeted therapy was effective. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was rendered, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Results: A total of 68 GIST patients were enrolled in this study, including 39 cases of locally advanced GIST and 29 cases with liver metastases, 32 males and 36 females with the mean age of (51.2±11.8) (range 31 to 74) years. After 2-month of imatinib treatment, 43 cases were evaluated as partial response, 11 cases as stable disease, and 14 cases as progressive disease, with an effective rate of 79.4% (54/68). During the treatment of imatinib, the incidence of grade 3 or higher adverse reactions was 22.1% (15/68), including 12 cases of grade 3 neutropenia and 3 of grade 4 drug eruption, which were all relieved after conservative treatment. The positive rates of CTC in 68 patients before treatment, 1-month and 2-month after treatment were 66.2% (45/68), 41.2% (28/68) and 23.5% (16/68), respectively. The positive rate of CTC was associated with tumor size, liver metastasis, mitotic count and risk level (all P<0.05). By analyzing the effective group and the ineffective group of targeted therapy, it was found that the positive rate of CTC in the effective group showed a decreasing trend, while the positive rate of CTC in the ineffective group showed an increasing trend. The AUC of predicting the efficacy of targeted therapy for GIST was 0.823 by detecting the change trend of CTC 1-month after treatment (P<0.001). When the DOG-1 content decreased by more than 57.5% 1-month after treatment, it can be used as an indicator to judge the effectiveness of the treatment, whose sensitivity was 72.2% and specificity was 100%. Conclusion: The detection of peripheral blood CTC can evaluate the efficacy of targeted therapy in GIST patients and can provide decision-making basis for further clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Lactação , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 632, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunological protection via breastfeeding is well known. The immunological profile of human milk changes during lactation. No clinical trials have been conducted in lactating women with the newest mRNA vaccines against SARS- CoV-2. A Few studies have shown the presence of antibodies in breastmilk after vaccination. The aim of this work is to study possible antibodies transfer via breastmilk and also the immunological characteristics of lactating women compared to non-lactating women, after using the BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccine. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study with a convenience homogenous sample of 24 healthcare workers (14 lactating and 10 non-lactating women) enrolled at the time of COVID-19 vaccination. Clinical data was registered in a questionnaire. Titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG, IgA and IgM were quantified in post vaccination blood and human milk. Antibody quantification was performed by an in-house ELISA to SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike protein. RESULTS: All women showed immunity after vaccination with positive antibodies for IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies. The dominant serum antibody response was IgG. Modest levels of antibodies in breastmilk of lactating mothers were observed in this study, especially IgG in 42.9%. There was a moderate association between higher titers of IgG and a longer duration of breastfeeding (R= 0.55, p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of antibody transfer in human milk after COVID-19 vaccination is scarce. The presence of antibodies in human milk is reported, but immunization through breastfeeding is still to be established.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Aleitamento Materno , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Lactação/imunologia , Leite Humano/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 463, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545452

RESUMO

Lactation curves are a valuable tool for improving flock production efficiency, adjusting flock sizes, and improving farmers' income in grazing-based livestock production. Therefore, we used natural cubic splines to estimate (a) a general flock production pattern throughout a year, (b) an average lactation curve, and (c) patterns of milk chemical components in dual-purpose goats grazing in arid plant communities in the Sierra de San Francisco, Baja California Peninsula, during years of abundant precipitation. Also, milk chemical composition was compared between flocks. Annual flock milk production showed a wiggly pattern with two greater waves in summer and spring. The average individual lactation curve (kg/doe/day) and production curves of fat, protein, lactose, and ashes (g/doe/day) showed a decreasing and wiggly pattern across 35-week lactation; the greatest average daily production was in week 2. Milk, protein, lactose, and ash production curves had similar persistency values that were greater than those of the fat production curve. Milk production had a high-positive correlation with fat production and very high-positive correlations with protein, lactose, and ash production. Density (g/ml) and fat, protein, lactose, and ash contents (%) showed a ditch-shaped pattern across lactation, with greater values at the end. Goat flocks grazing across plant communities produced different quality milk. Thus, native plant communities are a valuable resource that favors a great fat content and moderate protein content in local goat milk. Also, breeding programs must pay attention that an increment in individual milk production could decrease fat and protein production, which are valuable for cheesemaking.


Assuntos
Cabras , Leite , Animais , Feminino , Lactação , Lactose , México , Proteínas do Leite
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 464, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545480

RESUMO

The milk productivity improvement of she-camels requires a good feeding program that should indicate appropriate foods, required quantities, and how and when to distribute them. The aim of this study was to explore the interactions between milk productivity and body variations of dairy camels in response to experimental dietary treatments. The camels received a new diet every 15 days approximately, with higher rate of concentrates and high energy concentration. Results showed that diets with high energy or protein density, UFL (forage unit for milk production), and nutrient waste stimulated the development of body weight at the expense of milk production (p <0.05). Therewith, the inadequate supply of feeds rich in fermentable carbohydrates such as dates (p <0.01) or corn (p <0.05) compromised milk productivity level in favor of ADG (average daily gain) and body reserves deposit. Increasing the level of roughage feed intake had a positive effect on milk production (p < 0.05). According to the results, it is recommended in the feeding of dairy she-camels to maintain a minimum level of roughage at more than 60%. In addition, it is necessary that the energy density (DER) be in the order of 0.91-1.17 maximum (0.78 UFL/kg.DM-dry matter). Taking into account famous nitrogen recycling mechanisms of camels, the protein supply of diets does not seem useful to overcome 63 g PDI/kg.DM (PDI protein digestible in the intestine).


Assuntos
Camelus , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Fermentação , Lactação , Leite , Rúmen/metabolismo , Zea mays
12.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(8): 9304-9308, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488417

RESUMO

Hypercalcemia is a clinical emergency which can cause hypercalcemic crisis and even endanger patients' lives. The increase of serum calcium concentration is caused by the redistribution of calcium in bone and the inhibition of parathyroid secretion, which is known as non-parathyroid hypercalcemia. In this report, we presented a rare case of non-parathyroid hypercalcemia during lactation in order to optimize the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to Wuxi People's Hospital on July 11, 2019 due to "fatigue, anorexia, and pain in both knees for half a month". The patient had fatigue and discomfort, accompanied by pain in both knees without obvious inducement. At the same time, the patient had decreased food intake. In the past 3 days, the symptoms worsened, accompanied by limb numbness. The serum calcium level was increased and the parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was decreased. The patient was diagnosed with hypercalcemia, and was treated with calcitonin and lactation termination. The knee pain disappeared and serum calcium returned to normal during a 2-week follow-up. To conclude, the correlation between hypercalcemia and lactation needs to be considered for non-parathyroid hypercalcemia during lactation. After excluding other possible causes, lactation termination therapy may be an effective therapeutic strategy for non-parathyroid hypercalcemia caused by excessive lactation.


Assuntos
Hipercalcemia , Adulto , Cálcio , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/etiologia , Lactação , Dor , Hormônio Paratireóideo
13.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 128(9): 441-450, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490769

RESUMO

To alleviate acute dental pain, dentists and dental specialists frequently prescribe analgesics to patients, either on prescription or not. In order to effectively manage dental pain, it is advisable to follow a step-by-step plan based on the WHO analgesic ladder: step 1, start with acetaminophen step 2, add an NSAID (e.g. ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen); step 3, add a weak opioid (e.g. tramadol) in combination with acetaminophen or an NSAID; step 4, replace a weak opioid with a strong opioid (e.g. morphine or oxycodone). A dentist in general practice or a dental specialist needs to know, the mechanism of action and the most important interactions, contraindications and adverse effects of each of these groups of medications. Attention is needed when prescribing analgesics to risk groups such as frail elderly, pregnant and lactating women, and children.


Assuntos
Lactação , Tramadol , Idoso , Analgésicos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Morfina , Gravidez
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 443, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417891

RESUMO

Protein imbalance in dairy rations affects N balance and milk N efficiency (MNE) resulting in extra N excretion to the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in N balance, milk production, and plasma metabolites of lactating buffaloes in response to different dietary crude protein (CP) supplies. Six multiparous Nili Ravi buffaloes in mid-lactation were used in this experiment in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. The treatments were diets with 9.26, 10.0, and 11.4% of CP on DM basis. All the diets were iso-caloric (2.05 Mcal metabolizable energy/kg of DM), whereas oat silage was mixed with the respective concentrate and offered once daily as total mixed ration. Milk fat content and yields of actual milk, 4% fat corrected milk, milk fat, protein, and lactose increased by 3.97, 9.63, 11.8, 6.23, and 6.57%, respectively. Milk protein content tended to increase linearly with increasing dietary CP levels. Milk N secreted as g/d increased, while as percent of N intake decreased. The resulting decrease in MNE (13.7%) was 3.45 greater than the increase in milk yield observed by increasing dietary CP from 9.26 to 11.4% of DM. Total manure N increased linearly in terms of g/d and tended to increase as percent of N excreted. Excretion rate of N also increased linearly by 32%. In conclusion, milk yield, milk fat, protein, and lactose yields increased; however, decreased MNE indicates relatively greater N losses as observed by increased N excretion rate when CP level increased from 9.26 to 11.4% in the diet of lactating buffaloes.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Lactação , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta , Feminino , Nitrogênio , Rúmen
15.
Theriogenology ; 173: 102-111, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365138

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding rumen-protected methionine (RPM) during the peripartal period and early lactation on mRNA gene expression profiles of uterine cytological smear and endometrial samples of Holstein cows (n = 20). Treatments consisted of a supplementation with RPM [MET; n = 11; RPM at a rate of 0.08 % of DM: Lys:Met = 2.8:1, (Smartamine® M Adisseo, Alpharetta, GA, USA)] and no supplementation (CON; n = 9; Lys:Met = 3.5:1). Uterine cytology smears and endometrial samples were collected at 15, 30, and 73 days in milk (DIM) and analyzed for expression of genes related with metabolism, inflammation, and methionine metabolism. Regarding the cytological smear samples, RPM supplementation tended to increase mRNA expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1 alpha (MAT1A) and increased the mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7), with an effect of time for the latter. On the other hand, RPM decreased mRNA expression for glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), prostaglandin E synthase 3 (PTGES3), translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), mucin 1 (MUC1) and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in cytological smear samples. There was an effect of time for all variables except MAT1A, with decreasing expression over time. There was a TRT × TIME interaction for GLUT4 mRNA expression, with higher GLUT4 mRNA expression for cows fed CON than for cows fed RPM at time 15 and a tendency to higher expression for cows fed CON on time 30 when compared with cows fed RPM. For uterine tissue samples, feeding RPM increased the mRNA expression of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAAH), FGF7, GLUT4, and apolipoproteins 3 (APOL3), with an effect of time for APOL3 where its expression increased over time. There was a tendency for cows fed RPM to have decreased IL1ß mRNA expression. In conclusion, feeding RPM during transition period and early lactation is beneficial for uterine immune response and metabolism in early lactation as indicated by the favorable expressions of genes affecting the uterine immunometabolism during such a challenging period.


Assuntos
Metionina , Período Periparto , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Lactação , Leite
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(33): 9654-9660, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387080

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFAs) as quality biomarkers of forage feedings in cheese fat obtained from ewe's milk, based on two different dietary treatments (hay and silage). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis detected CPFAs in most cheese samples, both from hay and silage-based diets. CPFA levels in cheese fat from hay feeding were positively correlated to the total trans-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), whereas they were negatively correlated to cis-MUFAs, odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., C13:0 anteiso, C16:0 iso, and C17:1), and C22:5n-3, which are mainly associated with a low starch intake and grass pasture. Overall, the presence of CPFAs in ovine cheese fat suggests the use of silage, but it can also be an indicator of poor-quality hay forages. This approach confirmed the reliability of CPFAs as biomarkers of forage quality, especially in relation to the use of conserved forages and good livestock practices.


Assuntos
Queijo , Silagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores , Ciclopropanos , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Lactação , Leite , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ovinos , Silagem/análise
17.
Theriogenology ; 173: 133-143, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388624

RESUMO

Physical activities are associated with the health of transition dairy cows and pregnancy outcomes are positively related to early resumption of postpartum estrous cycles. The objective was to assess key metabolites and patterns of prepartum and postpartum physical activity as they relate to the onset of first postpartum ovulation in lactating dairy cows. Close-up dry Holstein cows (n = 82) and late gestation heifers (n = 78) were enrolled beginning 3 wk before expected calving date (Day 0). Cows were fit with Cow SensOor ear tags to assess transitional changes in eating, resting, rumination, high activity, and ear-surface temperatures. Rectal temperatures were assessed and blood samples were collected on Days 0, 3, 7, and 14 to measure concentrations of glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), calcium, and haptoglobin. Body condition scores (BCS) and body weights (BW) were measured weekly, and blood samples were collected weekly from Day 21 ± 3 through 70 ± 3 to quantify changes in progesterone to detect luteal function after ovulation. Cows first ovulating before median Day 33 were classified as early (n = 76), whereas those first ovulating after Day 33 were classified as late (n = 84). Early ovulating cows first ovulated earlier (P < 0.001) than the late ovulation cows (24.3 ± 1.2 d [range: 16-32 d] vs. 48.8 ± 1.2 d [range: 33-74 d]), respectively. Mean days to first ovulation excluded seven cows that failed to ovulate before insemination. Compared with late ovulating cows, early ovulating cows had lesser (P < 0.05) concentrations of FFA, BHB, and haptoglobin on Days 0, 3, 7, and 14 in addition to having lesser (P < 0.05) rectal temperatures and ear-surface temperatures. Ear-surface temperatures began to decrease 4 d before parturition and remained less (P < 0.05) after calving than cows that subsequently ovulated late. Early ovulating cows tended (P = 0.07) to spend more time eating, and less (P = 0.02) time resting and being active during the first 3 wk after calving, and lost less (P = 0.03) BW and BCS during the first 9 wk compared with late ovulating cows. Although no differences were detected in yields of milk or energy-corrected milk during the first 9 wk after calving, early compared with late ovulating cows produced more (P < 0.01) milk protein. We concluded that metabolic measures during the first 2 wk after calving, and physical and behavioral traits are associated with the onset of postpartum ovarian activity.


Assuntos
Lactação , Período Pós-Parto , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Animais , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Feminino , Leite , Ovulação , Gravidez
18.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21806, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369605

RESUMO

During lactation, adult female mice display aggressive responses toward male intruders, triggered by male-derived chemosensory signals. This aggressive behavior is not shown by pup-sensitized virgin females sharing pup care with dams. The genetic mechanisms underlying the switch from attraction to aggression are unknown. In this work, we investigate the differential gene expression in lactating females expressing maternal aggression compared to pup-sensitized virgin females in the medial amygdala (Me), a key neural structure integrating chemosensory and hormonal information. The results showed 197 genes upregulated in dams, including genes encoding hormones such as prolactin, growth hormone, or follicle-stimulating hormone, neuropeptides such as galanin, oxytocin, and pro-opiomelanocortin, and genes related to catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission. In contrast, 99 genes were downregulated in dams, among which we find those encoding for inhibins and transcription factors of the Fos and early growth response families. The gene set analysis revealed numerous Gene Ontology functional groups with higher expression in dams than in pup-sensitized virgin females, including those related with the regulation of the Jak/Stat cascade. Of note, a number of olfactory and vomeronasal receptor genes was expressed in the Me, although without differences between dams and virgins. For prolactin and growth hormone, a qPCR experiment comparing dams, pup-sensitized, and pup-naïve virgin females showed that dams expressed higher levels of both hormones than pup-naïve virgins, with pup-sensitized virgins showing intermediate levels. Altogether, the results show important gene expression changes in the Me, which may underlie some of the behavioral responses characterizing maternal behavior.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Lactação/genética , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Hormônios/genética , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Gravidez , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Órgão Vomeronasal/fisiologia
19.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117545, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438484

RESUMO

Breast milk is a unique biological sample that reflects the exposure levels of both lactating mothers and infants. The exposure levels of BPA due to breast milk consumption for infants can be estimated easily, but the method to estimate the total daily intake (TDI) of lactating mothers from breast milk has not yet been established. In this study, BPA concentrations were detected in breast milk samples from 149 lactating mothers from Hunan, China. The median concentration of BPA in breast milk was 0.053 µg/L with a range of 0.001-2.535 µg/L, and a temporal decline trend was found for BPA concentrations in breast milk (p < 0.05). The median intake of BPA via breast milk was 26.8 ng/kg bw/day for 0-3-month-old infants and 7.0 ng/kg bw/day for 4-12-month-old infants. Based on the predicted concentrations of BPA in urine and blood via the conversion coefficients from breast milk, the TDIs of lactating mothers were estimated. The TDIs estimated from the simulated urine concentration were 84.0 ± 175.2 ng/kg bw/day for 0-3-month-old infants' mothers and 36.9 ± 80.8 ng/kg bw/day for 4-12-month-old infants' mothers. The dietary daily intakes estimated from the simulated blood concentration were 579.6 ± 370.8 ng/kg bw/day for 0-3-month-old infants' mothers and 280.1 ± 195.2 ng/kg bw/day for 4-12-month-old infants' mothers. When assuming the dietary daily intakes in Hunan of the fifth total diet study (TDS) as the "true" total dietary intake of our population, the contribution of diet was estimated to be 63.7%, which suggested that non-dietary BPA exposure may be underestimated.


Assuntos
Lactação , Leite Humano , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano/química , Mães , Fenóis
20.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343289

RESUMO

Sows mated in summer produce a greater proportion of born-light piglets (<1.1 kg) which contributes to increased carcass fatness in the progeny population. The reasons for the low birth weight of these piglets remain unclear, and there have been few successful mitigation strategies identified. We hypothesized that: 1) the low birth weight of progeny born to sows mated in summer may be associated with weight loss during the previous summer lactation; and 2) increasing early gestation feed allowance for the sows with high lactational weight loss in summer can help weight recovery and improve progeny birth weight. Sows were classified as having either low (av. 1%) or high (av. 7%) lactational weight loss in their summer lactation. All the sows with low lactational weight loss (LLStd) and half of the sows with high lactational weight loss received a standard gestation feeding regime (HLStd) (2.6 kg/d; day 0-30 gestation), whereas the rest of the sows with high lactational weight loss received a compensatory feed allowance (HLComp) (3.5 kg/d; day 0-30 gestation). A comparison of LLStd (n = 75) versus HLStd sows (n = 78) showed that this magnitude of weight loss over summer lactation did not affect the average piglet or litter birth weight, but such results may be influenced by the higher litter size (P = 0.030) observed in LLStd sows. A comparison of HLStd versus HLComp (n = 81) sows showed that the compensatory feeding increased (P = 0.021) weight gain of gestating sows by 6 kg, increased (P = 0.009) average piglet birth weight by 0.12 kg, tended to reduce (P = 0.054) the percentage of born-light piglets from 23.5% to 17.1% but reduced the litter size by 1.4 (P = 0.014). A subgroup of progeny stratified as born-light (0.8-1.1 kg) or -normal (1.3-1.7 kg) from each sow treatment were monitored for growth performance from weaning until 100 kg weight. The growth performance and carcass backfat of progeny were not affected by sow treatments. Born-light progeny had lower feed intake, lower growth rate, higher G:F, and higher carcass backfat than born-normal progeny (all P < 0.05). In summary, compensatory feeding from day 0 to 30 gestation in the sows with high weight loss during summer lactation reduced the percentage of born-light progeny at the cost of a lower litter size, which should improve growth rate and carcass leanness in the progeny population born to sows with high lactational weight loss.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Perda de Peso , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Gravidez , Suínos , Desmame
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...