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1.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 43, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Random regression models (RRM) are widely used to analyze longitudinal data in genetic evaluation systems because they can better account for time-course changes in environmental effects and additive genetic values of animals by fitting the test-day (TD) specific effects. Our objective was to implement a random regression model for the evaluation of dairy production traits in French goats. RESULTS: The data consisted of milk TD records from 30,186 and 32,256 first lactations of Saanen and Alpine goats. Milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content and protein content were considered. Splines were used to model the environmental factors. The genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled by the same Legendre polynomials. The goodness-of-fit and the genetic parameters derived from functions of the polynomials of orders 0 to 4 were tested. Results were also compared to those from a lactation model with total milk yield calculated over 250 days and to those of a multiple-trait model that considers performance in six periods throughout lactation as different traits. Genetic parameters were consistent between models. Models with fourth-order Legendre polynomials led to the best fit of the data. In order to reduce complexity, computing time, and interpretation, a rank reduction of the variance covariance matrix was performed using eigenvalue decomposition. With a reduction to rank 2, the first two principal components correctly summarized the genetic variability of milk yield level and persistency, with a correlation close to 0 between them. CONCLUSIONS: A random regression model was implemented in France to evaluate and select goats for yield traits and persistency, which are independent i.e. no genetic correlation between them, in first lactation.


Assuntos
Cabras/genética , Lactação/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Cabras/fisiologia , Masculino , Leite , Análise de Regressão
2.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2837-2849, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267132

RESUMO

Ketosis is a major metabolic disorder of high-yielding dairy cows during the transition period. Although metabolic adaptations of the adipose tissue are critical for a successful transition, beyond lipolysis, alterations within adipose tissue during ketosis are not well known. The objective of this study was to investigate the adipose tissue proteome of healthy or ketotic postpartum cows to gain insights into biological adaptations that may contribute to disease outcomes. Adipose tissue biopsy was collected on 5 healthy and 5 ketotic cows at 17 (±4) d postpartum and ketosis was defined according to the clinical symptoms and serum ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration. Morphology micrographs stained by hematoxylin-eosin showed that adipocytes were smaller in ketotic cows than in healthy cows. The isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification was applied to quantitatively identify differentially expressed proteins (DEP) in the adipose tissue. We identified a total of 924 proteins, 81 of which were differentially expressed between ketotic and healthy cows (P < 0.05 and fold changes >1.5 or <0.67). These DEP included enzymes and proteins associated with various carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism processes. The top pathways differing between ketosis and control cows were glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, glucagon signaling pathway, cysteine and methionine metabolism, biosynthesis of amino acids, and the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway. The identified DEP were further validated by western blot and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Key enzymes associated with carbohydrate metabolism such as pyruvate kinase 2, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit α), lactate dehydrogenase A , phosphoglucomutase 1, and 6-phosphofructokinase 1 were upregulated in ketotic cows. The expression and phosphorylation state of critical regulators of lipolysis such as perilipin-1 and hormone-sensitive lipase were also upregulated in ketotic cows. Furthermore, key proteins involved in maintaining innate immune response such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein and regakine-1 were downregulated in ketotic cows. Overall, data indicate that ketotic cows during the transition period have altered carbohydrate, lipid metabolism, and impaired immune function in the adipose tissue. This proteomics analysis in adipose tissue of ketotic cows identified several pathways and proteins that are components of the adaptation to ketosis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Cetose/veterinária , Leite/metabolismo , Proteoma , Proteômica , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Bovinos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Cetose/metabolismo , Lactação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Fosforilação , Período Pós-Parto , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Tegucigalpa; s.n; jun. 27, 2019. 72 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Tese em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015482

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Relacionar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de lactancia materna en las mujeres que ingresan a la sala de puerperio normal del bloque materno infantil, hospital escuela universitario, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, agosto a diciembre 2017. DISEÑO METODOLÓGICO: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, la muestra estuvo conformada de 100 mujeres que ingresan a la sala de puerperio normal agosto ­ diciembre 2017. La técnica utilizada fue la aplicación de una encuesta, mediante un procesamiento y análisis de datos con resultados expresados en tablas y gráficos. RESULTADOS: el 68% siendo en su mayoría procedían de zona rural de 19- 25 años. Así mismo al número de hijos 36% tienen tres. El 40% con una escolaridad primaria completa. CONCLUSIÓN: en su mayoría las mujeres son jóvenes entre 19 - 25 años, con 1 hijo, de educación primaria y de la zona rural. Respecto a los conocimientos la mayoría de la mujeres tuvieron conocimientos de los beneficios de lactancia materna, el tiempo de la lactancia, y las posiciones de amamantamiento. Sobre las actitudes ellas presentaron una actitud favorable respecto a las técnicas de extracción de la leche y de amamantamiento y finalmente refirieron tener buenas prácticas en cuanto a técnicas de posición


Assuntos
Humanos , Aleitamento Materno , Lactação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
4.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2927-2939, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150088

RESUMO

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding an acidogenic diet with a low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on acid-base balance, blood, milk, and urine Ca concentrations of sows during lactation. A total of 30 multiparous sows (parity: 4.5 ± 2.9, Smithfield Premium Genetic, Rose Hill, NC) were allotted to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: CON (control diets were corn-soybean meal based with a calculated DCAD of 170 and 226 mEq/kg during late gestation and lactation, respectively) or ACI (acidogenic diets had a DCAD 100 mEq/kg lower than the control diets). The lower DCAD was achieved by the addition of an acidogenic mineral. The DCAD was calculated as mEq (Na + K - Cl)/kg diet. Sows had a daily access to 2-kg feed from day 94 of gestation to parturition and ad libitum access to feed during lactation. Blood and urine pH and Ca, serum macrominerals, serum biochemistry, Ca-regulating hormones, and milk composition were measured. Sows in ACI had a lower (P < 0.05) blood pH than sows in CON at day 1 of lactation. Sows in ACI had a lower (P < 0.05) urine pH at day 108 of gestation, days 1, 9, and 18 of lactation compared with sows in CON. Sows in ACI had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of serum total Ca at days 1 and 18 of lactation than sows in CON. There was a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of colostrum Ca in ACI than in CON. There was no difference in urine Ca concentration between treatments during lactation. Concentrations of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol were not different between treatments at either day 1 or 18 of lactation. Sows in ACI tended to have a smaller (P = 0.086) concentration of total alkaline phosphatase in serum at day 18 of lactation compared with sows in CON. At day 1 of lactation, the concentration of serum Cl in ACI was greater (P < 0.05) than that in CON. Feed intake, BW loss, and litter performance were not different between treatments. Collectively, feeding an acidogenic diet with a low DCAD to sows can induce a mild metabolic acidosis at farrowing, reduce the urine pH consistently, and increase serum total Ca and colostrum Ca concentrations during lactation but without altering the parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol levels during lactation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cálcio/análise , Colostro/química , Leite/química , Minerais/análise , Suínos/sangue , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Animais , Ânions/análise , Cátions/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Paridade , Parto , Gravidez
5.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2914-2926, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155652

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increased AA and energy intake during late gestation on reproductive performance, milk composition, and metabolic and redox status of sows. A total of 118 Yorkshire sows (third through sixth parity) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments from day 90 of gestation until farrowing. Dietary treatments consisted of combinations of 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA levels [14.7 or 20.6 g/d SID Lys, SID Lys and other AA met or exceeded the NRC (2012) recommendations] and 2 energy levels (28.24 or 33.78 MJ/d intake of NE) in a 2 × 2 factorial design. After parturition, all sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for parameters on metabolism, redox status, and amino acid profile. The data were analyzed using the generalized linear mixed models to reveal the impact of dietary levels of energy, AA, and their interaction. Sows with increased intake of AA had greater BW gain (P < 0.01) during late gestation. Furthermore, the BW loss during lactation was increased in sows with increasing intake of energy (P < 0.05) or AA (P < 0.05). Sows fed high energy had higher total litter birth weights (20.2 kg vs. 18.4 kg, P < 0.05) and shorter duration of farrowing (261 min vs. 215 min, P < 0.05), compared with those fed low energy, which likely was due to higher (P < 0.05) plasma glucose and lower (P < 0.05) plasma lactate prior to parturition. High AA intake in late gestation increased the ADG of piglets during the following lactation (P < 0.05), and increased the concentrations of plasma urea, and the following AA: Lys, Met, Thr, Val, Ile, Leu, Phe, Asp, Ser, and Arg at farrowing (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the increased intake of energy increased total litter weight of newborns and shortened the farrowing duration, which likely was due to improved energy status at farrowing. Furthermore, sows with increased intake of AA led to higher growth rate of piglets during the following lactation, accompanying with the increasing levels of plasma urea and amino acids. Therefore, the higher energy intake in late gestation appeared to improve litter weight and farrowing duration, while higher AA intake may have positive effect on piglets performance in lactation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Leite/química , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estado Nutricional , Oxirredução , Paridade , Parto , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/microbiologia
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110548, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154086

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed whether D-allulose was associated with reproductive toxicity in rats, assessing reproduction and offspring growth following gavage of parents with 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg of this compound. Specifically, female rats were continuously dose from 2 weeks prior to mating until day 21 of lactation, while males were dose for the 10 weeks before mating. We did not observe any direct toxicity or mortality upon D-allulose administration, with no changes in body weight or eating behavior between study and control groups. We also did not observe any significant alterations in precoital time, copulation index, fertility index (male), or pregnancy index (male) between groups. Relative to controls, there was also no effect of D-allulose treatment on pregnancy rates, implantation, pregnancy length, gender ratios, viability indexes, lactation indexes, prenatal death rates, or number of live young at time of birth. Organ weights and indexes were also comparable between groups at time of sacrifice, and treatment was not linked to any obvious manifestations upon necropsy or histopathological examination. In the F1 offspring, the body weights of pups born to parents administered D-allulose (2000, 1000, and 500 mg/kg) were slightly higher on days 1-9 postnatally relative to controls (p < 0.05), however after day 9 these effects were no longer evident. Together, these results indicate a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of D-allulose of 2000 mg/kg, the highest dose tested, in parental animals and their offspring.


Assuntos
Frutose/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estereoisomerismo
7.
Anim Genet ; 50(4): 376-380, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179571

RESUMO

Ketosis (KET) is one common metabolic disorder that occurs mainly in early lactation and affects the dairy industry with significant economic losses. Cows with ketosis have lower milk yield and reproductive performance and greater risk of other periparturient diseases. As a metabolic disease, the pathogenesis of KET is multifactorial. To better understand the genetic background of KET, a genome-wide association study was performed using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Single-step genomic BLUP methodology was used to incorporate genomic data into a threshold-liability model. Results of the GWAS are reported as the proportion of variance explained by 20-SNP windows. Six genomic regions on Bos taurus autosomes 10, 13, 14 and 25 showed association with KET. Most interestingly, several candidate genes, including previously reported genes (BMP4, HNF4A and APOBR) and newly identified genes (SOCS4, GCH1, ATG14, RGS6, CYP7A1 and MAPK3), are involved in insulin metabolism or lipid metabolism, implicating the contribution of energy-metabolism-associated genes to the genetic basis of KET. Our results provide new information about the underlying biology and molecular mechanisms associated with KET. Future studies that combine genomic variation analysis and functional gene information may help elucidate the biology of KET.


Assuntos
Cetose/veterinária , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Bovinos , Cromossomos de Mamíferos , GTP Cicloidrolase/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Insulina/metabolismo , Cetose/metabolismo , Lactação , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/genética
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 144, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of oxidative stress in pigs have been measured in serum/plasma samples. However, blood collection in pigs can be highly stressful to the animals. Saliva is a biological fluid with several advantages in pigs over blood, since it can be easily collected without stress to the animals, being therefore an ideal sample in this species. The objective of this study was the validation of assays for the evaluation of oxidative stress status in saliva of pigs. For this purpose, three assays commonly used to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC): trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)), one individual antioxidant (uric acid) and two assays to evaluate oxidant concentrations (advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) were measured and validated in porcine saliva. In addition, the possible changes of these assays in sows' saliva during lactation were be studied. RESULTS: The methods had intra- and inter-assays coefficient of variation lower than 15%. They also showed an adequate linearity and recovery, and their detection limits were low enough to detect the analytes in saliva of pigs. Overall the analytical validation tests showed that the assays used in our study are valid and reliable for the evaluation of oxidative stress in porcine saliva. In addition, it was observed that these salivary biomarkers can change in a situation of oxidative stress such as lactation in sows. CONCLUSIONS: All assays for salivary biomarkers of oxidative stress evaluated in this study have demonstrated a high analytical accuracy and low imprecision. In addition, it has been observed that these biomarkers showed significant changes in a situation of oxidative stress such as lactation in sows. Therefore, this study opens a new possibility of using saliva as a non-invasive sample to evaluate oxidative stress in pigs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Lactação/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Saliva/química , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Feminino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Ácido Úrico/análise
9.
Toxicol Lett ; 311: 66-79, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039416

RESUMO

Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), a flame retardant, interferes with thyroid homeostasis and androgen biosynthesis. BDE-209 evokes hyperglycemia through impaired glucose homeostasis in rat liver. This study is in continuation to our earlier work for a better understanding of whether or not BDE-209 affects testicular and epididymal physiology in relation to oxidative status in peripupertal mice offspring. Lactating female Parkes mice were orally gavaged with 500 and 700 mg/kg body weight of BDE-209 in corn oil from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Male pups of lactating dams were sacrificed at PND 42. Maternal BDE-209 exposure during lactation increased apoptosis and oxidative status with altered expressions of various cell survival (Bcl-2), apoptotic (Bax and caspase-3) and oxidative stress (Nrf2 and HO-1) markers in testes and epididymis of peripubertal mice offspring. Testicular glucose and lactate concentrations were markedly reduced in these pups with down-regulation in GLUT3 and GLUT8 expressions and decreased LDH activity. Maternal BDE-209 exposure markedly affected fertility potential, epididymal histology, sialic acid concentration and sperm quality with decreased expression of epididymal Cx43 and AR in these mice offspring. Results thus suggest that maternal BDE-209 exposure during lactation causes reproductive toxicity in peripubertal mice offspring.


Assuntos
Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Infertilidade Masculina/induzido quimicamente , Lactação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Epididimo/metabolismo , Epididimo/patologia , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Homeostase , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Gravidez , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Sexual , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/patologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia
10.
Vet J ; 248: 1-7, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113554

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cow reproductive performance and welfare evaluated at the herd level using the Welfare Quality protocol. The 11 criteria, four principles (good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate behavior, scale 0-100) and overall welfare category (excellent/enhanced/acceptable/not classified = poor welfare) were included as risk factors for calving to first service interval (CFSI) and calving rate (CR). The confounding factors cow breed, parity, season of calving and AI, calving to AI interval, rank of AI (1-3) and milk production were taken into account. The sample included 3951 AIs (2172 AI1, 1182 AI2, 597 AI3) in 124 French commercial dairy herds. Median CFSI was shorter for the cows bred in herds with a higher overall welfare category (median 75 and 76 days in enhanced and acceptable herds vs. 86 in poor welfare ones, P = 0.02). The scores for absence of injuries and expression of social behavior tended to be associated with CFSI (P < 0.10). Calving rate (34.5%) was not related to the overall welfare category. However, CR was positively related to the good housing score and a positive trend was observed with the scores for absence of prolonged hunger and absence of injuries. In conclusion, this study confirms a positive relationship between CFSI and welfare in dairy cows with no explicit links with specific aspects of animal welfare.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Indústria de Laticínios , Lactação , Reprodução , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , França , Gravidez
11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 130: 12-21, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059745

RESUMO

Maternal exposure to coconut oil metabolically programs adult offspring for overweight, hyperphagia and hyperleptinemia. We studied the neuroendocrine mechanisms by which coconut oil supplementation during breastfeeding as well as continued exposure of this oil throughout life affect the feeding behavior of the progeny. At birth, pups were divided into two groups: Soybean oil (SO) and Coconut oil (CO). Dams received these oils by gavage (0.5 g/kg body mass/day) during lactation. Half of the CO group continued to receive CO in chow throughout life (CO + C). Adult CO and CO + C groups had overweight; the CO group had hyperphagia, higher visceral adiposity, and hyperleptinemia, while the CO + C group had hypophagia only. The CO group showed higher DAGLα (endocannabinoid synthesis) but no alteration of FAAH (endocannabinoid degradation) or CB1R. Leptin signaling and GLP1R were unchanged in the CO group, which did not explain its phenotype. Hyperphagia in these animals can be due to higher DAGLα, increasing the production of 2-AG, an orexigenic mediator. The CO + C group had higher preference for fat and lower hypothalamic GLP1R content. Continuous exposure to coconut oil prevented an increase in DAGLα. The CO + C group, although hypophagic, showed greater voracity when exposed to a hyperlipidemic diet, maybe due to lower GLP1R, since GLP1 inhibits short-term food intake.


Assuntos
Óleo de Coco/administração & dosagem , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Lactação/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos
12.
Chemosphere ; 230: 432-439, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121507

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to BPA on testicular development in offspring males. Pregnant Kunming mice were randomly divided into 7 groups with 20 mice in each group. Group A was the control group and the mice were given distilled water orally. Mice in groups B, C, D, E, F, G received BPA orally at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg/d, 0.5 mg/kg/d, 5 mg/kg/d, 10 mg/kg/d, 20 mg/kg/d, 50 mg/kg/d, respectively. F0 mice were exposed to BPA for 40 days from gestation day 0 to lactation day 21. F1 male mice were sacrificed at weaning (postnatal day 21). Histological observations revealed architectural damages in testis in BPA exposed groups. The testicular organ index increased significantly when the BPA oral exposure dose was above 20 mg/kg/d (P < 0.05). BPA contents in serum of F1 male mice increased significantly when BPA was above 5 mg/kg/d (P < 0.05), while the contents significant increased in maternal serum when BPA was higher than 0.5 mg/kg/d. The damage of cell nuclear DNA of testis was significantly aggravated when BPA was above 5 mg/kg/d. The expression of AR in the testis was significantly increased when BPA was above 20 mg/kg/d (P < 0.05). Transcriptome sequencing showed that the Snrnp 40 which encoding U5 snRNA subunit was significantly up-regulated in spliceosome pathway, and the Hnrnpu which encoding splicing universal protein component was significantly down-regulated. The blockage of spliceosome might be one of the reasons why BPA affects testicular development.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Processamento de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lactação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Testículo/embriologia , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18554-18564, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054054

RESUMO

The study was conducted on a model of dairy cows of the Holstein breed. At the first stage of research, the elemental composition of cow hair was studied (n = 198). Based on this study, the percentile intervals of chemical elements concentrations in hair were established; values of 25 and 75 percentiles were determined, and they were considered as "physiological standard." At the second stage, the elemental composition of hair from the upper part of withers of highly productive Holstein cows during the period of increasing milk yield was analyzed (n = 47). The elemental composition of biological substrates was studied according to 25 indicators, using the methods of atomic emission and mass spectrometry (AES-ICP and MS-ICP). An assessment of productivity parameters of cows depending on the level of toxic elements in hair revealed a negative statistically significant relationship with the level of lead. Lead content in hair was negatively correlated with the yield of fat (r = - 0.50), protein (r = - 0.37), and dry matter (r = - 0.48) in milk. Based on these data, cows were divided into three groups: group I, with Pb concentration in hair 0.0245-0.0449 mg/g, group II-between 0.0495 and 0.141 mg/kg, and in group III-between 0.145 and 0.247 mg/g. It was established that increasing Pb content decreases daily production of milk fat by 18.8 (P ≤ 0.05) and 25.3% (P ≤ 0.05), protein by 9.7 (P ≤ 0.05) and 10.7% (P ≤ 0.05), and dry matter by 8.0 and 13.0% (P ≤ 0.05) in cows. Average daily milk yield, adjusted for 1% of fat, decreased by 19.2 (P ≤ 0.05) and 25.3% (P ≤ 0.05), respectively. As the concentration of lead in hair increased, the content of toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sn, Sr) increased from 0.07 to 0.235 mmol/kg in group I, in group II from 0.082 to 0.266 mmol/kg, and in group III-from 0.126 to 0.337 mmol/kg. It was concluded that it is necessary to further study the use of physiological standard indicators of the content of toxic chemical elements in hair of dairy cows to increase productivity and maintain animal health and to create an effective system of individual health monitoring of highly productive cattle.


Assuntos
Cabelo/química , Lactação , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Leite/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
14.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2803-2821, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077274

RESUMO

The Teagasc Pig Production Model (TPPM), a stochastic simulation model of a farrow-to-finish pig farm, was developed to investigate effects of changes in production systems on farm profitability. The model simulates, on a weekly basis, the annual production of a farm. Biological [e.g., herd size, number of litters/sow/year, and mortality rates (%)], physical (e.g., infrastructure), and technical (e.g., feeding practices) variables and their associated costs are included as components of the model. These inputs are used to calculate physical (e.g., feed usage and number of pigs slaughtered) and financial (e.g., annual cash flow, profit and loss account, and balance sheet) outputs. The model was validated using the Delphi method and by comparing the TPPM outputs to data recorded on 20 Irish pig farms through the Teagasc e-Profit monitor system and with complete receipts for the year 2016. Results showed that the TPPM closely simulates physical and financial performance of pig farms indicating that the TPPM can be used with confidence to study pig production systems under Irish conditions. Model applicability was demonstrated by investigating the impact of 2 changes in technical performance: 1) building of extra accommodation to increase body weight (BW) at sale by 15 kg (EXTRA ROOM) and 2) a change in feeding practices by providing finisher feed from 28 kg of BW (EARLY FINISHER) compared with over 38 kg of BW. In both scenarios, the same biological parameters were used. Mortality rates, feed ingredients costs, and price per kg of meat produced were included as stochastic variables with the input distributions derived based on historical data simulated using Monte Carlo sampling using the Microsoft Excel add-in @Risk. Annual mean net profit was €198,101 (90% confidence interval [CI]: €119,606-€275,539) for the TPPM base farm, €337,078 (90% CI: €246,320-€426,809) for the EXTRA ROOM, and €225,598 (90% CI: €146,685-€303,590) for the EARLY FINISHER. EXTRA ROOM was associated with higher costs and required higher income to cover the additional costs. The 90% CI of the EARLY FINISHER was similar to the TPPM base farm while the EXTRA ROOM scenario resulted in a wider confidence interval, suggesting that a change in feeding practices could be a better option for farmers looking to improve profit with minimum investment. Thus, the TPPM could be used to facilitate decision making in farrow-to-finish pig farms.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Econômicos , Carne Vermelha/economia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , Simulação por Computador , Custos e Análise de Custo , Fazendas/economia , Feminino , Lactação , Masculino , Método de Monte Carlo , Processos Estocásticos
15.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2822-2836, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115459

RESUMO

Nutrient requirements of sows during lactation are related mainly to their milk yield and feed intake, and vary greatly among individuals. In practice, nutrient requirements are generally determined at the population level based on average performance. The objective of the present modeling approach was to explore the variability in nutrient requirements among sows by combining current knowledge about nutrient use with on-farm data available on sows at farrowing [parity, BW, backfat thickness (BT)] and their individual performance (litter size, litter average daily gain, daily sow feed intake) to estimate nutrient requirements. The approach was tested on a database of 1,450 lactations from 2 farms. The effects of farm (A, B), week of lactation (W1: week 1, W2: week 2, W3+: week 3 and beyond), and parity (P1: 1, P2: 2, P3+: 3 and beyond) on sow performance and their nutrient requirements were evaluated. The mean daily ME requirement was strongly correlated with litter growth (R2 = 0.95; P < 0.001) and varied slightly according to sow BW, which influenced the maintenance cost. The mean daily standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine requirement was influenced by farm, week of lactation, and parity. Variability in SID lysine requirement per kg feed was related mainly to feed intake (R2 = 0.51; P < 0.001) and, to a smaller extent, litter growth (R2 = 0.27; P < 0.001). It was lowest in W1 (7.0 g/kg), greatest in W2 (7.9 g/kg), and intermediate in W3+ (7.5 g/kg; P < 0.001) because milk production increased faster than feed intake capacity did. It was lower for P3+ (6.7 g/kg) and P2 sows (7.3 g/kg) than P1 sows (8.3 g/kg) due to the greater feed intake of multiparous sows. The SID lysine requirement per kg of feed was met for 80% of sows when supplies were 112 and 120% of the mean population requirement on farm A and B, respectively, indicating higher variability in requirements on farm B. Other amino acid and mineral requirements were influenced in the same way as SID lysine. The present modeling approach allows to capture individual variability in the performance of sows and litters according to farm, stage of lactation, and parity. It is an initial step in the development of new types of models able to process historical farm data (e.g., for ex post assessment of nutrient requirements) and real-time data (e.g., to control precision feeding).


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Leite/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Lactação , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Lisina/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais , Paridade , Gravidez
16.
Se Pu ; 37(5): 471-476, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070328

RESUMO

Human milk is the optimal food for infant nutrition and growth. Proteins are abundant and represent a key element in human milk. With recent developments in proteomics, more tools are available to explore human milk proteins. This article aims to review the recent investigations of human milk proteins using proteomic methodologies. This review focuses on using proteomics as a tool to study the components of human milk proteins; dynamics of human milk proteins during lactation; comparison of proteome from human milk and other source milk, phosphoprotein and glycoprotein analysis of human milk; endogenous peptides in human milk; and the human milk proteome and its correlation to curing of various diseases. Proteomics technology has enabled the study of human milk proteins in the era of micronutrient research, and the results of these studies will be helpful for further analysis of mother and infant health.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite Humano/química , Proteômica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Proteoma
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(7): 6672-6678, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056335

RESUMO

Dairy cows face metabolic challenges in the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. The energy demands for the growing fetus and the onset of milk production are increasing but voluntary feed intake often decreases around parturition and cannot meet these demands. This energy balance, among others, can change the oxidative status. Oxidative stress occurs when antioxidant defense mechanisms are not sufficient to cope with the increasing generation of reactive oxygen species. Our objectives were to investigate (1) the effect of parity on the oxidative status of dairy cows (n = 247) in late pregnancy and early lactation; and (2) the effect of different inclusion rates of concentrate feeding (150 vs. 250 g/kg of energy-corrected milk) during early lactation on 2 farms including 87 cows in total. In addition, we aimed to compare the oxidative status across the 2 farms using equal portions of concentrate feeding. For these purposes, we measured concentrations of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROM) and the ferric reducing ability (FRAP) in serum on d -50, -14, +8, +28, and +100 relative to calving. Furthermore, we calculated the oxidative status index (OSi) as dROM/FRAP × 100. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model. Cows in the first and second lactations had greater dROM, FRAP, and OSi than cows in their third and greater lactations. Hence, supporting the antioxidative side of the balance might be of particular importance in the first and second lactations. Feeding different amounts of concentrates did not affect dROM, FRAP, or OSi under our experimental conditions, suggesting that the relatively small differences in energy intake were not affecting the oxidative status. Comparing farms, cows from one farm were notable for having greater dROM and lower FRAP, resulting in a greater OSi compared with cows on the other farm. Milk yield showed a time by farm interaction with 7% less milk on d 100 on the farm with the greater OSi. Moreover, cows on that farm had 1.4-fold greater ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Our results emphasize the value of assessing oxidative status with regard to both the pro- and antioxidative sides, and support the association between oxidative and metabolic status. Further investigations are needed to determine the applicability of OSi as a prognostic tool during early lactation and to determine which factors have the greatest influence on oxidative status.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bovinos/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Fazendas , Lactação/sangue , Paridade , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Leite/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2534-2540, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067302

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of live yeast (LY) supplementation of sows during gestation and lactation and to determine the effects of supplementation of their offspring after weaning on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. A total of 40 sows were assigned to 2 dietary treatments (control vs. LY) based on parity and expected farrowing date. Birth weight, weaning weight, litter size, and mortality were measured. After weaning, 128 mixed-sex piglets (64 from each sow treatment) were selected based on their source litter and initial BW, and randomly assigned to 2 treatments (control or LY) at 4 pigs per pen (total of 32 pigs per treatment) for a 6-wk growth performance study. At the end of the growth performance trial, 2 barrows from each pen were moved to metabolism crates for total fecal collection for a digestibility trial. Addition of LY to the sow diets had no effects on birth weight, weaning weight, litter size at birth, and mortality. Piglets had greater BW on days 21 and 42 post-weaning when sows were fed diets supplemented with LY, and overall ADG was greater in piglets from sows that received LY (P < 0.05). There was no effect of sow and nursery diets on overall ADFI and G:F intake. Supplementing diets with LY during the nursery phase increased apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, GE, and phosphorus (P) during this phase. The ATTD of GE was also greater in piglets from sows that received LY. In conclusion, LY supplementation of diets during gestation and lactation and during the nursery phase could increase ADG and ATTD of DM, GE, and P in the offspring, and this may lead to a greater lifetime growth performance in the offspring.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Suínos/fisiologia , Fermento Seco/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nutrientes , Paridade/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(7): 6180-6198, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056321

RESUMO

The first objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics and their potential association with animal performance of the microbiota in both the rumen and colon of dairy cows as they move from a nonlactation to a lactation ration. The second objective was to assess the potential effects on the microbiota of live yeast supplementation. Twenty-one Holstein cows were split in 2 treatments consisting of 1 × 1010 cfu/d of live yeast (LY; n = 10) or no supplementation (control; n = 11) starting 21 d before until 21 d after calving. At 14 d before and 7 and 21 d after calving, samples of rumen and colon digesta were obtained from each cow using an endoscope. Total DNA was extracted and submitted to high-throughput sequencing. Shannon diversity index, in both the rumen and colon, was unaffected by LY; however, in the rumen it was lowest 7 d after calving and returned to precalving values at 21 d in milk, whereas in the colon it was greatest 14 d before calving but decreased after calving. In the rumen, LY supplementation increased the relative abundance (RA) of Bacteroidales (group UCG-001), Lachnospiracea (groups UCG-002 and UCG-006), and Flexilinea 14 d before calving, and increased RA of Streptococcus 21 d after calving compared with control cows. However, changes in the ruminal microbiota were more drastic across days relative to calving than as influenced by the dietary treatment, and the effect of LY in the colon was milder than in the rumen. The ruminal RA of several genera was associated with postcalving DMI, and that of Gastranaerophilales was the only order positively associated with milk yield. Several genera were positively correlated with feed efficiency, with Clostridiales (unclassified) being the only genus negatively associated with feed efficiency. In the colon, Prevotellaceae (group Ga6A1) was the only genus positively associated with feed efficiency. The ruminal RA of Prevotella 7 and Ruminobacter 14 d precalving was negatively correlated with dry matter intake and milk yield postcalving. The RA of Parabacteroides in the colon 14 d before calving was negatively correlated with milk yield, whereas the RA of Eggerthellaceae (unclassified) and Erysipelotrichaceae (groups c and unclassified) were positively correlated with feed efficiency. Interestingly, LY supplementation doubled the RA of Eggerthellaceae (unclassified) in the colon. It is concluded that microbial diversity in the rumen experiences a transient reduction after calving, whereas in the colon, the reduction is maintained at least until 21 d in milk. Most of the effects of LY on rumen microbiota were observed before calving, whereas in the colon, LY effects were more moderate but consistent and independent of the stage of production. The microbial community of the rumen after calving is more associated with feed intake, milk yield, and feed efficiency than that of the colon. However, the colon microbiota before calving is more associated with feed efficiency after calving than that of the rumen.


Assuntos
Bovinos/microbiologia , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Microbiota/fisiologia , Rúmen/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/efeitos dos fármacos , Parto/fisiologia
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(7): 6167-6173, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103306

RESUMO

The current study investigated the effects of hydroxyselenomethionine (HMBSe), a novel organic selenium (Se) additive, on lactation performance, blood profiles, antioxidative status, and transfer efficiency of Se in early-lactation dairy cows. Sixty multiparous early-lactating dairy cows with similar days in milk (57 d; standard deviation = 9.9) and milk yield (36.5 kg/d; standard deviation = 1.42) were fed a basal diet containing 0.04 mg of Se/kg (dry matter basis). These cows were assigned to 1 of 4 groups following a randomized complete block design as follows: control (basal diet) or HMBSe addition (0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 mg of Se/kg of dry matter). The experiment lasted for 13 wk, with the first week as adaptation. The results showed that milk yields (raw, protein, and lactose) and feed efficiency were improved in a quadratic manner following increased dietary HMBSe addition, whereas energy-corrected milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and total solid yields tended to be enhanced quadratically. In terms of whole-blood variables, red blood cell and white blood cell levels were increased quadratically, whereas hemoglobin concentration increased linearly with increased HMBSe addition. Plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations tended to increase linearly along with HMBSe addition. Plasma superoxide dismutase activity increased quadratically with increased HMBSe addition. The total antioxidant capacity in plasma tended to improve quadratically when cows were fed more HMBSe. Moreover, plasma malondialdehyde concentrations of dairy cows tended to decrease in a quadratic manner when dietary HMBSe increased. The Se concentrations in milk, plasma, and milk/plasma ratio increased linearly following increased HMBSe addition. In conclusion, HMBSe improved lactation performance, health status, and milk Se concentrations in early-lactating dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/metabolismo , Selenometionina/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Lactose/análise , Contagem de Leucócitos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise
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