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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109016, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901738

RESUMO

Infections with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica remain a serious problem in dairy herds causing significant production losses. In sheep, a strong relationship between F. hepatica infections and an increase in serum ketone bodies due to reduced feed intake and liver damage was demonstrated. We hypothesized that F. hepatica infections might contribute to an increase in milk ketone bodies in dairy herds. Thus, the objective of the study was to estimate the association between F. hepatica bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies and milk production parameters (milk yield, milk protein, fat yield), somatic cell count (SCC) and the milk ketone bodies ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetone, inferred from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, via linear mixed model analysis. A further aim was to follow up the F. hepatica seroprevalence in dairy herds in the northern German region East Frisia. We collected BTM samples between October and December from 1022 herds in 2017 and 1318 herds in 2018. Overall, 33.1 % of the herds tested positive in 2017 and 37.0 % in 2018, showing decreased F. hepatica seroprevalences compared to prior seroprevalence studies in the same region in 2010, 2008 and 2006 (> 45 % positive herds). We estimated a significant negative association (P < 0.001) between herd F. hepatica infection category and average milk yield with a loss of -1.62 kg per cow per day in strongly infected herds compared to BTM ELISA negative herds. Moreover, F. hepatica infection category had a significant effect on herd average milk protein and fat yield (P < 0.001), showing a decrease of 0.06 kg for both parameters from BTM ELISA negative herds to strongly infected herds. No significant association with milk SCC was found (P = 0.664). Regarding ketone bodies, we estimated significant higher average BHB values in strongly infected herds compared to the other three infection categories in the model analysis (P = 0.002). The association between F. hepatica infection category and acetone values was not significant (P = 0.079). Besides primary ketosis, fasciolosis should be considered as differential diagnosis in dairy herds with increased BHB values.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Cetonas/análise , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/patologia , Alemanha , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489097

RESUMO

Introduction: The prison population in low-income countries is a group vulnerable to undernutrition, particularly incarcerated women. The aim of the study is to assess the nutritional status of women in prison and to determine the social profile and prison conditions related to undernutrition. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 125 women prisoners in Antanimora prison located in the city of Antananarivo, Madagascar. All women detained for 3 months or more at the time of the survey were included in the study. Data collection was conducted in May and June 2013. A survey of women and anthropometric measurements were carried out to collect the data. Results: The proportion of undernourished female prisoners is 38.4%. Five percent of pregnant and lactating women and 44.3% of non-lactating and non-pregnant women are undernourished. The factors related to undernutrition of women prisoners are: taking two meals a day instead of three meals (p = 0.003), insufficient energy intake (p < 0.001), incarceration duration of more than 10 months (p < 0.001), absence of family visits (p = 0.013) and lack of financial assistance from family (p = 0.013). Conclusion: Improving the prisoners' diets and assistance from family both help to fight against prisoner undernutrition in prisons.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/fisiologia , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1076, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation contributes to the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), a novel method appraising the inflammatory potential of diet, has been utilized to examine the association between diet and bone health among postmenopausal women or the elderly. However, its relationship with bone density (BD) in lactating women has not been studied. METHODS: The prospective study was conducted to assess the possible association between DII and maternal BD during lactation. We enrolled 150 lactating women in the cohort. Participants were measured ultrasonic BD as baseline values at 1 month postpartum. After five-month follow up, the participants' BD were measured again. DII scores were calculated from semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and divided into tertiles. We compared the differences in the changes of BD at 6 months postpartum without or with adjustment for potential covariates across the tertiles. RESULTS: The women in Q1 of DII scores had less bone mass loss than those in Q2 and Q3 without adjustment for any covariates (p < 0.01); after adjusting demographic characteristics such as BMI (kg/m2) at 6 months postpartum, educational level, metabolic equivalent (MET), daily energy intake (kcal/d), we found that participants in the highest tertile of DII scores had much more bone loss than those in the lowest tertile (p = 0.038). However, in the test for trend, no significant association between DII and the changes of maternal BD at 6 months postpartum was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese lactating women with higher DII scores have more bone mass loss; however significant differences and trends are attenuated and/or disappear depending on covariates and confounders that are taken into account in statistical analysis. The further study should be conducted in larger population to explore whether the significant association between DII and BD exists in Chinese lactating women.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Período Pós-Parto , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(10): 1125-1133, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408364

RESUMO

Mammary gland involution is a regressive process for the gland to return to its prepregnancy state after lactation and comprises an initial reversible and second remodeling stage. Although many genes and the multiple expression profiles of their mRNAs have been found in this process, the mechanisms controlling the profiles are largely unknown. In this study, we identified and analyzed transcription factor Sox4 in mammary gland involution. Elevated expression of Sox4 gene in the first stage (48 h after weaning) was observed at the mRNA and protein levels in the mouse mammary gland. Immunohistochemistry of the involuting gland indicated that Sox4 was located in the nuclei of epithelial cells. Nuclear Sox4 was also detected in the second stage, but unlikely to be involved in cell death, one of the characteristic events of involution. To clarify the functional roles of Sox4 in involution, we introduced a model, including a normal mammary epithelial cell line, for finding candidate target genes of this transcription factor and examined its effect on tenascin C mRNA expression.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética , Tenascina/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lactação/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Gravidez , Ligação Proteica , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/metabolismo , Tenascina/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Desmame
5.
Animal ; 13(S1): s35-s41, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280741

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence supports that the hormone prolactin (PRL) is galactopoietic in dairy ruminants. Accordingly, the inhibition of PRL secretion by the dopamine agonists quinagolide and cabergoline causes a sharp decline in milk production and could be useful in several critical periods. First, PRL inhibition may reduce the incidence during the periparturient period of metabolic disorders caused by the abrupt increase in energy demand for milk production. Metabolic disturbances can be lessened by reducing milk output by milking once a day or incompletely in the first few days of lactation. The injection of cows with quinagolide for the first 4 days of lactation reduced milk production during the first week of lactation without any residual effects. Blood glucose and calcium concentrations were higher and ß-hydroxybutyric acid concentration was lower in the quinagolide-treated cows. Second, PRL inhibition may help sick or injured lactating cows, considering that they can fall into severe negative energy balance when they are unable to consume enough feed to support their milk production. This leads to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to diseases. When cows were subjected to feed restriction and were treated with quinagolide, the decrease in milk production was accelerated without any residual effects. The quinagolide-treated cows had higher glucose and lower ß-hydroxybutyric acid and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations than the control cows did. Third, PRL inhibition may facilitate drying-off in high-yielding cows, because they are often dried off while still producing significant quantities of milk, which delays mammary involution and increases risk of mastitis. Therefore, strategies that reduce milk production before drying-off and accelerate mammary gland involution could be an important management tool. In this context, inhibition of PRL was utilised to accelerate mammary gland dry-off. Quinagolide decreased milk production within the first day of treatment, and both quinagolide and cabergoline induced more rapid changes in several markers of mammary gland involution after drying-off. In addition, quinagolide improved the animals' resistance to intramammary infection. These results suggest that the inhibition of PRL could be a strategy for facilitating drying-off, reducing metabolic stress during the postpartum period, and alleviating acute nutritional stress during illness without compromising the overall productivity of dairy ruminants.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Prolactina/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Aminoquinolinas , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Cabergolina , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Prolactina/metabolismo
6.
Animal ; 13(S1): s20-s25, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280742

RESUMO

Mammary development takes place during the growing and gestation periods in swine but it also continues after farrowing. In fact, a significant proportion of mammary accretion occurs during lactation and is stimulated by suckling. After piglets are weaned, there is involution of the mammary glands and the process of mammogenesis starts again during the next parity. Suckling of a teat for the first 12 to 14 h after farrowing is not sufficient to maintain lactation, and mammary involution accompanied by alterations in gene transcription will take place. The involution process is reversible within 1 day postpartum but is not reversible if a mammary gland is unsuckled for 3 days. Mammary glands that undergo involution early in lactation do not show further involution in the post-weaning period. The action of a teat being suckled does not only affect mammary development in the ongoing lactation but it also impacts mammogenesis in the following lactation. Indeed, when a mammary gland is not suckled in first parity it has a diminished development and lower milk yield in second parity. Furthermore, it was shown that suckling of a teat for only the first 2 days postpartum in primiparous sows is sufficient to ensure optimal mammary development and milk yield from that teat in the next lactation. The behavior of nursing piglets in early lactation is also affected by whether or not a teat was previously used. Such knowledge on lactation biology is essential in order to develop the best adapted management strategies for the currently used hyperprolific sow lines and to optimize growth rate of their piglets. This review gives an update on the role of suckling for mammary development in lactating sows and on how it can affect management strategies of primiparous sows.


Assuntos
Lactação/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Feminino , Paridade , Estimulação Física , Gravidez , Desmame
7.
Animal ; 13(S1): s75-s81, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280745

RESUMO

The increasing lactational performance of dairy cows over the last few decades is closely related to higher nutritional requirements. The decrease in dry matter intake during the peripartal period results in a considerable mobilisation of body tissues (mainly fat reserves and muscle mass) to compensate for the prevailing lack of energy and nutrients. Despite the activation of adaptive mechanisms to mobilise nutrients from body tissues for maintenance and milk production, the increased metabolic load is still a risk factor for animal health. The prevalence of production diseases, particularly subclinical ketosis is high in the early lactation period. Increased ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations further depress gluconeogenesis, feed intake and the immune system. Despite a variety of adaptation responses to nutrient and energy deficit that exists among dairy cows, an early and non-invasive detection of developing metabolic disorders in milk samples would be useful. The frequent and regular milking process of dairy cows creates the ability to obtain samples at any stage of lactation. Routine identification of biomarkers accurately characterising the physiological status of an animal is crucial for decisive strategies. The present overview recapitulates established markers measured in milk that are associated with metabolic health of dairy cows. Specifically, measurements of milk fat, protein, lactose and urea concentrations are evaluated. Changes in the ratio of milk fat to protein may indicate an increased risk for rumen acidosis and ketosis. The costly determination of individual fatty acids in milk creates barriers for grouping of fatty acids into saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Novel approaches include the potential of mid-IR (MIR) based predictions of BHB and acetone in milk, although the latter are not directly measured, but only estimated via indirect associations of concomitantly altered milk composition during (sub)clinical ketosis. Although MIR-based ketone body concentrations in milk are not suitable to monitor the metabolic status of the individual cow, they provide an estimate of the overall herd or specific groups of animals earlier in a particular stage of lactation. Management decisions can be made earlier and animal health status improved by adjusting diet composition.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Cetose/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/veterinária , Leite/química , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/análise , Acidose/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Cetose/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais , Rúmen/fisiopatologia
8.
Animal ; 13(S1): s94-s99, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280747

RESUMO

Because of technical limitations, an impact of machine milking on the teat tissue cannot be avoided. The continuance of this impact during and after milking depends on a variety of factors related to the physiological regulation of milk ejection, as well as the different production systems and milking machine settings. Milking machine settings aim to achieve a high milking performance, that is, short machine-on time at a maximum of milk harvest. However, a high milking performance level is often related to an impact on the teat tissue caused by vacuum or liner compression that can lead to pathological dimensions of congestion of the tissue or hyperkeratosis as a long-term effect. Toward the end of milking a decrease of milk flow rate causes a raise of mouthpiece and teat end vacuum levels and hence an increase of the impact on the teat tissue and the risk of tissue damage. The mechanical stress by the milking machine activates a cascade of cellular mechanisms that lead to an excessive keratin growth and thickening of the keratin layer. Consequently, a complete closure of the teat canal is disabled and the risk of bacterial invasion and intramammary infection increases. Another consequence of high vacuum impact is fluid accumulation and congestion in the tissue of teat tip and teat basis because of an obstruction in venous return. The present review paper provides an overview of the available scientific information to describe the interaction between different levels and types of system vacuum, mouthpiece chamber vacuum, teat end (claw) vacuum, liner pressure, and the risk of short-term and long-term impacts on the teat tissue.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Lactação/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Feminino , Fatores de Tempo , Vácuo
9.
Animal ; 13(S1): s52-s64, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280749

RESUMO

The mammary tissue is characterized by its capacity to adapt in response to a wide variety of changing conditions. This adaptation capacity is referred to as the plasticity of mammary tissue. In dairy ruminants, lactation is challenged by modifications that can either be induced on purpose, such as by modifying management practices, or occur involuntarily, when adverse environmental constraints arise. These modifications can elicit both immediate changes in milk yield and composition and carryover effects that persist after the end of the challenge. This review focuses on the current knowledge concerning the cellular mechanisms underlying mammary tissue plasticity. The main mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon are changes in the activity and number of mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Changes in the number of these cells result from variations in the rates of cell proliferation and death as well as changes in the rate MEC exfoliation. The number of MECs also depends on the number of resident adult mammary stem cells and their progenitors, which can regenerate the pools of the various mammary cells. Several challenges, including changes in milking frequency, changes in level of feed supply and hormonal manipulations, have been shown to modulate milk yield together with changes in mammary cell activity, turnover and exfoliation. Epigenetic changes may be an additional mechanism of adaptation. Indeed, changes in DNA methylation and reductions in milk yield have been observed during once-daily milking and during mastitis in dairy cows and may affect cell activity persistently. In contrast to what has been assumed for a long time, no carryover effect on milk yield were observed after feed supply challenges in dairy cows and modification of milking frequency in dairy goats, even though the number of mammary cells was affected. In addition, mammary tissue plasticity has been shown to be influenced by the stage of lactation, health status and genetic factors. In conclusion, the cellular mechanisms underlying mammary tissue plasticity are diverse, and the mammary tissue either does or does not show elastic properties (with no permanent deformation), in response to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Lactação/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Animais , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Proliferação de Células , Indústria de Laticínios , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Feminino
10.
Animal ; 13(S1): s65-s74, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280750

RESUMO

This paper reviews the effects of extended lactation (EXT) as a strategy in dairy cattle on milk production and persistency, reproduction, milk quality, lifetime performance of the cow and finally the economic effects on herd and farm levels as well as the impact on emission of greenhouse gas at product level. Primiparous cows are able to produce equal or more milk per feeding day during EXT compared with a standard 305-d lactation, whereas results for multiparous cows are inconsistent. Cows managed for EXT can achieve a higher lifetime production while delivering milk with unchanged or improved quality properties. Delaying insemination enhances mounting behaviour and allows insemination after the cow's energy balance has become positive. However, in most cases EXT has no effect or a non-significant positive effect on reproduction. The EXT strategy sets off a cascade of effects at herd and farm level. Thus, the EXT strategy leads to fewer calvings and thereby expected fewer diseases, fewer replacement heifers and fewer dry days per cow per year. The optimal lifetime scenario for milk production was modelled to be an EXT of 16 months for first parity cows followed by an EXT of 10 months for later lactations. Modelling studies of herd dynamics indicate a positive effect of EXT on lifetime efficiency (milk per dry matter intake), mainly originating from benefits of EXT on daily milk yield in primiparous cows and the reduced number of replacement heifers. Consequently, EXT also leads to reduced total meat production at herd level. For the farmer, EXT can give the same economic return as a traditional lactation period. At farm level, EXT can contribute to a reduction in the environmental impact of dairy production, mainly as a consequence of the reduced production of beef. A wider dissemination of the EXT concept will be supported by methods to predict which cows may be most suitable for EXT, and clarification of how milking frequency and feeding strategy through the lactation can be organised to support milk yield and an appropriate body condition at the next calving.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Reprodução , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Leite/normas , Paridade , Gravidez
11.
Animal ; 13(S1): s42-s51, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280751

RESUMO

Shortening or omitting the dry period improves the energy balance and metabolic status of dairy cows in early lactation. Metabolic, behaviour and welfare effects throughout lactation, however, are unclear. The current paper reviews long-term metabolic and welfare consequences of short and no dry period, as well as feeding strategies and individual cow characteristics that could support in optimising management of cows with a short or no dry period. The paper will conclude with impacts of short and no dry periods at herd level and in practice. Energy balance after no or a short dry period is more positive during the complete subsequent lactation. After the initial improvement in early lactation, cows after no dry period tend to fatten and may have a too low lactation persistency to be continuously milked until the onset of the subsequent lactation. Reducing dietary energy level for cows with no dry period reduced fattening during the complete lactation but did not improve lactation persistency. Feeding a more lipogenic diet for cows with a short or no dry period did not affect the energy balance or lactation persistency during the complete lactation, although a lipogenic diet resulted in lower plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentration and greater plasma growth hormone concentration, compared with a glucogenic diet. Effects of dry period length on udder health are ambiguous, whereas short and no dry periods improved fertility in most studies. Omission of the dry period changed behaviour of cows both before and after calving, with a longer lying time and greater feed intake after calving, suggesting a better adaptation to a new lactation. Individual cow characteristics like parity, genotype, prepartum body condition score, and milk yield level determined the metabolic response of cows to a short or no dry period. In conclusion, short or no dry periods increase the energy balance in the complete lactation. Feeding strategies can be used to limit fattening of cows with no or short dry period, but the studied feeding strategies did not increase lactation persistency. Improved fertility and behavioural changes around calving suggest a better adaptation to a new lactation in case of no dry period. Customised dry period lengths for individual cows could improve metabolic status of cows at risk of a severe negative energy balance while minimising milk losses.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Paridade , Gravidez
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 7619-7639, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301829

RESUMO

The physiological control of lactation through coordinated adaptations is of fundamental importance for mammalian neonatal life. The putative actions of reduced insulin sensitivity and responsiveness and enhanced adipose tissue lipolysis spare glucose for the mammary synthesis of milk. However, severe insulin antagonism and body fat mobilization may jeopardize hepatic health and lactation in dairy cattle. Interestingly, lipolysis- and dietary-derived fatty acids may impair insulin sensitivity in cows. The mechanisms are undefined yet have major implications for the development of postpartum fatty liver disease. In nonruminants, the sphingolipid ceramide is a potent mediator of saturated fat-induced insulin resistance that defines in part the mechanisms of type 2 diabetes mellitus and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In ruminants including the lactating dairy cow, the functions of ceramide had remained virtually undescribed. Through a series of hypothesis-centered studies, ceramide has emerged as a potential antagonist of insulin-stimulated glucose utilization by adipose and skeletal muscle tissues in dairy cattle. Importantly, bovine data suggest that the ability of ceramide to inhibit insulin action likely depends on the lipolysis-dependent hepatic synthesis and secretion of ceramide during early lactation. Although these mechanisms appear to fade as lactation advances beyond peak milk production, early evidence suggests that palmitic acid feeding is a means to augment ceramide supply. Herein, we review a body of work that focuses on sphingolipid biology and the role of ceramide in the dairy cow within the framework of hepatic and fatty acid metabolism, insulin function, and lactation. The potential involvement of ceramide within the endocrine control of lactation is also considered.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ceramidas/fisiologia , Esfingolipídeos/fisiologia , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Insulina/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8343-8351, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301830

RESUMO

Methionine (Met) is one of the 2 most limiting amino acids for milk production in dairy cow diets. The accepted "ideal" ratio of lysine (Lys) to Met (L:M) when formulating diets is 3:1. However, blood from cows fed corn silage-based diets without supplemental rumen-protected Met averages approximately 3.6:1 L:M. Recent in vivo research on cattle immunonutrition has revealed that the immune system could benefit from greater Met supply. To study more closely the effects of different L:M ratios, blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) were isolated from 5 Holstein cows in mid-lactation (238 ± 20 d postpartum, 33.8 ± 3.8 kg of milk/d; mean ± SD). The PMN were incubated at 3 different levels of L:M (3.6:1, 2.9:1, or 2.4:1) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at either 0 or 50 µg/mL for 2 h at 37°C. Target genes were associated with cytokines, pathogen recognition, nuclear receptors, killing mechanisms, and Met and glutathione metabolism. Data were subjected to ANOVA using PROC MIXED in SAS, with L:M, LPS, and their interaction as fixed effects. Stimulation with LPS upregulated genes related to cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL10 and IL6) and nuclear receptors, including nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB1) and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), and downregulated the mRNA abundance of chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1), lysozyme (LYZ) and glutathione reductase (GSR). A linear decrease was observed in the mRNA abundance of TNF when L:M was decreased. A similar response was observed for interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and NFKB1 abundance in cells stimulated with LPS (linear effect). A linear increase of LYZ mRNA expression as L:M decreased was detected in unstimulated cells. Furthermore, a decrease in L:M led to a linear decrease of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mRNA abundance in cells challenged with LPS. Overall, LPS challenge triggered the activation of isolated PMN from mid-lactation cows. However, data suggest the use of a shorter incubation time to capture the peak response and not the resolution of the inflammatory response as in the present study. Our results indicate a possible involvement of Met in modulating PMN inflammatory and oxidative stress status and in helping the resolution of inflammation after initial stimulation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Imunidade/genética , Metionina/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Células Cultivadas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Rúmen/metabolismo
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8546-8558, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301834

RESUMO

In the semi-arid highlands of central Mexico, triticale (× Triticosecale L.) is emerging as an alternative, less water-demanding forage crop than alfalfa for dairy cattle. Studies reported here were aimed at evaluating triticale hay (TH) relative to alfalfa hay (AH) for lactating cow performance, apparent digestibility, N partition, and ruminal degradation kinetics of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Study 1 was conducted on a privately owned farm. Four barns were used to conduct 4 replicated 3 × 3 Latin squares (1 barn = 1 square), where each barn included 3 pens (experimental units) receiving 1 of 3 dietary treatments. Each pen had 62 Holstein dairy cows. All diets included a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 42:58 (DM basis), which is typical for intensive dairy farms of the region. Dietary treatments were formulated to replace AH with TH on a CP basis, and included (DM basis) 15.1% AH and 0% TH, 9.0% AH and 7.4% TH, and 0% AH and 16.4% TH. Diets were iso-energetic (1.64 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM) and iso-nitrogenous (17.9% CP). Pen-level DM intake and milk production were from all cows in the pen, but pen-level milk composition, apparent digestibility, and N partitioning were from 8 cows (observational units) randomly selected in each pen. Orthogonal contrasts were used to determine linear and quadratic effects of increasing TH from 0 to 7.4, and 16.4% of dietary DM. Although DM intake was not affected, there was a tendency for CP intake to decline linearly and for NDF intake to increased linearly as TH replaced AH in the diet. Milk production declined linearly by 0.077 kg/d for each additional percentage unit of TH in the diet, which amounted to a 3.5% decline when TH replaced AH entirely. However, no effect was observed on energy-corrected milk production because of a compensatory linear effect of increasing milk fat concentration with the incorporation of TH in the diet. Total-tract NDF digestibility tended to increase linearly by 18.5%, but no differences were detected for urinary urea-N excretion and for N utilization estimated as milk N/(fecal N + urinary N + milk N). Study 2 was an in situ trial conducted to determine the degradation kinetics of AH and TH used in study 1. In spite of differences in degradation kinetics parameters for DM, CP, and NDF, only NDF effective ruminal degradation tended to be greater for TH than AH. Replacing AH with TH at the level typically found in intensive dairy farms of the semi-arid regions of Mexico had minimal effects on milk production and N utilization.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Medicago sativa , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Triticale , Ração Animal , Animais , Clima , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Digestão , Feminino , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , México , Leite/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8559-8570, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301843

RESUMO

Because of its high yield and the ability of cows to graze it in situ, fodder beet (FB) has become a popular crop in grazing systems, particularly for nonlactating cows. Due to its high sugar content, however, the transition to FB must be managed carefully to avoid rumen acidosis and associated metabolic dysfunction. The initial consumption of FB reduces ruminal pH; however, it is unclear whether this affects liver metabolism and results in systemic inflammation, as has been reported during subacute ruminal acidosis from high-grain diets. We used a quantitative case study approach to undertake additional measurements on a project demonstrating the effects of FB on urinary nitrogen excretion. The objective of our component, therefore, was to determine whether the inclusion of high rates of FB in the diet of nonlactating cows changed indicators of hepatic metabolism relative to a standard diet for nonlactating grazing cows. During the nonlactating period, multiparous, pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly assigned (n = 15 per treatment) to either pasture (8 kg of DM/cow per day) with corn silage (4 kg of DM/cow per day; PA) or transitioning onto an FB diet (8 kg of DM/cow per day) with pasture silage (4 kg of DM/cow per day; BT) over 14 d. Blood was sampled and the liver was biopsied during the adaptation period and after 7 d of full diet allocation. The hepatic expression of genes involved in peroxisomal oxidation was increased in cows adapting to FB, whereas the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial oxidation was increased when cows were on their full allocation of FB. These results indicate changes to fatty acid metabolism with FB consumption. Expression of 2 genes involved in the unfolded protein response was greater during the adaptation period in cows consuming FB, potentially reflecting negative effects of transitioning onto the FB diet on hepatic metabolism. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in the methionine cycle was increased in the BT cows. We hypothesize that this is a result of FB betaine absorption, although it is unclear to what extent betaine escapes ruminal degradation. While on the full diet allocation, there were lower serum concentrations of markers of hepatic stress in BT cows and no difference in expression of genes involved in oxidative stress compared with pasture-fed cows. However, there was an increase in plasma haptoglobin concentrations, indicative of an acute inflammatory response in BT cows. From this case study, we conclude that the results indicate no negative effects of the FB diet on liver metabolism and, possibly, positive effects on hepatic function. It appears, therefore, that the transition of nonlactating cows onto an FB diet can be managed to minimize the negative effects of the high sugar intake. Further research on the amount of betaine that escapes ruminal degradation in cows consuming FB would be of value to better understand whether betaine reduces liver damage in dairy cows consuming FB.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fígado/metabolismo , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Beta vulgaris/efeitos adversos , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química , Nitrogênio/urina , Gravidez , Rúmen/química , Zea mays
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8571-8585, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301845

RESUMO

Grazed grass is the cheapest feed available for dairy cows in temperate regions; thus, to maximize profits, dairy farmers must optimize the use of this high-quality feed. Previous research has defined the benefits of including white clover (Trifolium repens L.) in grass swards for milk production, usually at reduced nitrogen usage and stocking rate. The aim of this study was to quantify the responses in milk production of dairy cows grazing tetraploid or diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; PRG) sown with and without white clover but without reducing stocking rate or nitrogen usage. We compared 4 grazing treatments in this study: tetraploid PRG-only swards, diploid PRG-only swards, tetraploid with white clover swards, and diploid with white clover swards. Thirty cows were assigned to each treatment, and swards were rotationally grazed at a farm-level stocking rate of 2.75 cows/ha and a nitrogen fertilizer rate of 250 kg/ha annually. Sward white clover content was 23.6 and 22.6% for tetraploid with white clover swards and diploid with white clover swards, respectively. Milk production did not differ between the 2 ploidies during this 4-yr study, but cows grazing the PRG-white clover treatments had significantly greater milk yields (+596 kg/cow per year) and milk solid yields (+48 kg/cow per year) compared with cows grazing the PRG-only treatments. The PRG-white clover swards also produced 1,205 kg of DM/ha per year more herbage, which was available for conserving and buffer feeding in spring when these swards were less productive than PRG-only swards. Although white clover is generally combined with reduced nitrogen fertilizer use, this study provides evidence that including white clover in either tetraploid or diploid PRG swards, combined with high levels of nitrogen fertilizer, can effectively increase milk production per cow and per hectare.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Lolium , Trifolium , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Fertilizantes/análise , Leite , Nitrogênio/análise , Gravidez , Estações do Ano
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8537-8545, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255266

RESUMO

Heat stress is known to affect performance of dairy cows experiencing prolonged periods of high temperature and relative humidity. Less is known about its effects in cooler climates. The goals of the present study were to determine the prevalence of days susceptible to cause mild heat stress in dairy cows living in a humid continental climate and to investigate the relationship between the number of consecutive days of mild heat stress and milk, fat, protein, and lactose production. A 6-yr data set (2010-2015) containing 606,031 milk analysis records for 34,360 Holstein dairy cows at different parities was matched with the corresponding daily maximum temperature-humidity index. Exposure to heat stress conditions was divided into 5 categories corresponding to 0, 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 6, and 7 to 8 consecutive days before milk test date. On average, cows were exposed to heat stress conditions for 135.8 ± 5.9 d/yr in Southwest Quebec and 95.3 ± 10.2 d/yr in Eastern Quebec. Cows experiencing heat stress conditions produced on average less fat, protein, and energy-corrected milk and lower fat and protein concentrations. The decrease in milk fat reached 6% for category 7 to 8 exposure of cows in parity 3 or more. The association between exposure category and milk yield and lactose yield and concentration was weak. Heat stress lowered milk fat and protein production but had little effect on milk volume output. Further research is necessary to better understand the mechanism underlying the effects of sporadic low- to medium-intensity heat stress on dairy productivity.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Clima , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Umidade , Lactação/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Gorduras/análise , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Gravidez , Quebeque , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8423-8430, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326171

RESUMO

In automatic milking systems (AMS), it is important to maximize the amount of milk harvested per day to increase profitability. One strategy to achieve this goal is to reduce the time it takes to milk each cow. Several studies in conventional milking systems have shown that milking time can be reduced by increasing the milk flow rate at which the teatcup is removed. One study analyzed the effect of increasing the milk flow switch point on milking time in a confinement AMS. No research has been conducted on teatcup removal settings in pasture-based automatic milking systems. Furthermore, not all AMS remove the teatcups based on absolute milk flow rate (kg/min); hence, it is important to study alternative strategies. The aim of this experiment was to measure the effect of 3 novel teatcup removal strategies on box time (time in the AMS), milking time, somatic cell count (SCC), and milk production rate of cows milked in a pasture-based automatic milking system. Each teatcup removal strategy in this study was applied for a period of 1 wk to 1 of 3 groups of cows and then switched to the following group until cows had transitioned through all treatments. The teatcup removal strategies consisted of removing the teatcup when the quarter flow rate fell below 20% of the quarter rolling average milk flow rate (TRS20), when quarter milk flow rate was below 30% of the rolling average milk flow rate (TRS30), and when quarter milk flow rate dropped below 50% of the rolling average milk flow rate (TRS50). A limit prevented teatcup removal if the calculated milk flow rate for teatcup removal was above 0.5 kg/min. This limit was in place for all treatments; however, it only affected the TRS50 treatment. The TRS30 strategy had 9-s shorter milking time and 11-s shorter box time than the TRS20 removal strategy. The TRS50 strategy had 8-s shorter milking time and 9-s shorter box time than the TRS20 teatcup removal strategy. There was no significant difference in milking time or box time between the TRS30 and TRS50 teatcup removal strategies, probably due to the large variability in milk flow rate at teatcup removal. The TRS20 and TRS30 strategies did not differ in SCC or milk production rate. The 0.5 kg/min limit, which affected roughly 25% of milkings in the TRS50 treatment, may have distorted the effect that this setting had on milk time, box time, milk production rate, or SCC. The difference in box time for the TRS30 and TRS50 strategies could allow for more than 3 extra milkings per day.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/citologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Células , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Feminino , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7398-7407, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229279

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effect of straw yard housing during the dry period and 2 d of additional maternity pen housing postcalving on lying and feeding behavior and calving difficulty in Holstein dairy cows. In this study, 122 multiparous cows were moved to either a straw yard or into freestall housing 4 wk before their expected calving date. Cows that had been housed in straw yards stayed in the maternity pen for an additional 2 d after their calving day, but cows that had been housed in freestalls were moved to the general lactation group the morning after calving. Lying time, lying bouts, feeding time, number of feeder visits, feed intake, feeding rate, and assisted calvings were recorded. Observations were divided into 2 periods: precalving (the 4-wk dry period before calving) and postcalving (the day of calving and the 2 d after). During the precalving period, cows housed in straw yards showed a higher number of lying bouts but no difference in lying time compared with cows housed in freestalls. Cows that were housed longer in the straw-bedded maternity pen postcalving spent more time lying during the 2 d postcalving and had a higher number of lying bouts on the day of calving than cows moved to the freestall area on the day postcalving. Additionally, cows that were housed longer in the maternity pen had a slower feeding rate and longer total feeding time during the 2 d after calving than cows with a shorter stay in the maternity pen. We found no difference in the number of assisted calvings. This study suggests that straw yard housing during the dry period may facilitate the transition between standing and lying. Furthermore, the extended stay in the maternity pen postcalving increased lying time, the number of lying bouts, and feeding time, but decreased feeding rate compared with cows that were moved to the general lactation group on the day postcalving. These results suggest potential recovery benefits with an extended stay in a maternity pen postcalving. However, further studies are needed to separate the effects of housing in the dry period and the effects of an extended housing in individual maternity pens.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Lactação/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Paridade , Parto/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Gravidez
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 7717-7722, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229280

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine if space allocation influenced the concentration of biomolecules in buffalo milk and dairy products. Intensively housed buffaloes (n = 96) were randomly assigned to 2 groups according to days in milk, parity, and milk yield: group S10 had a space allocation of 10 m2 per buffalo and group S15 had a space allocation of 15 m2 per buffalo. Individual milk yield was recorded daily. Twice a month, a bulk milk sample was collected for each group, as well as whey, ricotta, and mozzarella cheese, to assess cheese yield and to conduct HPLC-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, milk antioxidant activity, and cell viability analyses. We tested milk extracts from the 2 groups in vitro to evaluate their efficacy in counteracting endothelial oxidative damage induced by high glucose. We evaluated reproductive function in 28 buffaloes from each group using the Ovsynch-timed artificial insemination program. We observed no differences in milk quantity or quality in terms of fat, protein, or lactose, and reproductive function did not differ between the 2 groups. Compared with group S10, group S15 had higher concentrations of carnitine (56.7 ± 1.1 vs. 39.8 ± 0.7 mg/L in milk and 40.9 ± 0.8 vs. 31.7 ± 0.7 mg/L in whey), acetyl-l-carnitine (51.9 ± 0.3 vs. 39.7 ± 0.7 mg/L in milk and 41.1 ± 1.7 vs. 28.7 ± 2.6 mg/L in whey), propionyl-l-carnitine (34.8 ± 1.0 vs. 21.0 ± 0.9 mg/L in milk and 26.9 ± 0.8 vs. 17.6 ± 1.2 mg/L in whey), glycine betaine (23.1 ± 1.9 vs. 13.5 ± 1.6 mg/L in milk and 10.7 ± 0.4 vs. 7.9 ± 0.5 mg/L in whey), and δ-valerobetaine (24.2 ± 0.5 vs. 16.7 ± 0.5 mg/L in milk and 22.0 ± 0.9 vs. 15.5 ± 0.7 mg/L in whey). Group S15 also had higher total antioxidant activity than group S10 (56.7 ± 1.9 vs. 46.4 ± 1.13 mM Trolox equivalents). Co-incubation of high-glucose-treated endothelial cells with milk extracts from group S15 improved cell viability compared with cells treated with high glucose only; it also reduced intracellular lipid peroxidation (144.3 ± 0.4 vs. 177.5 ± 1.9%), reactive oxygen species (141.3 ± 0.9 vs. 189.3 ± 4.7 optical density units), and cytokine release (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1ß, IL-6). Greater space allocation was associated with higher levels of biomolecules in buffalo milk. This could have been the result of improved welfare in buffaloes that were allocated more space.


Assuntos
Búfalos/fisiologia , Queijo/análise , Abrigo para Animais , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Betaína/análise , Carnitina/análise , Aglomeração , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Feminino , Glucose/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia
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