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1.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153360, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in Curcuma longa with multiple therapeutic properties, such as anti-inflammatory, wound healing and anti-cancer effects. Curcuma longa is also used as a galactagogue to improve milk production during lactation. PURPOSE: To assess curcumin could have therapeutic potential for breastfeeding mothers, we investigated whether and how curcumin influences milk production in lactating mammary epithelial cells (MECs) at the cellular and molecular levels. METHODS: We prepared a lactating MEC culture model that produced milk components and formed less-permeable tight junctions (TJs) to investigate the molecular mechanism of curcumin on milk production, TJs, and inflammation in vitro. RESULTS: Curcumin downregulated milk production in lactation MECs concurrently with inactivation of lactogenesis-relating signaling (STAT5 and glucocorticoid receptor). The maintenance of a less-permeable TJ barrier was also confirmed, although the TJ protein claudin-4 increased. Curcumin inactivated NFκB and STAT3 signaling, which are closely involved in inflammatory responses in weaning and mastitis mammary glands. The expression levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were also decreased by curcumin treatment. Furthermore, curcumin blocked activation of inflammatory signaling by lipopolysaccharide treatment in MECs, similar to those in MECs that were treated with diclofenac sodium. The drastic phosphorylation of ERK was induced by curcumin treatment in the absence of EGF. U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation, attenuated the adverse effects of curcumin on lactating MECs. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggests that curcumin downregulates milk production via inactivation of STAT5 and GR signaling with concurrent suppression of inflammatory responses via STAT3 and NFκB signaling in MECs. These findings provide new insights into the role of curcumin as a mild suppressor of milk production without inflammatory damages in breastfeeding mothers.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Caseínas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Curcumina/efeitos adversos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Mastite/tratamento farmacológico , Mastite/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1199-1206, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999198

RESUMO

Potential risks to the fetus or infant should be considered prior to medication during pregnancy and lactation. It is essential to evaluate the exposure levels of drugs and their related factors in addition to toxicological effects. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological complications in pregnancy; some women continue to use antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to control seizures. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are widely prescribed for several women who experience symptoms such as anxiety and insomnia during the postpartum period. In this review, we describe the 1) transport mechanisms of AEDs across the placenta and the effects of these drugs on placental transporters, and 2) the transfer of BZDs into breast milk. Our findings indicated that carrier systems were involved in the uptake of gabapentin (GBP) and lamotrigine (LTG) in placental trophoblast cell lines. SLC7A5 was the main contributor to GBP transport in placental cells. LTG was transported by a carrier that was sensitive to chloroquine, imipramine, quinidine, and verapamil. Short-term exposure to 16 AEDs had no effect on folic acid uptake in placental cells. However, long-term exposure to valproic acid (VPA) affected the expression of folate carriers (FOLR1, SLC46A1). Furthermore, VPA administration changed the expression levels of various transporters in rat placenta, suggesting that sensitivity to VPA differed across gestational stages. Lastly, we developed a method for quantifying eight BZDs in human breast milk and plasma using LC/MS/MS, and successfully applied it to quantify alprazolam in breast milk and plasma donated by a lactating woman.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/metabolismo , Benzodiazepinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/genética , Aleitamento Materno , Gabapentina/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Lamotrigina/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Aminoácidos Neutros Grandes/fisiologia , Troca Materno-Fetal , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Ácido Valproico/metabolismo , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Receptor 1 de Folato/genética , Receptor 1 de Folato/metabolismo , Gabapentina/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lamotrigina/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/genética , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/metabolismo , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0234289, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946456

RESUMO

The livestock industry is one of the main contributors to greenhouse gas emissions and there is an increasing demand for the industry to reduce its carbon footprint. Several studies have shown that feed additives 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate to be effective in reducing enteric methane emissions. The objective of this study was to estimate the net mitigating effect of using 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate on total greenhouse gas emissions in California dairy industry. A life cycle assessment approach was used to conduct a cradle-to-farm gate environmental impact analysis based on dairy production system in California. Emissions associated with crop production, feed additive production, enteric methane, farm management, and manure storage were calculated and expressed as kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kg of energy corrected milk. The total greenhouse gas emissions from baseline, 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate offered during lactation were 1.12, 0.993, and 1.08 kg CO2e/kg energy corrected milk, respectively. The average net reduction rates for 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate were 11.7% and 3.95%, respectively. In both cases, using the feed additives on the whole herd slightly improved overall carbon footprint reduction compared to limiting its use during lactation phase. Although both 3-nitroxypropanol and nitrate had effects on decreasing the total greenhouse gas emission, the former was much more effective with no known safety issues in reducing the carbon footprint of dairy production in California.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Aditivos Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo , Animais , California , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Pegada de Carbono/estatística & dados numéricos , Bovinos/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Efeito Estufa/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Lactação/metabolismo , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Propanóis/administração & dosagem , Propanóis/efeitos adversos
4.
Cell Rep ; 32(13): 108199, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966801

RESUMO

ACE2 binds the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and facilitates its cellular entry. Interferons activate ACE2 expression in pneumocytes, suggesting a critical role of cytokines in SARS-CoV-2 target cells. Viral RNA was detected in breast milk in at least seven studies, raising the possibility that ACE2 is expressed in mammary tissue during lactation. Here, we show that Ace2 expression in mouse mammary tissue is induced during pregnancy and lactation, which coincides with the activation of intronic enhancers. These enhancers are occupied by the prolactin-activated transcription factor STAT5 and additional regulatory factors, including RNA polymerase II. Deletion of Stat5a results in decommissioning of the enhancers and an 83% reduction of Ace2 mRNA. We also demonstrate that Ace2 expression increases during lactation in lung, but not in kidney and intestine. JAK/STAT components are present in a range of SARS-CoV-2 target cells, opening the possibility that cytokines contribute to the viral load and extrapulmonary pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Gravidez/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Animais , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/genética , Transdução de Sinais
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780761

RESUMO

The impact of cow mammary gland diseases on the quality of colostrum is not conclusively defined; research results are conflicting. However, it is widely believed that mastitis lowers the level of immunoglobulins and the quality of the colostrum produced. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of somatic cell counts (SCC) on the colostrum immunostimulating and chemical components. The experiment was conducted on an experimental organic dairy farm in which a herd of approximately 250 cows was kept in a freestall housing system, with the average performance exceeding 6,000 kg of milk per lactation. Colostrum and milk samples were taken individually from each cow seven times during the experiment: from the first to second day after calving-twice per day, and from the third to fifth day after calving-once per day. Therefore, after preliminary analyses, the cows were divided into two groups based on the cytological quality of their colostrum at the first collection: 1. SCC ≤400,000 cells/ml (good quality colostrum; GCC- 18 cows), 2. SCC ≥ 400,000 cells/ml (low quality colostrum; LCC- 22 cows). The study found almost double the concentration of immunoglobulins and essential fatty acids in first milking colostrum in the GCC group than in colostrum from the LCC group. In addition, an increase in the concentration of lysozyme in first milking colostrum was associated with a decrease in the concentration of immunoglobulins. In addition, the increase in the level of lysozyme was associated with a decrease in the concentration of immunoglobulins. In conclusion, the SCC of first milking colostrum can be used as an indicator of colostrum quality.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células/veterinária , Colostro/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite/química , Leite/citologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Gravidez
6.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567213

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of including Acacia mearnsii tannin extract (TA) as a feed additive on nutrition and productive performance of dairy cows grazing a high-quality temperate pasture and receiving supplementation with a concentrate feedstuff. Fourteen multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to either of the following treatments: concentrate without or with 20 g TA/kg dry matter (DM). Concentrate intake accounted for 32% of the total DM intake. Tannin addition increased the herbage DM intake by 22% (p < .05). There was no effect of TA inclusion on milk yield, milk composition, milk nitrogen (N) excretion, milk and plasma urea-N concentration, urinary excretion of total N, urea-N, and purine derivatives. However, TA inclusion increased the N intake and retention, total N excretion in manure, fecal N to urine N ratio, and decreased the dietary N efficiency for milk production and the percentage of ingested N excreted in urine (p < .05). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows grazing a high-quality temperate pasture with a concentrate containing 20 g TA/kg DM showed the potential of decreasing the proportion of ingested N excreted in urine without affecting the productive performance.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Herbivoria , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite/química , Taninos/administração & dosagem , Taninos/farmacologia , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Taninos/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6022-6031, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359984

RESUMO

Donkey milk is an ideal substitute for human milk owing to its similar composition. Nevertheless, changes in the composition and related metabolic pathways of free fatty acids (FFA) in donkey milk between colostrum and mature milk have not been studied well. In this study, metabolomic methods based on gas chromatography tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) were used to explore and compare FFA in donkey colostrum (DC) and mature milk (DMM). A total of 24 FFA were characterized and quantified in DC and in DMM. Of these, 11 FFA differed significantly between DC and DMM, and there were 6 key differential metabolic pathways. These results demonstrated that the composition of FFA in donkey milk changed with lactation stage. The interactions and metabolic pathways were further analyzed to explore the mechanisms that altered the milk composition during lactation. Our results provide insights into the changes in milk of the nonruminant mammals during lactation. The results provide practical information for the development of donkey milk products and a foundation for future research on specific milk nutrients.


Assuntos
Colostro/química , Equidae/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Metabolômica , Animais , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lactação/metabolismo
8.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 318(6): C1166-C1177, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320289

RESUMO

Suboptimal lactation is a common, yet underappreciated cause for early cessation of breastfeeding. Molecular regulation of mammary gland function is critical to the process lactation; however, physiological factors underlying insufficient milk production are poorly understood. The zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT2 is critical for regulation of mammary gland development and maturation during puberty, lactation, and postlactation gland remodeling. Numerous genetic variants in the gene encoding ZnT2 (SLC30A2) are associated with low milk Zn concentration and result in severe Zn deficiency in exclusively breastfed infants. However, the functional impacts of genetic variation in ZnT2 on key mammary epithelial cell functions have not yet been systematically explored at the cellular level. Here we determined a common mutation in SLC30A2/ZnT2 substituting serine for threonine at amino acid 288 (Thr288Ser) was found in 20% of women producing low milk volume (n = 2/10) but was not identified in women producing normal volume. Exploration of cellular consequences in vitro using phosphomimetics showed the serine substitution promoted preferential phosphorylation of ZnT2, driving localization to the lysosome and increasing lysosome biogenesis and acidification. While the substitution did not initiate lysosome-mediated cell death, cellular ATP levels were significantly reduced. Our findings demonstrate the Thr288Ser mutation in SLC30A2/ZnT2 impairs critical functions of mammary epithelial cells and suggest a role for genetic variation in the regulation of milk production and lactation performance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Mutação , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Linhagem Celular , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação/genética , Lisossomos/genética , Biogênese de Organelas , Fosforilação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 56, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overconditioned dairy cows are prone to greater insulin resistance in transition to successfully adapt to negative energy balance. The associations among body condition score (BCS), insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in cows during late lactation with positive energy balance remain to be elucidated. METHODS: The objectives of this study were to investigate insulin sensitivity and oxidative status in late lactating dairy cows with different BCS but similar milk production, parity and days in milk. Forty-two multiparous Holstein cows were fed the same diet under the same management and divided into three groups based on BCS: low BCS (LBCS; BCS ≤ 2.75; n = 12), medium BCS (MBCS; 3.0 ≤ BCS ≤ 3.5; n = 15) or high BCS (HBCS; BCS ≥ 3.75; n = 15). Blood samples used for analysis of biochemical and hematological parameters were collected from the coccygeal vein at the end of experiment. RESULTS: The concentrations of insulin and nonesterified fatty acid were higher and the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was lower in HBCS cows than in LBCS and MBCS cows. These results suggest that insulin resistance exacerbates lipolysis in HBCS cows. Serum concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B were lower in HBCS cows than in LBCS or MBCS cows. Although LBCS and MBCS cows had higher reactive oxygen species levels than did HBCS cows, the malondialdehyde concentration was not different among cows with different BCS. Ceruloplasmin activity was higher in MBCS and HBCS cows than in LBCS cows, but superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and paraoxonase activities were not different among cows with different BCS. Despite the higher percentage of granulocytes in MBCS cows than in HBCS cows, no differences were found in leukocyte counts, red blood cell profiles and platelet profiles among the cows in the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study showed that compared with MBCS and LBCS cows, HBCS cows at late lactation stage may have accumulated more hepatic triacylglycerol and lower antioxidant potential due to greater insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Lactação/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Feminino , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Lactação/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Gravidez
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4795-4805, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113768

RESUMO

Negative energy balance in dairy cows in early lactation is related to alteration of metabolic status. However, the relationships among energy balance, metabolic profile in plasma, and metabolic profile in milk have not been reported. In this study our aims were: (1) to reveal the metabolic profiles of plasma and milk by integrating results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with data from liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS); and (2) to investigate the relationship between energy balance and the metabolic profiles of plasma and milk. For this study 24 individual dairy cows (parity 2.5 ± 0.5; mean ± standard deviation) were studied in lactation wk 2. Body weight (mean ± standard deviation; 627.4 ± 56.4 kg) and milk yield (28.1 ± 6.7 kg/d; mean ± standard deviation) were monitored daily. Milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose) and net energy balance were calculated. Plasma and milk samples were collected and analyzed using LC-MS and NMR. From all plasma metabolites measured, 27 were correlated with energy balance. These plasma metabolites were related to body reserve mobilization from body fat, muscle, and bone; increased blood flow; and gluconeogenesis. From all milk metabolites measured, 30 were correlated with energy balance. These milk metabolites were related to cell apoptosis and cell proliferation. Nine metabolites detected in both plasma and milk were correlated with each other and with energy balance. These metabolites were mainly related to hyperketonemia; ß-oxidation of fatty acids; and one-carbon metabolism. The metabolic profiles of plasma and milk provide an in-depth insight into the physiological pathways of dairy cows in negative energy balance in early lactation. In addition to the classical indicators for energy balance (e.g., ß-hydroxybutyrate, acetone, and glucose), the current study presents some new metabolites (e.g., glycine in plasma and milk; kynurenine, panthothenate, or arginine in plasma) in lactating dairy cows that are related to energy balance and may be of interest as new indicators for energy balance.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Lactação/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Leite/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Lactose/análise , Gravidez
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4777-4794, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113781

RESUMO

The objective of the current study was to characterize muscle and blood serum acylcarnitine (AcylCN) profiles and to determine the mRNA abundance of muscle carnitine acyltransferases in periparturient dairy cows with high (HBCS) and normal body condition (NBCS). Fifteen weeks antepartum, 38 pregnant multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 groups that were fed differently to reach the targeted BCS and backfat thickness (BFT) until dry-off at -49 d before calving (HBCS: BCS >3.75 and BFT >1.4 cm; NBCS: <3.5 and <1.2 cm). Thereafter, both groups were fed identical diets. Blood samples and biopsies from the semitendinosus muscle were collected on d -49, 3, 21, and 84 relative to calving. Actual BCS at d -49 were 3.02 ± 0.24 and 3.82 ± 0.33 (mean ± SD) for NBCS and HBCS, respectively. In both groups, serum profiles showed marked changes during the periparturient period, with decreasing concentrations of free carnitine and increasing concentrations of long-chain AcylCN. Compared with NBCS, HBCS had greater serum long-chain AcylCN in early lactation, which may point to an insufficient adaptation of their metabolism in response to the metabolic load of fatty acids around parturition. The muscle concentrations of C5-, C9-, C18:1-, and C18:2-AcylCN were lower and those of C14:2-AcylCN were greater in HBCS than in NBCS cows. The mRNA abundance of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)1, muscle isoform (CPT1b) and CPT2 increased from d -49 to early lactation (d 3, d 21), followed by a decline to nearly antepartum values by d 84; this change was not affected by group. In conclusion, over-conditioning around calving seems to be associated with mitochondrial overload, which can result in incomplete fatty acid oxidation in dairy cows.


Assuntos
Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Músculos/metabolismo , Parto/metabolismo , Animais , Carnitina/sangue , Carnitina/metabolismo , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação/metabolismo , Gravidez
12.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13331, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219923

RESUMO

This study evaluated the concentration and expression of lactoferrin (LF) in cows selected for once a day (OAD) milking compared to twice a day (TAD) milking. Milk samples were collected from the Massey University TAD and OAD herds. Milk traits and expression of LF and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were analyzed with a general linear model that included the fixed effects of milking frequency, lactation number, interaction between milking frequency and lactation number, and as covariates proportion of F, heterosis F × J and deviation from the herd median calving date. Cows milked OAD produced milk with higher (p < .01) concentrations of protein and lactose than TAD milked cows. Compared to TAD cows, cows milked OAD had higher expression of the LF gene (1.40 vs. 1.29 folds, p = .03) and the IGF-1 gene (1.69 vs. 1.48 folds, p = .007). The correlation between the expression of LF gene and the concentration of LF in milk was strong (r = .66 p < .001), but the correlation between the expression of the IGF-1 gene and LF concentration was stronger (r = .94, p < .001). These results suggest that milking frequency affects the milk composition and expression of milk composition genes at early lactation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Lactação/genética , Lactação/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/genética , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo
13.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13347, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219947

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the energy balance in early lactating local goats when supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. Fifteen local goats from the north-east of Mexico were used. Three treatments were evaluated: (a) Control (Base diet); (b) CLA 50 g; and (c) CLA 90 g. The CLA was a mixture of micro-encapsulated FA, which supplied c9, t11 and t10, c12. Goats had an adaptation period of 2 weeks and 7 experimental weeks. The variables evaluated were body weight, DMI, milk yield, and fat, protein, and lactose yield, FA milk profile, and energy balance. The analysis of the data was analyzed as repeated measures using the PROC MIXED procedure and Tukey test (p < .05). In milk of goats from the treatment 90 g of the isomer t10, c12 CLA (p < .05) the milk fat content and milk fat yield with respect to the control treatment were reduced and the energy balance was improved. In goats treated with 11 g of t10, c12 CLA increased (p < .05) milk yield and milk lactose content. These results suggest that energy not used to synthesize dairy fat was used to increase milk yield and improve energy balance.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético , Cabras/metabolismo , Cabras/fisiologia , Lactação/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal , Animais , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Lactose/análise , Gotículas Lipídicas , Leite/química
14.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041195

RESUMO

Most studies assessing the macronutrient content of human milk are published retrospectively using analyzers that fail to determine sodium content and do not take into account the role of volume in milk composition. We aimed to describe macronutrient content and sodium content in human milk over time, observe any associations between them, and determine the factors associated with the evolution of milk composition. A prospective, longitudinal, monocentric study was undertaken. Contents of protein, fat, and lactose of 102 milk samples from 40 mothers were determined using a human milk analyzer and that of sodium with a flame spectrophotometer. Milk volumes along with clinical data were recorded. Protein content in the fourth quartile of volume was significantly lower than that in the first three, suggesting the existence of a volume threshold for protein content at approximately 445 mL. After multivariate analysis, it was found that maternal age, average volume, and lactation period remained significantly associated with protein content, maternal age remained significantly associated with fat content, and only average volume with sodium content. In consideration of previous findings along with our data, we suggest that extra care should be taken with fortification for feeding preterm infants when the mother's milk volume is greater than 400-450 mL.


Assuntos
Lactação/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactose/análise , Estudos Longitudinais , Idade Materna , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Sódio na Dieta/análise
15.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 247: 32-41, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058187

RESUMO

Neurotrophins (NTs) are a family of polypeptides whose functions have been extensively studied in the past two decades. In particular, Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) play a major role in the development, nutrition and growth of the central and peripheral nervous system and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative, cardiometabolic and (auto)immune diseases. However, NGF and BDNF have subtle functions for follicular development, implantation, and placentation. This short narrative review summarizes the existing evidence, published between 2000 and 2019, about the role of NTs in many different conditions that might affect women during and after pregnancy such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, obesity, depression, anxiety, smoking and alcohol abuse. Literature suggests that the dysregulation of synthesis and release of NTs may lead to decisive effects on both maternal and fetal health. Some piece of evidences was found about a possible association between NGF/BDNF and breastfeeding. Additional studies on human models are necessary to further characterize the role of NTs in life-changing experiences like labor and delivery.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo , Animais , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Placentação , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Gravidez
16.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935821

RESUMO

While human milk composition is characterised by marked dynamicity, we are far from having a clear picture of what factors drive this variation. Hormones in human milk are known to vary according to specific maternal phenotypes, but limited evidence shows the infant also has a role in determining milk composition. The present study aimed to investigate the interplay between maternal and infant characteristics in relation to human milk hormonal profile. In total, 501 human milk samples from mothers recruited in the Finnish STEPS cohort study (Steps to the healthy development) were analysed. Pre-pregnancy and pregnancy maternal data, socioeconomic status and infant characteristics at birth were collated. Leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and cyclic Glycine-Proline in milk were measured. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and linear regression were utilised for statistical analysis. Sex-specific interactions with maternal factors were observed, as the infant sex mediated associations between gestational diabetes and milk adiponectin (p = 0.031), birth-mode and total protein (p = 0.003), maternal education and insulin-like growth factor-1: cyclic Glycine-Proline ratio (p = 0.035). Our results suggest that changes in human milk composition are associated with interactions between maternal and infant characteristics and pathophysiological factors. Future work should expand on these findings and further explore the link between hormonal profiles in human milk and infant outcomes.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Obesidade , Peptídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteínas/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 360, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941931

RESUMO

Lipids are secreted into milk as bilayer-coated structures: milk fat globules (MFGs). Adipophilin (ADRP) and perilipin 3 (TIP47) are associated with MFGs in human breast milk; however, the role of these proteins in milk lipid secretion is not fully understood. The study aimed to investigate levels of ADRP, TIP47 and total lipid content in human breast milk, their mutual correlations, and dynamics during lactation. Milk samples from 22 healthy lactating women (Caucasian, Central European) were collected at five time points during lactation (1-3, 12-14, 29-30, 88-90 and 178-180 days postpartum). Mass spectrometry-based method was used for quantification of ADRP and TIP47 in the samples. The gravimetric method was used to determine milk total lipid content. We observed distinctive trends in ADRP, TIP47 levels and lipid content in human breast milk during the first six months of lactation. We also found a significant association between lipid content and ADRP, lipid content and TIP47, and ADRP and TIP47 concentrations in breast milk at all sampling points. A mass spectrometry-based method was developed for quantifying ADRP and TIP47 in human breast milk. Strong mutual correlations were found between ADRP, TIP47 and total lipid content in human breast milk.


Assuntos
Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Perilipina-2/metabolismo , Perilipina-3/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227873, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition is essential during the lactation period for better maternal and child health outcomes. Although food insecurity and dietary monotony (defined as less diverse diet), two important determinants of undernutrition, are endemic in the rural mountains of Nepal, insufficiently examined and assessed for risk factors in mothers during lactation, a life stage of high nutritional demand. This study aimed to assess the status and factors associated with food insecurity and dietary diversity among lactating mothers residing in the mountains of Nepal. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban municipality in the mountainous Bajhang District of far-western Nepal. The sampling frame and strategy led to 417 randomly selected lactating mothers. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and the tool "Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women" developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization were used to measure food insecurity and dietary diversity, respectively. Additional information on socio-demographics and risk factors were collected. Multivariable logistics regression assessed correlates of study outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 54% of the households were food insecure, and over half (53%) of the mothers had low dietary diversity. Food insecurity status (mild food insecurity AOR = 10.12, 95% CI = 4.21-24.34; moderate food insecurity AOR = 8.17, 95% CI = 3.24-20.59, and severe food insecurity AOR = 10.56, 95% CI = 3.92-28.43) were associated with higher odds of dietary monotony. Likewise, participants with lower dietary diversity were 8.5 times more likely to be food insecure than those with higher dietary diversity (AOR = 8.48, 95% CI = 3.76-19.14). The monthly income of the family was positively associated with food insecurity. Participants' (AOR = 3.92 95%CI = 1.76-8.71) or spouses' (AOR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.07-7.85) unemployment was associated with higher odds of being food insecure. Likewise, owning a cultivable land (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28-0.84) and participant's unemployment status (AOR = 5.92, 95% CI = 3.02-11.63), were significantly associated with increased odds of dietary monotony. CONCLUSION: The observed food insecurity and poor dietary diversity among lactating mothers, the correlates associated with these outcomes, may help local stakeholders to identify local health needs and subgroups for targeted interventions. Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers should be specifically targeted for relevant programs and policies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos , Lactação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Lactação/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Nepal/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(1): 265-271, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352551

RESUMO

Alpha-lactalbumin has been reported as a highly polymorphic gene that potentially alters the gene expression and is associated with milk composition in dairy breeds. Current study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, polymorphisms identification in alpha-lactalbumin (LALBA) gene and its association with milk composition was performed. To identify the genetic polymorphism, Nili Ravi buffaloes at their second lactation were selected from Government livestock farm (Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples. After PCR amplification, products were sequenced, and data was analyzed. Results showed that the identified polymorphisms at chromosomal position 34310940 were found associated with major whey protein. In the second phase of study, milk samples were collected from five healthy mastitis-free Nili Ravi buffaloes in their second lactation for expression analysis of alpha-lactalbumin gene at their transition (day 15), mid (day 90), and late (day 250) lactation. Gene expression was observed highest in transition phase with a gradual decrease of expression in mid and late phase of lactation. Further studies are needed to explore the regulation of milk production genes and their translational efficiency during the course of lactation.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Lactalbumina/genética , Lactação/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Lactalbumina/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético
20.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 45(3): 275-282, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365834

RESUMO

In Morocco, postpartum women systematically receive a single, high dose of vitamin A (VA; 200 000 IU) within the first month of giving birth and vegetable oil is fortified to increase the VA intake. The efficacy of this combined approach of supplementation and fortification for increasing maternal VA status during lactation is not known. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of postpartum high dose VA supplementation and provision of VA fortified oil for household consumption on plasma and milk retinol concentrations of lactating Moroccan women during the first 6 months after giving birth. Postpartum women aged 19-40 years received a VA supplement and thereafter were randomly assigned to one of two groups to receive weekly vitamin A fortified oil (FO) or non-fortified oil (NFO) for 6 months. Serum retinol concentration was higher in the FO group than in the NFO group at 6 months after giving birth (p < 0.0001). Milk retinol per gram fat at baseline did not differ by group; by 3 months after giving birth, milk retinol per gram fat was higher in the FO group than in the NFO group (p = 0.02) and remained higher throughout the 6 months (p < 0.0001). The combination of supplementation and fortification has a more sustained impact on milk retinol concentrations than supplementation alone, which did not have a sustained impact on milk VA concentrations. The fortification approach seems to be more effective for maintaining adequate milk VA concentrations among lactating Moroccan women. Fortification seems to be a long-term solution for the problem of VA deficiency, especially among women in low-income communities.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimentos Fortificados , Leite Humano/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Marrocos , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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