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1.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336991

RESUMO

This study determined fatty acid (FA) concentrations in maternal milk and investigated the association between omega-3 fatty acid levels and their maternal current dietary intake (based on three-day dietary records) and habitual dietary intake (based on intake frequency of food products). Tested material comprised 32 samples of human milk, coming from exclusively breastfeeding women during their first month of lactation. Milk fatty acids were analyzed as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by gas chromatography using a Hewlett-Packard 6890 gas chromatograph with MS detector 5972A. We did not observe any correlation between current dietary intake of omega-3 FAs and their concentrations in human milk. However, we observed that the habitual intake of fatty fish affected omega-3 FA concentrations in human milk. Kendall's rank correlation coefficients were 0.25 (p = 0.049) for DHA, 0.27 (p = 0.03) for EPA, and 0.28 (p = 0.02) for ALA. Beef consumption was negatively correlated with DHA concentrations in human milk (r = -0.25; p = 0.046). These findings suggest that current omega-3 FA intake does not translate directly into their concentration in human milk. On the contrary, their habitual intake seems to markedly influence their milk concentration.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactação/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna
2.
J Toxicol Sci ; 44(7): 505-513, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270306

RESUMO

Dioxins are a group of structurally related chemicals that persist in the environment. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener, is a suspected risk factor for cardiac diseases in humans. TCDD induces signs of cardiotoxicity in various animals. Mouse models of TCDD exposure suggest cardiotoxicity phenotypes develop differently depending on the timing and time-course of exposure. In order to clarify and characterize the TCDD-induced cardiotoxicity in the developing period, we utilized mouse pups exposed to TCDD. One day after delivery, groups of nursing C57BL/6J dams were orally administered TCDD at a dose of 0 (Control), 20 (TCDD-20), or 80 µg/kg (TCDD-80) body weight (BW). On postnatal days (PNDs) 7 and 21, pups' hearts were examined by histological and gene expression analyses. The TCDD-80 group was found to have a left ventricular remodeling on PND 7, and to develop heart hypertrophy on PND 21. It was accompanied by fibrosis and increased expression of associated genes, such as those for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), ß-myosin heavy chain (ß-MHC), and endothelin-1 (ET-1). These results revealed that TCDD directly induces cardiotoxicity in the postnatal period represented by progressive hypertrophy in which ANP, ß-MHC, and ET-1 have potentials to mediate the cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomegalia/genética , Cardiotoxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Lactação/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Fator Natriurético Atrial/genética , Fator Natriurético Atrial/metabolismo , Endotelina-1/genética , Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/administração & dosagem , Gravidez
3.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(2): 341-346, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A reliable biomarker for optimal selenium (Se) intake in lactating women is not currently available. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Daily dietary Se intake in lactating women was calculated from a 24-hour meal record survey for over 3 days. Se levels in plasma and breast milk were measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma selenoprotein P 1 levels and glutathione peroxidase 3 activity were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze proteinaceous Se species in enzymatically digested breast milk. RESULTS: Dietary Se intakes of lactating women from Liangshan, Beijing, and Enshi were 41.6±21.2 ng/d, 51.1±22.6 ng/d, and 615±178 ng/d, respectively (p<0.05). The Se levels in the blood and breast milk were significantly associated with the dietary Se intake (p<0.05). The proteinaceous Se species in breast milk were SeMet and SeCys2. The levels of SeMet in the lactating women from Liangshan, Beijing, and Enshi were 3.31±2.44 ng Se/mL, 7.34±3.70 ng Se/mL, and 8.99±9.64 ng Se/mL, while that of SeCys2 were 13.7±12.0 ng Se/mL, 35.6±20.9 ng Se/mL, and 57.4±13.2 ng Se/mL, respectively. Notably, the concentration of SeCys2, the metabolite of unstable SeCys, reached a saturation platform, whereas no similar phenomenon were found for the total Se SeMet from Secontaining proteins. CONCLUSIONS: SeCys2 in breast milk is a potential biomarker for determining the optimal Se intake in lactating women.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cistina/análogos & derivados , Lactação/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Compostos Organosselênicos/metabolismo , Selênio/deficiência , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , China , Cistina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Leite Humano , Risco , Selênio/metabolismo
4.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(24): 5011-5025, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154462

RESUMO

The PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. Recent studies have highlighted a fundamental role of PGC-1α in promoting breast cancer progression and metastasis, but the physiological role of this coactivator in the development of mammary glands is still unknown. First, we show that PGC-1α is highly expressed during puberty and involution, but nearly disappeared in pregnancy and lactation. Then, taking advantage of a newly generated transgenic mouse model with a stable and specific overexpression of PGC-1α in mammary glands, we demonstrate that the re-expression of this coactivator during the lactation stage leads to a precocious regression of the mammary glands. Thus, we propose that PGC-1α action is non-essential during pregnancy and lactation, whereas it is indispensable during involution. The rapid preadipocyte-adipocyte transition, together with an increased rate of apoptosis promotes a premature mammary glands involution that cause lactation defects and pup growth retardation. Overall, we provide new insights in the comprehension of female reproductive cycles and lactation deficiency, thus opening new roads for mothers that cannot breastfeed.


Assuntos
Lactação/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Lactação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Gravidez
5.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195757

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a major component of human milk, and play an important role in protecting the infant from infections. Preterm infants are particularly vulnerable, but have improved outcomes if fed with human milk. This study aimed to determine if the HMO composition of preterm milk differed from that of term milk at equivalent stage of lactation and equivalent postmenstrual age. In all, 22 HMOs were analyzed in 500 samples of milk from 25 mothers breastfeeding very preterm infants (< 32 weeks of gestational age, < 1500g of birthweight) and 28 mothers breastfeeding term infants. The concentrations of most HMOs were comparable at equivalent postpartum age. However, HMOs containing α-1,2-linked fucose were reduced in concentration in preterm milk during the first month of lactation. The concentrations of a number of sialylated oligosaccharides were also different in preterm milk, in particular 3'-sialyllactose concentrations were elevated. At equivalent postmenstrual age, the concentrations of a number of HMOs were significantly different in preterm compared to term milk. The largest differences manifest around 40 weeks of postmenstrual age, when the milk of term infants contains the highest concentrations of HMOs. The observed differences warrant further investigation in view of their potential clinical impact.


Assuntos
Lactação/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Nascimento a Termo
6.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185620

RESUMO

Preterm birth is an increasing worldwide problem. Prematurity is the second most common cause of death in children under 5 years of age. It is associated with a higher risk of several pathologies in the perinatal period and adulthood. Maternal milk, a complex fluid with several bioactive factors, is the best option for the newborn. Its dynamic composition is influenced by diverse factors such as maternal age, lactation period, and health status. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding some bioactive factors present in breastmilk, namely antioxidants, growth factors, adipokines, and cytokines, paying specific attention to prematurity. The revised literature reveals that the highest levels of these bioactive factors are found in the colostrum and they decrease along the lactation period; bioactive factors are found in higher levels in preterm as compared to full-term milk, they are lacking in formula milk, and decreased in donated milk. However, there are still some gaps and inconclusive data, and further research in this field is needed. Given the fact that many preterm mothers are unable to complete breastfeeding, new information could be important to develop infant supplements that best match preterm human milk.


Assuntos
Fatores Biológicos/análise , Doenças do Prematuro/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Adipocinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Colostro/química , Citocinas/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/análise
7.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 207: 52-60, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208846

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO) and Bacillus supplementation on sow performance, serum metabolites, and serum and placental oxidative status. Multiparous gestating sows (n = 130) with similar body conditions were randomly allocated to five groups (n = 26) receiving a basal diet (CON group) or a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% IMO (IMO group); 0.5% IMO and 0.02% Bacillus subtilis (IMO + S group); 0.5% IMO and 0.02% Bacillus licheniformis (IMO + L group); or 0.5% IMO, 0.02% Bacillus subtilis, and 0.02% Bacillus licheniformis (IMO + S+L group). There were no significant differences in the litter sizes among all dietary groups. The average piglet birth weight was improved in all treatment groups, and the placental efficiency was greater in the IMO + S and IMO + S+L groups than in the CON group (P < 0.05). The IMO + S+L group had increased the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced the total cholesterol in umbilical venous serum (P <  0.05). Additionally, the malondialdehyde concentrations were greater in umbilical venous serum of piglets in all treatment groups relative to that in the CON piglets (P <  0.05). The placental total antioxidant capacity was increased in the IMO+L and IMO+S+L groups (P <  0.05). Furthermore, the growth hormone concentration in umbilical venous serum was greater (P <  0.05) in all treatment groups. Overall, IMO and Bacillus supplementation during late gestation resulted in a changed metabolism of sows, improved the placental antioxidant capacity, and increased the growth hormone concentrations in umbilical venous serum, which ultimately improved the piglet birth weight and placental efficiency.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bacillus/fisiologia , Isomaltose/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso ao Nascer , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Isomaltose/química , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação/metabolismo , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Probióticos , Suínos
8.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 207: 131-137, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227325

RESUMO

Metabolic stress in humans and animals is associated with impaired fertility. A major characteristic of metabolic stress is elevated levels of free fatty acids (NEFAs) in blood due to mobilization of body fat reserves. Dairy cows undergo a period of metabolic stress during the peri-calving period, the so-called negative energy balance (NEB) in the early weeks postpartum. At the time of NEB, both saturated and unsaturated NEFAs are mobilized to serve as an alternative energy supply for cells, however in particular saturated NEFAs can have a detrimental effect on somatic cells. Circulating NEFAs are also reflected in the follicular fluid of ovarian follicles and hence reach the cumulus-oocyte-complex (COC), which implies a potential risk for the developing oocyte. To this end, the current review focusses on the impact of NEFAs on the quality of the oocyte.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Células do Cúmulo/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Oócitos/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo
9.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(3): 199-207, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine the milk quality effect during lactation on the metabolic and thyroid programming of hypothyroid offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into two groups: euthyroid and thyroidectomy-caused hypothyroidism. The rats were matted and, one day after birth, the pups were divided into three groups: euthyroid offspring (EO), hypothyroid offspring (HO) and hypothyroid with a euthyroid replacement wet nurse (HRO). During lactation, the milk quality and offspring body length were evaluated. The body weight and energy intake were determined on a weekly basis, as well as the metabolic profile at the prepubertal (P35-36) and postpubertal (P55-56) ages. At P56, the animals were sacrificed, the adipose tissues were weighed and the thyroid glands were dissected for histological processing. RESULTS: The milk of the hypothyroid wet nurse decreases proteins (16-26%), lipids (22-29%) and lactate (22-37%) with respect to euthyroid. The HO has a lower body weight gain (23-33%), length (11-13%) and energy intake (15-21%). In addition, HO presents impaired fasting glucose and dyslipidemia, as well as a reduction in seric thyroid hormone (18-34%), adipose reserves (26-68%) and thyroid gland weight (25-34%). The HO present thyroid gland cytoarchitecture alteration. The HRO develop the same metabolic alterations as the HO. However, the thyroid gland dysfunction was partially prevented because the HRO improved under about 10% of the serum thyroid hormone concentration, the thyroid gland weight although histological glandular changes presented. CONCLUSIONS: The replacement of hypothyroid offspring with a euthyroid wet nurse during lactation can improve the thyroid programming without modifying metabolic programming.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Glândula Tireoide/patologia
11.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(2): 220-225, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To learn the dietary and nutrients intake of lactating women in five cities in China. METHODS: From April 2015 to April 2016, about 579 lactating women whose infants aged 1-24 months from five cities of Nanjing, Shanghai, Chengdu, Qiqihar, and Zhengzhou were recruited based on the principle of random sampling in maternity and child health care hospitals. We collected the characteristics of baseline information and 3 d dietary assessment with instant photography. RESULTS: For all the lactating women of these cities, the intakes of tubers[0(0-13. 3)]g, vegetables[251. 8(152. 6-362. 5)]g, soybeans[4. 8(0-16. 3)]g and dairy products [85. 7(0-250. 0)]g were far below the intakes recommended by dietary guidelines for Chinese residents. The components of lactating women's diet were different among cities except tubers(χ~2=4. 61, P=0. 33) and fruits(χ~2=5. 69, P=0. 22), and the difference was statistically significant(P<0. 05). The proportion of energy provided in carbohydrate and fat was 47. 7% and 34. 2%, respectively. Among the 5 cities, only energy contribution ratio of Nanjing and Zhengzhou were up to 50%, which met the acceptable macronutrient distribution range(AMDR) of carbohydrate. According the dietary reference intakes(DRIs), the energy intake(2031. 7±513. 3) kcal was slightly lower than estimated energy requirement(EER). The deficiency of VA[523. 9(333. 8-832. 7)] µgRAE, VC[91. 9(61. 3-141. 3)] mg and calcium[536. 3(372. 0-765. 7)]mg was obvious. Although the amount of dietary iron intake was closed to the recommended level, the heme iron intake only accounted 16. 5%. CONCLUSION: The major problems of these lactating women are imbalanced diet and insufficient intakes of some nutrients among different cities.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Lactação/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(5)2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137596

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Many studies indicate that the maternal diet is an important factor affecting human milk composition. Human milk composition among lactating women in Latvia, as well as the maternal diet during lactation, has not been sufficiently studied. The aim of this research was to assess dietary habits and macronutrient intake among lactating women in Latvia and to examine the effect of diet on human milk composition. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted between November 2016 and December 2017. Mature human milk samples (n = 61) along with a 72h food diary, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and a questionnaire about maternal and infant characteristics were obtained from voluntary women who were recruited via an invitation published in a social media member group for nursing mothers. Fat content in human milk was determined by LVS ISO 2446:2008, protein content was determined by LVS EN ISO 8968-1:2014, lactose was determined by ISO 22662:2007, and the fatty acid profile was analyzed using gas chromatography. Dietary data were evaluated using the Finnish food composition database Fineli, release 19 (3 March 2018). Results: Median values for fat, protein, and lactose in mature human milk were 4.40%, 1.08%, and 6.52%, respectively. Predominant fatty acids in human milk were oleic acid (C18:1 n9c), palmitic acid (C16:0), and linoleic acid (C18:2 n6c) at 34.60%, 24.00%, and 11.00% of total fatty acids, respectively. The trans elaidic acid (C18:1 n9t) level was <0.10% in all human milk samples. Significant, positive associations (p < 0.05) were found between maternal dietary intake of linoleic, α-linolenic, docosahexaenoic, total cis-monounsaturated, total cis-polyunsaturated, and total n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, the ratio of n-6/n-3, and the level of these fatty acids in human milk. Total energy and carbohydrate intake among participants were lower, but total fat, saturated fat, and sugar intake were higher than recommended. Protein, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid intake were adequate, but docosahexaenoic acid intake was noticeably lower than recommended. Women should be supported with information regarding their nutritional needs during lactation and the possible impact of diet on human milk composition. Conclusion: Macronutrient (fat, protein, and lactose) content in human milk is not affected by maternal diet. Conversely, the human milk fatty acid profile is affected by the immediate diet consumed by the mother. Habitual dietary habits can also impact the fatty acid profile of human milk.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite Humano/enzimologia , Adulto , Dieta/métodos , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Letônia , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Food Sci ; 84(6): 1322-1330, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132147

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate a new milk resource from Simmental crossbred cattle, which could be an alternative raw milk for dairy products. In the experiment, physicochemical characterization of raw milk was evaluated according to the Standards. In addition, Simmental crossbred cattle milk (SHCM) samples had the higher contents of total amino acid than those of Chinese Holstein cow milk (HCM) samples, especially for Leu, Lys, Met, and Phe. We also observed the contents of protein, fat, and lactose in SHCM samples changed during 12 months, where in milk fat content was mostly affected by the season, followed by the lactose and protein contents. Moreover, texture profile analysis showed that yoghurt made from SHCM had stronger structures, which especially reflected in hardness and chewiness. The G' of yoghurt made from SHCM during storage time was always higher than that made from HCM, indicating that SHCM yoghurt showed higher apparent viscosity values. Logically, the milk from Simmental crossbred cattle has desirable physicochemical characteristics and nutritional value, which could be a new better resource of dairy products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Compared with Chinese Holstein cattle, Simmental crossbred cattle have strong resistance to moist weather and better performance in disease resistance, which are particularly important for lactating cows persisting in south of China. We evaluated the nutritional values of SHCM and HCM, and compared the seasonal variation on chemical composition of SHCM sample. All the data could be used to produce different dairy products using raw milk from different seasons. In addition, textural properties of yoghurt made from two milks were also determined, and we suggested that SHCM could be used as a new resource candidate for developing dairy product in the future.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite/química , Nutrientes/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Iogurte/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , China , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Lactação/genética , Lactose/análise , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Chemosphere ; 230: 432-439, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121507

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to BPA on testicular development in offspring males. Pregnant Kunming mice were randomly divided into 7 groups with 20 mice in each group. Group A was the control group and the mice were given distilled water orally. Mice in groups B, C, D, E, F, G received BPA orally at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg/d, 0.5 mg/kg/d, 5 mg/kg/d, 10 mg/kg/d, 20 mg/kg/d, 50 mg/kg/d, respectively. F0 mice were exposed to BPA for 40 days from gestation day 0 to lactation day 21. F1 male mice were sacrificed at weaning (postnatal day 21). Histological observations revealed architectural damages in testis in BPA exposed groups. The testicular organ index increased significantly when the BPA oral exposure dose was above 20 mg/kg/d (P < 0.05). BPA contents in serum of F1 male mice increased significantly when BPA was above 5 mg/kg/d (P < 0.05), while the contents significant increased in maternal serum when BPA was higher than 0.5 mg/kg/d. The damage of cell nuclear DNA of testis was significantly aggravated when BPA was above 5 mg/kg/d. The expression of AR in the testis was significantly increased when BPA was above 20 mg/kg/d (P < 0.05). Transcriptome sequencing showed that the Snrnp 40 which encoding U5 snRNA subunit was significantly up-regulated in spliceosome pathway, and the Hnrnpu which encoding splicing universal protein component was significantly down-regulated. The blockage of spliceosome might be one of the reasons why BPA affects testicular development.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Processamento de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lactação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Testículo/embriologia , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Theriogenology ; 131: 79-88, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959440

RESUMO

Lactating cows and nulliparous heifers are in distinctive and unique physiological conditions when they are approaching the planned time of breeding, at approximately 60 days in milk and 13-15 months of age, respectively. This study aimed to profile the metabolic milieu in heifers (N = 14) and lactating cows (N = 15) in the weeks leading up to planned time of breeding. All cows were followed for a period of 15 weeks, from 3 weeks pre-calving to 12 weeks post-calving, while heifers were monitored for a period of 4 weeks leading up to the tentative week of breeding (pre-breeding period). For data analysis, we further divided cows into primiparous (N = 8) and multiparous (N = 7) cows owing to the significant difference in their milk yield. Assessment of reproductive performance showed that primiparous and multiparous cows tended to have lower pregnancy rates compared to heifers (P < 0.1). Plasma concentrations of ß-hydroxybutyric acid were about 2-fold higher in multiparous cows than those of heifers in the week leading up to planned time of breeding (P < 0.05). Total bile acid levels during the pre-breeding period were higher in all lactating cows compared to heifers (P < 0.05) and glucose levels were lower in lactating cows (P < 0.05). Triglyceride concentrations were lowest in multiparous cows compared to both primiparous cows and nulliparous heifers (P < 0.05). In addition, lactating cows had higher concentrations of total-cholesterol and the high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein compared to heifers (P < 0.05). Conversely, concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein were lower in multiparous cows than primiparous cows and nulliparous heifers (P < 0.05). There were no differences in plasma glutathione levels, as measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, between the groups, but the ferric reducing ability of plasma was higher in lactating cows compared to heifers (P < 0.05). These data establish the differences in the profile of metabolic and oxidative markers during the period approaching planned time of breeding in lactating cows compared to nulliparous heifers. As certain metabolites in the plasma have been shown to be represented in the ovarian follicular microenvironment, the unique profiles may influence reproductive performance in dairy cattle in different physiological stages.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Lactação/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Reprodução/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cruzamento/métodos , Microambiente Celular , Feminino , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(6): 838-845, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982807

RESUMO

Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal depression model, display abnormal behaviors such as hypoactivity and depression-like behavior compared with Wistar (WIS) rats as a control. A previous study confirmed a dysfunction of amino acid metabolism in the brain of WKY rats compared with that of WIS rats. At the neonatal stage, free amino acids in milk are important nutrients because they act as immediate nutrients for offspring and may affect later health and behavior of the offspring. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate free amino acid concentrations in milk and the relationships between free amino acid concentrations in milk and plasma in WIS and WKY rats. The concentrations of ten of the determined free amino acids in milk were significantly higher, but only L-methionine was significantly lower, in WKY rats. Six free amino acids had significantly higher concentrations in colostrum and two free amino acids had higher concentrations in matured milk. Free amino acid concentrations in plasma changed by both genetic background and lactation stage; however, the patterns of change in most free amino acid concentrations except for taurine in plasma were similar between WIS and WKY rats. The transport ratio of free amino acids from plasma to milk was not similar among the free amino acids tested, and each free amino acid was influenced by the genetic background and/or the type of milk.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Leite/química , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Colostro/química , Feminino , Lactação/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Ratos Wistar
17.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 316(6): E1136-E1145, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964702

RESUMO

Liver X receptors (LXRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors activated by cholesterol metabolites. These receptors induce a suite of target genes required for de novo synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol transport in many tissues. Two different isoforms, LXRα and LXRß, have been well characterized in liver, adipocytes, macrophages, and intestinal epithelium among others, but their contribution to cholesterol and fatty acid efflux in the lactating mammary epithelium is poorly understood. We hypothesize that LXR regulates lipogenesis during milk fat production in lactation. Global mRNA analysis of mouse mammary epithelial cells (MECs) revealed multiple LXR/RXR targets upregulated sharply early in lactation compared with midpregnancy. LXRα is the primary isoform, and its protein levels increase throughout lactation in MECs. The LXR agonist GW3965 markedly induced several genes involved in cholesterol transport and lipogenesis and enhanced cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation in the HC11 MEC cell line. Importantly, in vivo pharmacological activation of LXR increased the milk cholesterol percentage and induced sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c) and ATP-binding cassette transporter a7 (Abca7) expression in MECs. Cumulatively, our findings identify LXRα as an important regulator of cholesterol incorporation into the milk through key nodes of de novo lipogenesis, suggesting a potential therapeutic target in women with difficulty initiating lactation.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Lactação/genética , Receptores X do Fígado/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Benzilaminas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lactação/metabolismo , Lipogênese/genética , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(1): e20170971, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916150

RESUMO

In the present study we analyzed morphological and metabolic alterations in dams nursing small litters and their consequences to offspring throughout lactation. Offspring sizes were adjusted to Small Litter (SL, 3 pups/ dam) and Normal Litter (NL, 9 pups/ dam). Body weight, food intake, white adipose tissue (WAT) content, histological analysis of the pancreas, mammary gland (MG) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) as well as, plasma parameters and milk composition were measured in dams and pups on the 7th, 14th and 21st days of lactation. In general, SL-dams presented higher body weight and retroperitoneal fat content, elevated fat infiltration in BAT, reduced islets size and hyperglycemia throughout lactation in relation to NL-dams (p<0.05). Moreover, MG from SL-dams had reduced alveoli development and high adipocytes content, resulting in milk with elevated energetic value and fat content in relation to NL-dams (p<0.05). Maternal states influenced offspring anthropometric conditions during lactation, offspring-SL displayed higher body weight and growth, hyperglycemia, augmented lipid deposition in BAT and elevated islet. Thus, maternal histological and metabolic changes are due to modifications to nursing small litters and reinforce the importance of preserving maternal health during lactation avoiding early programming effects on offspring preventing metabolic consequences later in life.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/fisiologia , Leite/química , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Animais , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar
19.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 47(5): 516-524, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858238

RESUMO

Flunixin meglumine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used in veterinary medicine. It is indicated to treat inflammatory processes, pain, and pyrexia in farm animals. In addition, it is one of the few NSAIDs approved for use in dairy cows, and consequently gives rise to concern regarding its milk residues. The ABCG2 efflux transporter is induced during lactation in the mammary gland and plays an important role in the secretion of different compounds into milk. Previous reports have demonstrated that bovine ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism increases fluoroquinolone levels in cow milk. However, the implication of this transporter in the secretion into milk of anti-inflammatory drugs has not yet been studied. The objective of this work was to study the role of ABCG2 in the secretion into milk of flunixin and its main metabolite, 5-hydroxyflunixin, using Abcg2(-/-) mice, and to investigate the implication of the Y581S polymorphism in the secretion of these compounds into cow milk. Correlation with the in vitro situation was assessed by in vitro transport assays using Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells overexpressing murine and the two variants of the bovine transporter. Our results show that flunixin and 5-hydroxyflunixin are transported by ABCG2 and that this protein is responsible for their secretion into milk. Moreover, the Y581S polymorphism increases flunixin concentration into cow milk, but it does not affect milk secretion of 5-hydroxyflunixin. This result correlates with the differences in the in vitro transport of flunixin between the two bovine variants. These findings are relevant to the therapeutics of anti-inflammatory drugs.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Clonixina/análogos & derivados , Leite/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/genética , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Clonixina/metabolismo , Cães , Feminino , Lactação/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0202457, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735497

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to identify the candidate biomarkers of heat stress (HS) in the urine of lactating dairy goats through the application of proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomic analysis. Dairy does (n = 16) in mid-lactation were submitted to thermal neutral (TN; indoors; 15 to 20°C; 40 to 45% humidity) or HS (climatic chamber; 37°C day, 30°C night; 40% humidity) conditions according to a crossover design (2 periods of 21 days). Thermophysiological traits and lactational performances were recorded and milk composition analyzed during each period. Urine samples were collected at day 15 of each period for 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) assessment with cross validation were used to identify the goat urinary metabolome from the Human Metabolome Data Base. HS increased rectal temperature (1.2°C), respiratory rate (3.5-fold) and water intake (74%), but decreased feed intake (35%) and body weight (5%) of the lactating does. No differences were detected in milk yield, but HS decreased the milk contents of fat (9%), protein (16%) and lactose (5%). Metabolomics allowed separating TN and HS urinary clusters by PLS-DA. Most discriminating metabolites were hippurate and other phenylalanine (Phe) derivative compounds, which increased in HS vs. TN does. The greater excretion of these gut-derived toxic compounds indicated that HS induced a harmful gastrointestinal microbiota overgrowth, which should have sequestered aromatic amino acids for their metabolism and decreased the synthesis of neurotransmitters and thyroid hormones, with a negative impact on milk yield and composition. In conclusion, HS markedly changed the thermophysiological traits and lactational performances of dairy goats, which were translated into their urinary metabolomic profile through the presence of gut-derived toxic compounds. Hippurate and other Phe-derivative compounds are suggested as urinary biomarkers to detect heat-stressed dairy animals in practice.


Assuntos
Cabras/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Lactação/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Cabras/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Metabolômica/métodos , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
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