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1.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(5): 39-45, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056962

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the long-term clinical and functional outcomes of retinopathy in extremely premature infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 42 patients (84 eyes) with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at the age of 9-18 years. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examination, including morphometric (OCT), functional (ERG) and psycho-physical (computer perimetry) methods. RESULTS: A high occurrence of low vision (67%) was revealed in extremely premature children with ROP during school years and adolescence, which depended on the severity of active ROP and the formation of pronounced residual changes in the fundus during the cicatricial phase of the disease, a high occurrence of refractive errors (92%), including high degree myopia (46%), late complications that develop with ROP of any degree (68%), impaired retinal electrogenesis - due to both ROP and deep morphological and functional immaturity of the retina. CONCLUSION: Patients with any degree of cicatricial ROP born in the early stages of gestation and with extremely low body weight need regular complex ophthalmologic examination and lifelong follow-up.


Assuntos
Miopia , Erros de Refração , Retinopatia da Prematuridade , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237656, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is the primary driver of neonatal mortality worldwide, but it is defined by gestational age (GA) which is challenging to accurately assess in low-resource settings. In a commitment to reducing preterm birth while reinforcing and strengthening facility data sources, the East Africa Preterm Birth Initiative (PTBi-EA) chose eligibility criteria that combined GA and birth weight. This analysis evaluated the quality of the GA data as recorded in maternity registers in PTBi-EA study facilities and the strength of the PTBi-EA eligibility criteria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of maternity register data from March-September 2016. GA data from 23 study facilities in Migori, Kenya and the Busoga Region of Uganda were evaluated for completeness (variable present), consistency (recorded versus calculated GA), and plausibility (falling within the 3rd and 97th birth weight percentiles for GA of the INTERGROWTH-21st Newborn Birth Weight Standards). Preterm birth rates were calculated using: 1) recorded GA <37 weeks, 2) recorded GA <37 weeks, excluding implausible GAs, 3) birth weight <2500g, and 4) PTBi-EA eligibility criteria of <2500g and between 2500g and 3000g if the recorded GA is <37 weeks. RESULTS: In both countries, GA was the least recorded variable in the maternity register (77.6%). Recorded and calculated GA (Kenya only) were consistent in 29.5% of births. Implausible GAs accounted for 11.7% of births. The four preterm birth rates were 1) 14.5%, 2) 10.6%, 3) 9.6%, 4) 13.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Maternity register GA data presented quality concerns in PTBi-EA study sites. The PTBi-EA eligibility criteria of <2500g and between 2500g and 3000g if the recorded GA is <37 weeks accommodated these concerns by using both birth weight and GA, balancing issues of accuracy and completeness with practical applicability.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/normas , Idade Gestacional , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Melhoria de Qualidade , Sistema de Registros/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
3.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children born preterm are at high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is still a lack of appropriate developmental markers. In this study, we aim to examine whether early mental performance trajectory is related to ASD outcome in the preterm population. METHODS: The population-based cohort included 414 very preterm survivors born between 2008 and 2014. After excluding children with severe neurosensory impairment, 319 children with available records of developmental quotients before age 2 years were enrolled. The trajectory of mental performance evaluated by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development across 6, 12, and 24 months of age was analyzed with group-based trajectory modeling. At 5 years of age, the ASD diagnosis was established by using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. RESULTS: There were 29 children with ASD and 290 children without ASD. The mental performances from age 6 to 24 months could be classified into 3 trajectory patterns: low declining, high declining, and high stable, which corresponded to ASD prevalence at age 5 years of 35%, 9%, and 3%, respectively. ASD odds was 15 times higher in the low-declining group than in the high-stable group (odds ratio 15; 95% confidence interval 3.8-59; P < .001). Through the analysis of multinomial logistic regression, we found that male infants with longer exposure to oxygen therapy whose mothers had lower maternal education levels tended to follow the low-declining trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: The early-life mental trajectory patterns, by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, may lead to identification of vulnerable children born preterm for early ASD diagnosis and targeted intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/classificação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Diagnóstico Precoce , Escolaridade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the survival and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants at 18 to 26 months with early hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF). We also assessed whether African American infants with early HRF had improved outcomes after exposure to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). METHODS: ELBW infants ≤1000 g and gestational age ≤26 weeks with maximal oxygen ≥60% on either day 1 or day 3 were labeled as "early HRF" and born between 2007 and 2015 in the Neonatal Research Network were included. Using a propensity score regression model, we analyzed outcomes and effects of exposure to iNO overall and separately by race. RESULTS: Among 7639 ELBW infants born ≤26 weeks, 22.7% had early HRF. Early HRF was associated with a mortality of 51.3%. The incidence of moderate-severe NDI among survivors was 41.2% at 18 to 26 months. Mortality among infants treated with iNO was 59.4%. Female sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-3.3), birth weight ≥720 g (aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and complete course of antenatal steroids (aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2) were associated with intact survival. African American infants had a similar incidence of early HRF (21.7% vs 23.3%) but lower exposure to iNO (16.4% vs 21.6%). Among infants with HRF exposed to iNO, intact survival (no death or NDI) was not significantly different between African American and other races (aOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.6-3.6). CONCLUSIONS: Early HRF in infants ≤26 weeks' gestation is associated with high mortality and NDI at 18 to 26 months. Use of iNO did not decrease mortality or NDI. Outcomes following iNO exposure were not different in African American infants.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia/complicações , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Administração por Inalação , Afro-Americanos , Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etnologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/administração & dosagem , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etnologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764779

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated corticosteroid administration on the neonatal intensive care unit was associated with reduced lung function at 11 to 14 years of age in children born very prematurely. The objective of this observational study was to assess if lung function remained impaired at 16 to 19 years of age in those who had received postnatal corticosteroids and whether the trajectory of lung function with increasing age differed between those who had and had not received corticosteroids. One hundred and fifty-nine children born prior to 29 weeks of gestational age had comprehensive lung function measurements; 49 had received postnatal dexamethasone. Lung function outcomes were compared between those who had and had not received postnatal dexamethasone after adjustment for neonatal factors. Forced expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, 25% and 25-75% of the expired vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow and forced vital capacity and lung volumes (total lung capacity and residual volume) were assessed. The majority of results were significantly lower in those who received dexamethasone (between 0.61 to 0.78 standard deviations). Lung function reduced as the number of courses of dexamethasone increased. Between 11 and 14 years and 16 to 19 years, lung function improved in the unexposed group, but forced expiratory flow at 75% of the expired vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second deteriorated in those who had received postnatal corticosteroids (p = 0.0006). These results suggest that prematurely born young people who received postnatal corticosteroids may be at risk of premature onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/fisiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Criança , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
7.
JAMA ; 324(2): 157-167, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662862

RESUMO

Importance: Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation may prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but evidence remains inconclusive. Objective: To determine whether maternal DHA supplementation during the neonatal period improves bronchopulmonary dysplasia-free survival in breastfed infants born before 29 weeks of gestation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Superiority, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial at 16 Canadian neonatal intensive care units (June 2015-April 2018 with last infant follow-up in July 2018). Lactating women who delivered before 29 weeks of gestation were enrolled within 72 hours of delivery. The trial intended to enroll 800 mothers, but was stopped earlier. Interventions: There were 232 mothers (273 infants) assigned to oral capsules providing 1.2 g/d of DHA from randomization to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age and 229 mothers (255 infants) assigned to placebo capsules. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was bronchopulmonary dysplasia-free survival in infants at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. There were 22 secondary outcomes, including mortality and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Results: Enrollment was stopped early due to concern for harm based on interim data from this trial and from another trial that was published during the course of this study. Among 461 mothers and their 528 infants (mean gestational age, 26.6 weeks [SD, 1.6 weeks]; 253 [47.9%] females), 375 mothers (81.3%) and 523 infants (99.1%) completed the trial. Overall, 147 of 268 infants (54.9%) in the DHA group vs 157 of 255 infants (61.6%) in the placebo group survived without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (absolute difference, -5.0% [95% CI, -11.6% to 2.6%]; relative risk, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.80 to 1.04], P = .18). Mortality occurred in 6.0% of infants in the DHA group vs 10.2% of infants in the placebo group (absolute difference, -3.9% [95% CI, -6.8% to 1.4%]; relative risk, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.33 to 1.13], P = .12). Bronchopulmonary dysplasia occurred in 41.7% of surviving infants in the DHA group vs 31.4% in the placebo group (absolute difference, 11.5% [95% CI, 2.3% to 23.2%]; relative risk, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.07 to 1.73], P = .01). Of 22 prespecified secondary outcomes, 19 were not significantly different. Conclusions and Relevance: Among breastfed preterm infants born before 29 weeks of gestation, maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during the neonatal period did not significantly improve bronchopulmonary dysplasia-free survival at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age compared with placebo. Study interpretation is limited by early trial termination. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02371460.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/mortalidade , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho da Amostra
8.
N Engl J Med ; 383(1): 49-57, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational age is the major determinant of neonatal death (death within the first 28 days of life) in preterm infants. The joint effect of gestational age and Apgar score on the risk of neonatal death is unknown. METHODS: Using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, we identified 113,300 preterm infants (22 weeks 0 days to 36 weeks 6 days of gestation) born from 1992 through 2016. In analyses stratified according to gestational age (22 to 24 weeks, 25 to 27 weeks, 28 to 31 weeks, 32 to 34 weeks, and 35 or 36 weeks), we estimated adjusted relative risks of neonatal death and absolute rate differences in neonatal mortality (i.e., the excess number of neonatal deaths per 100 births) according to the Apgar scores at 5 and 10 minutes and according to the change in the Apgar score between 5 minutes and 10 minutes. Scores range from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating a better physical condition of the newborn. RESULTS: There were 1986 neonatal deaths (1.8%). The incidence of neonatal death ranged from 0.2% (at 36 weeks of gestation) to 76.5% (at 22 weeks of gestation). Lower Apgar scores were associated with higher relative risks of neonatal death and greater absolute rate differences in neonatal mortality in all gestational-age strata. For example, among infants born at 28 to 31 weeks, the adjusted absolute rate differences according to the 5-minute Apgar score, with those who had a score of 9 or 10 serving as the reference group, were 51.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.1 to 65.4) for a score of 0 or 1, 25.5 (95% CI, 18.3 to 32.8) for a score of 2 or 3, 7.1 (95% CI, 5.1 to 9.1) for a score of 4 to 6, and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.5 to 1.9) for a score of 7 or 8. An increase in the Apgar score between 5 minutes and 10 minutes was associated with lower neonatal mortality than a stable Apgar score. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, Apgar scores at 5 and 10 minutes provided prognostic information about neonatal survival among preterm infants across gestational-age strata. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life, and Welfare and Karolinska Institutet.).


Assuntos
Índice de Apgar , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Morte Perinatal , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mortalidade Perinatal , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia
9.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620946621, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723092

RESUMO

Little is known about the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates, especially when the virus is contracted early in pregnancy. The literature is especially lacking on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestation) infants who have underdeveloped immune systems. We report the case of an extremely preterm, 25-week 5-days old infant, born to a mother with severe COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) pneumonia. In this case, there is no evidence of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing, despite extreme prematurity. However, it appears that severe maternal COVID-19 may have been associated with extremely preterm delivery, based on observed histologic chorioamnionitis. This is the first reported case of an extremely preterm infant born to a mother with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who required intubation, and was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, remdesivir, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, inhaled nitric oxide, and prone positioning for severe hypoxemic respiratory failure prior to and after delivery of this infant. The infant remains critically ill with severe respiratory failure on high-frequency ventilation, inotropic support, hydrocortisone for pressor-resistant hypotension, and inhaled nitric oxide for severe persistent pulmonary hypertension with a right to left shunt across the patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. Pregnant women or women planning to get pregnant should take all precautions to minimize exposure to SARS-CoV-2 to decrease adverse perinatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Nascimento Prematuro/terapia , Nascimento Prematuro/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235311, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to define the prevalence and predictors of non-right-handedness and its link to long-term neurodevelopmental outcome and early neuroimaging in a cohort of children born extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestation). METHODS: 179 children born extremely preterm admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of our tertiary centre from 2006-2013 were included in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Collected data included perinatal data, demographic characteristics, neurodevelopmental outcome measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development at 2 years and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children at 5 years, and handedness measured at school age (4-8 years). Magnetic resonance imaging performed at term-equivalent age was used to study overt brain injury. Diffusion tensor imaging scans were analysed using tract-based spatial statistics to assess white matter microstructure in relation to handedness and neurodevelopmental outcome. RESULTS: The prevalence of non-right-handedness in our cohort was 22.9%, compared to 12% in the general population. Weaker fine motor skills at 2 years and paternal non-right-handedness were significantly associated with non-right-handedness. Both overt brain injury and fractional anisotropy of white matter structures on diffusion tensor images were not related to handedness. Fractional anisotropy measurements showed significant associations with neurodevelopmental outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that non-right-handedness in children born extremely preterm occurs almost twice as frequently as in the general population. In the studied population, non-right-handedness is associated with weaker fine motor skills and paternal non-right-handedness, but not with overt brain injury or microstructural brain development on early magnetic resonance imaging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/estatística & dados numéricos , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify a resource use inflection point (RU-IP) beyond which patients in the NICU no longer received NICU-level care, (2) to quantify variability between hospitals in patient-days beyond the RU-IP, and (3) to describe risk factors associated with reaching an RU-IP. METHODS: We evaluated infants admitted to any of the 43 NICUs over 6 years. We determined the day that each patient's total daily standardized cost was <10% of the mean first-day NICU room cost and remained within this range through discharge (RU-IP). We compared days beyond an RU-IP, the total standardized cost of hospital days beyond the RU-IP, and the percentage of patients by hospital beyond the RU-IP. RESULTS: Among 80 821 neonates, 80.6% reached an RU-IP. In total, there were 234 478 days after the RU-IP, representing 24.3% of the total NICU days and $483 281 268 in costs. Variability in the proportion of patients reaching an RU-IP was 33.1% to 98.7%. Extremely preterm and very preterm neonates, patients discharged with home health care services, or patients receiving mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or feeding support exhibited fewer days beyond the RU-IP. Conversely, receiving methadone was associated with increased days beyond the RU-IP. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of an RU-IP may allow health care systems to identify readiness for discharge from the NICU earlier and thereby save significant NICU days and health care dollars. These data reveal the need to identify best practices in NICUs that consistently discharge infants more efficiently. Once these best practices are known, they can be disseminated to offer guidance in creating quality improvement projects to provide safer and more predictable care across hospitals for patients of all socioeconomic statuses.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/economia , Tempo de Internação/economia , Alta do Paciente , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Serviços Hospitalares de Assistência Domiciliar , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Metadona/administração & dosagem , Apoio Nutricional , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233841, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Host immune responses during late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very preterm infants are poorly characterised due to a complex and dynamic pathophysiology and challenges in working with small available blood volumes. We present here an unbiased transcriptomic analysis of whole peripheral blood from very preterm infants at the time of LOS. METHODS: RNA-Seq was performed on peripheral blood samples (6-29 days postnatal age) taken at the time of suspected LOS from very preterm infants <30 weeks gestational age. Infants were classified based on blood culture positivity and elevated C-reactive protein concentrations as having confirmed LOS (n = 5), possible LOS (n = 4) or no LOS (n = 9). Bioinformatics and statistical analyses performed included pathway over-representation and protein-protein interaction network analyses. Plasma cytokine immunoassays were performed to validate differentially expressed cytokine pathways. RESULTS: The blood leukocyte transcriptional responses of infants with confirmed LOS differed significantly from infants without LOS (1,317 differentially expressed genes). However, infants with possible LOS could not be distinguished from infants with no LOS or confirmed LOS. Transcriptional alterations associated with LOS included genes involved in pathogen recognition (mainly TLR pathways), cytokine signalling (both pro-inflammatory and inhibitory responses), immune and haematological regulation (including cell death pathways), and metabolism (altered cholesterol biosynthesis). At the transcriptional-level cytokine responses during LOS were characterised by over-representation of IFN-α/ß, IFN-γ, IL-1 and IL-6 signalling pathways and up-regulation of genes for inflammatory responses. Infants with confirmed LOS had significantly higher levels of IL-1α and IL-6 in their plasma. CONCLUSIONS: Blood responses in very preterm infants with LOS are characterised by altered host immune responses that appear to reflect unbalanced immuno-metabolic homeostasis.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Sepse Neonatal/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sepse Neonatal/sangue , Sepse Neonatal/genética , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392779

RESUMO

Very preterm (VP; <32 weeks gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) birth has been associated with an increased risk of adverse motor and cognitive outcomes that may persist into adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine whether motor development in the first five years of life is associated with motor and cognitive outcomes in adulthood. A prospective observational study in Germany followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born individuals from birth into adulthood. Early motor trajectories (i.e., high and low degree of motor difficulties) were determined from neurological examinations from birth to 56 months. Adult motor and cognitive outcomes were determined from information from multiple instruments and IQ tests, respectively. Associations of VP/VLBW birth and early motor difficulties on adult outcomes were assessed using regression analyses. VP/VLBW individuals had an increased risk for early motor difficulties (Relative Risk: 11.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.28, 32.35). Early motor difficulties were associated with poorer motor competence in adulthood (ß = 0.22, p < 0.001), independent of VP/VLBW birth. Adult IQ was predicted by VP/VLBW (ß = -0.12, p < 0.05) and child IQ (ß = 0.51, p < 0.001), while early motor difficulties ceased to be associated with adult IQ once participants with a neurological impairment were excluded (ß = 0.02, p > 0.05). Motor problems in childhood were homotypically associated with poorer motor competence in adulthood. Similarly, early cognitive problems were homotypically associated with adult cognitive outcomes. Thus, both motor and cognitive function should be assessed in routine follow-up during childhood.


Assuntos
Cognição , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Destreza Motora , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
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