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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361753

RESUMO

The popularity and consumption of fermented milk products are growing. On the other hand, consumers are interested in health-promoting and functional foods. Fermented milk products are an excellent matrix for the incorporation of bioactive ingredients, making them functional foods. To overcome the instability or low solubility of many bioactive ingredients under various environmental conditions, the encapsulation approach was developed. This review analyzes the fortification of three fermented milk products, i.e., yogurt, cheese, and kefir with bioactive ingredients. The encapsulation methods and techniques alongside the encapsulant materials for carotenoids, phenolic compounds, omega-3, probiotics, and other micronutrients are discussed. The effect of encapsulation on the properties of bioactive ingredients themselves and on textural and sensory properties of fermented milk products is also presented.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Kefir/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Carotenoides/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fermentação , Aditivos Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Fenóis/química , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207960

RESUMO

Psoriasis is an immune-mediated systemic disease that may be treated with probiotics. In this study, probiotic strains that could or could not decrease interleukin (IL)-17 levels were applied to imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mice via oral administration. Bifidobacteriumadolescentis CCFM667, B. breve CCFM1078, Lacticaseibacillusparacasei CCFM1074, and Limosilactobacillus reuteri CCFM1132 ameliorated psoriasis-like pathological characteristics and suppressed the release of IL-23/T helper cell 17 (Th17) axis-related inflammatory cytokines, whereas B. animalis CCFM1148, L. paracasei CCFM1147, and L. reuteri CCFM1040 neither alleviated the pathological characteristics nor reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines. All effective strains increased the contents of short-chain fatty acids, which were negatively correlated with the levels of inflammatory cytokines. By performing 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the diversity of gut microbiota in psoriasis-like mice was found to decrease, but all effective strains made some specific changes to the composition of gut microbiota compared to the ineffective strains. Furthermore, except for B. breve CCFM1078, all other effective strains decreased the abundance of the family Rikenellaceae, which was positively correlated with psoriasis-like pathological characteristics and was negatively correlated with propionate levels. These findings demonstrated effects of strain-specificity, and how probiotics ameliorated psoriasis and provide new possibilities for the treatment of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/dietoterapia , Psoríase/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Imiquimode , Interleucinas/análise , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Probióticos/farmacologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Psoríase/patologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Células Th17/imunologia
3.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801082

RESUMO

Probiotics microorganisms exert their health-associated activities through some of the following general actions: competitive exclusion, enhancement of intestinal barrier function, production of bacteriocins, improvement of altered microbiota, and modulation of the immune response. Among them, Limosilactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 has become one of the most promising probiotics and it has been described to possess potential beneficial effects on inflammatory processes and immunological alterations. Different studies, preclinical and clinical trials, have evidenced its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and elucidated the precise mechanisms of action involved in its beneficial effects. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an updated overview of the effect on host health, mechanisms, and future therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Disbiose , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Lactobacillales/fisiologia
4.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(1): 951-960, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389533

RESUMO

Today, the increasing rate of cancer-related mortality, has rendered cancer a major global challenge, and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Conventional approaches in the treatment of cancer mainly include chemotherapy, surgery, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, these approaches still come with certain disadvantages, including drug resistance, and different side effects such as gastrointestinal (GI) irritation (e.g., diarrhea, mucositis). This has encouraged scientists to look for alternative therapeutic methods and adjuvant therapies for a more proper treatment of malignancies. Application of probiotics as an adjuvant therapy in the clinical management of cancer appears to be a promising strategy, with several notable advantages, e.g., increased safety, higher tolerance, and negligible GI side effects. Both in vivo and in vitro analyses have indicated the active role of yeast probiotics in mitigating the rate of cancer cell proliferation, and the induction of apoptosis through regulating the expression of cancer-related genes and cellular pathways. Strain-specific anti-cancer activities of yeast probiotics strongly suggest that their administration along with the current cancer therapies may be an efficient method to reduce the side effects of these approaches. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the efficacy of yeast probiotics in alleviating the adverse effects associated with cancer therapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Diarreia/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Saccharomyces/fisiologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Diarreia/imunologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/patologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia
5.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(12): 185, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215291

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the influence of two prebiotics, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS), on probiotic properties (resistance to low pH and bile salt, hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation), metabolites production, and antimicrobial activity of probiotic Lactiplantibacillus (L. pentosus S42 and L. plantarum S61) and Levilactobacillus (L. brevis S27) strains isolated from fermented olive. The results demonstrated the ability of strains to ferment XOS more than FOS as a sole carbon source, resulting in pH reduction. The prebiotics (FOS and XOS) significantly increased (p < 0.05) their survival in gastro-intestinal conditions (low pH and 0.3% of bile salts), as well as their hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation and production of proteins, compared to glucose (control). The major organic acids produced by Lactiplantibacillus and Levilactobacillus strains, were oxalic, malic and lactic acids from FOS, XOS and glucose, respectively. No antimicrobial activity was observed from cell-free supernatant (CFS) of Lactiplantibacillus and Levilactobacillus strains obtained from FOS. In the presence of XOS the organic acids, produced by Lactiplantibacillus and Levilactobacillus strains, were more diverse with high contents, and exhibited higher antifungal and antibacterial activities, more than that of FOS and glucose. The combination of L. plantarum S61 and XOS demonstrated the highest inhibition zones ranges of 20.7-22.2 mm against pathogenic bacteria and 29.2-30 mm against yeasts. This combination can be used in production of antifungal preservatives and pharmaceuticals, against pathogenic and spoilage yeasts.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Glucuronatos/farmacologia , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Olea/microbiologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Probióticos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Fermentação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Lactobacillaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Malatos/metabolismo , Malatos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxalatos/metabolismo , Oxalatos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15183, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938979

RESUMO

The gut microbiome is known to be sensitive to changes in the immune system, especially during autoimmune diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Our study examines the changes to the gut microbiome that occur during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. We collected fecal samples at key stages of EAE progression and quantified microbial abundances with 16S V3-V4 amplicon sequencing. Our analysis of the data suggests that the abundance of commensal Lactobacillaceae decreases during EAE while other commensal populations belonging to the Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Peptostreptococcaceae families expand. Community analysis with microbial co-occurrence networks points to these three expanding taxa as potential mediators of gut microbiome dysbiosis. We also employed PICRUSt2 to impute MetaCyc Enzyme Consortium (EC) pathway abundances from the original microbial abundance data. From this analysis, we found that a number of imputed EC pathways responsible for the production of immunomodulatory compounds appear to be enriched in mice undergoing EAE. Our analysis and interpretation of results provides a detailed picture of the changes to the gut microbiome that are occurring throughout the course of EAE disease progression and helps to evaluate EAE as a viable model for gut dysbiosis in MS patients.


Assuntos
Clostridiaceae/fisiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/microbiologia , Peptostreptococcus/fisiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ruminococcus/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1715, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015447

RESUMO

Palm wine, the most commonly consumed traditional alcoholic beverage in Western Africa, harbours a complex microbiota and metabolites, which plays a crucial role in the overall quality and value of the product. In the present study, a combined metagenomic and metabolomic approach was applied to describe the microbial community structure and metabolites profile of fermented saps from three palm species (Elaeis guineensis, Raphia hookeri, Borassus aethiopum) in Côte d'Ivoire. Lactobacillaceae (47%), Leuconostocaceae (16%) and Acetobacteriaceae (28%) were the most abundant bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (87%) the predominant yeasts in these beverages. The microbial community structure of Raphia wine was distinctly different from the others. Multivariate analysis based on the metabolites profile clearly separated the three palm wine types. The main differentiating metabolites were putatively identified as gevotroline hydrochloride, sesartemin and methylisocitrate in Elaeis wine; derivative of homoserine, mitoxantrone in Raphia wine; pyrimidine nucleotide sugars (UDP-D-galacturonate) and myo-Inositol derivatives in Borassus wine. The enriched presence of gevotroline (an antipsychotic agent) and mitoxantrone (an anticancer drug) in palm wine supports its therapeutic potential. This work provides a valuable insight into the microbiology and biochemistry of palm wines and a rationale for selecting functional microorganisms for potential biotechnology applications.


Assuntos
Acetobacteraceae/fisiologia , Arecaceae/fisiologia , Genótipo , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Leuconostocaceae/fisiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Vinho/microbiologia , Biologia Computacional , Costa do Marfim , Fermentação , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Toxicon ; 166: 15-23, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095961

RESUMO

Almonds and peanuts are a rich source of proteins, vitamins and unsaturated fatty acids. However, they can be also contaminated by mycotoxigenic fungi; a reason that has enhanced to investigate efficient strategies of management of these fungal contaminations. Some Lactic acid bacteria have been proven capable of inhibiting growth and mycotoxin production in livestock and transform it into nontoxic derivatives. In this work, four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their abilities to inhibit the growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius. Antifungal activity was evaluated in agar medium as well as in almonds and peanuts. Results showed that LAB significantly inhibited Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius in agar medium but none of the strains were able to completely inhibit fungal growth. The highest fungal growth inhibition was obtained using L. kefiri FR7 (51.67% and 45.56% growth inhibition of A. flavus and A. carbonarius, respectively). The cell-free supernatants (CFS) from LAB reduced fungal growth with average growth inhibitions ranging from 13.33% to 40.56% and 12.78% to 37.78% for A. flavus and A. carbonarius, respectively. We noted also that cell-free supernatants at pH7 (CFS-pH7) from the entire tested LAB did not inhibit fungal growth. L. kefiri FR7 was the most effective strain in mycotoxin suppression with a reduction percentage reaching 97.22%, 95.27% and 75.26% for AFB1, AFB2 and OTA respectively. Moreover, the inoculation of L. kefiri FR7 in almonds artificially contaminated with A. flavus decrease 85.27% of AFB1 and 83.94% of AFB2 content after 7 days of incubation. On the other hand, application of L. kefiri FR7 in peanuts artificially contaminated with A. carbonarius reduced OTA content to 25%. Our study revealed the potential use and application of L. kefiri FR7 in the control of fungi growth and mycotoxins production in almonds and peanuts.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Arachis/microbiologia , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Nozes/microbiologia , Prunus dulcis/microbiologia
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(1): 183-190, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional, physiological and biochemical effects of dietary supplementation of an association of probiotic bacteria in rats intoxicated with chromium (VI). Ninety-six male rats, recently weaned, were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 12): Control, DK12, DK24 and DK36 (0, 0.12, 0.24 and 0.36 g kg-1 of K2 Cr2 O7 incorporated in the basal feed, respectively) and groups Prob, DK12 + Prob, DK24 + Prob and DK36 + Prob received a progressive dose of 0, 0.12, 0.24 and 0.36 g kg-1 of K2 Cr2 O7 incorporated in the basal feed and supplemented with 0.02 g kg-1 of an association of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium thermophilum and Bifidobacterium longum). RESULTS: After 90 days, we observed significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent alterations from incorporation of increasing doses of chromium (VI) related to nutritional, physiological and biochemical parameters. These changes were attenuated (P < 0.05) with probiotic supplementation. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with probiotics in the diet beneficially modified the nutritional and physiological parameters, as well as hepatic, renal, glycemic and lipid profiles, of animals intoxicated with increasing doses of K2 Cr2 O7 . © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/tratamento farmacológico , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Dicromato de Potássio/toxicidade , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/etiologia , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/patologia , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Probióticos/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins ; 10(3): 558-565, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639176

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic Pedicoccus acidilactici and nucleotide (separately or combined) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, hemato-immunological parameters, and immunity response in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish (average weight 5-6 g) were acclimatized and divided into eight experimental diets supplemented with P. acidilactici of different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% diet) and nucleotides (0 and 0.5% diet) for 6 months. Fish fed with experimental diets showed significant differences in terms of final weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, daily growth rate, and condition factor when compared to control diet (P < 0.05). Fish fed with probiotic (0.3%) separately and combined with nucleotide (0.5%) had highest RBC and WBC when compared to other diets (P < 0.05), while the highest values for Hb and Hct as well as total protein, glucose, albumin, and globulin were observed in probiotic (0.2%) and nucleotide (0.5%) combined diet. Serum lysozyme and anti-protease activities were significantly higher in probiotic (0.1 and 0.2%) and nucleotide (0.5%) combined diets. Similarly, these two diets combined showed the highest colonization of P. acidilactici when compared to other diets. In conclusion, combined dietary probiotic and nucleotide improve the growth performance, hemato-biochemical parameters, and intestine growth in C. auratus.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Carpa Dourada/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imunidade Inata , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Nucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Carpa Dourada/sangue , Carpa Dourada/imunologia , Hematologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 5(5)2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936946

RESUMO

The Lactobacillus genus is a diverse group of microorganisms, many of which are of industrial and medical relevance. Several Lactobacillus species have been used as probiotics, organisms that when present in sufficient quantities confer a health benefit to the host. A significant limitation to the mechanistic understanding of how these microbes provide health benefits to their hosts and how they can be used as therapeutic delivery systems has been the lack of genetic strategies to efficiently manipulate their genomes. This article will review the development and employment of traditional genetic tools in lactobacilli and highlight the latest methodologies that are allowing for precision genome engineering of these probiotic organisms. The application of these tools will be key in providing mechanistic insights into probiotics as well as maximizing the value of lactobacilli as either a traditional probiotic or as a platform for the delivery of therapeutic proteins. Finally, we will discuss concepts that we consider relevant for the delivery of engineered therapeutics to the human gut.


Assuntos
Engenharia Genética/métodos , Lactobacillaceae/genética , Probióticos/química , Animais , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia
12.
Food Microbiol ; 66: 72-76, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28576375

RESUMO

Ricotta fresca cheese is susceptible to secondary contamination and is able to support the growth of pathogens or spoilage psychotrophic bacteria during storage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate which among three commercial biopreservatives was suitable to be used to control the growth of spoilage microorganisms in sheep's milk MAP ricotta fresca cheese. 144 Ricotta fresca cheese samples were inoculated either with the bioprotective culture Lyofast FPR 2 (including Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum e Lactobacillus rhamnosus) or Lyofast CNBAL (Carnobacterium spp) or the fermentate MicroGARD 430. Not inoculated control and experimental ricotta were MAP packed (30% CO2 and 70% N2) and stored at 4 °C. Triplicate samples were analyzed after 5 h and 7, 14 and 21 days after inoculation for total bacterial count, mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp, Listeria monocytogenes, moulds and yeasts. Among the tested biopreservatives only Carnobacterium spp was able to control Pseudomonas spp and Enterobacteriaceae. The maximum reduction in the concentration of Pseudomonas spp and Enterobacteriaceae was respectively 1.93 and 2.66 log10 cfu/g, observed 14 days after production. Therefore, Carnobacterium spp was selected as the culture of choice to conduct a challenge study against Pseudomonas spp.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Queijo/microbiologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Animais , Queijo/economia , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos/economia , Conservação de Alimentos/economia , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite/microbiologia , Ovinos
13.
Food Microbiol ; 65: 244-253, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400009

RESUMO

This study focused on the selection of lactic starters with probiotic properties for the production of fermented fish-products by the use of a multivariate approach (Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis). Seventy-five isolates were recovered from fish intestinal microbiota and characterized by evaluating phenotypical, technological and probiotic traits; the most promising isolates were molecularly identified and then used into fish fermented sausage production. Namely, data from technological characterization were modelled through Growth Index and used as input to run a preliminary selection. Thus, 15 promising strains were selected and subjected to probiotic characterization; considering the results from probiotic tests, 3 promising strains were finally chosen (11, 68 and 69), identified as members of the genus Lactobacillus and used for the validation at laboratory level through the assessment of their performances for the production of fermented fish sausages. The results were promising as the use of the selected strains reduced the fermentation time (2 days) ensuring a good microbiological quality of the final product.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Lactobacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Produtos Pesqueiros/normas , Peixes/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillaceae/genética , Lactobacillaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 101(7): 2641-2657, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28213732

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a heterogeneous group of Gram-positive bacteria that comprise several species which have evolved in close association with humans (food and lifestyle). While their use to ferment food dates back to very ancient times, in the last decades, LAB have attracted much attention for their documented beneficial properties and for potential biomedical applications. Some LAB are commensal that colonize, stably or transiently, host mucosal surfaces, inlcuding the gut, where they may contribute to host health. In this review, we present and discuss the main factors enabling LAB adaptation to such lifestyle, including the gene reprogramming accompanying gut colonization, the specific bacterial components involved in adhesion and interaction with host, and how the gut niche has shaped the genome of intestine-adapted species. Moreover, the capacity of LAB to colonize abiotic surfaces by forming structured communities, i.e., biofilms, is briefly discussed, taking into account the main bacterial and environmental factors involved, particularly in relation to food-related environments. The vast spread of LAB surface-associated communities and the ability to control their occurrence hold great potentials for human health and food safety biotechnologies.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Aptidão Genética , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillaceae/genética , Lactobacillaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Probióticos , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
Adv Appl Microbiol ; 98: 1-29, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28189153

RESUMO

Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Ample evidence is documented to support the potential application of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of infections. Health benefits of probiotics include prevention of diarrhea, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea, atopic eczema, dental carries, colorectal cancers, and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. The cumulative body of scientific evidence that demonstrates the beneficial effects of probiotics on health and disease prevention has made probiotics increasingly important as a part of human nutrition and led to a surge in the demand for probiotics in clinical applications and as functional foods. The ability of probiotics to promote health is attributed to the various beneficial effects exerted by these microorganisms on the host. These include lactose metabolism and food digestion, production of antimicrobial peptides and control of enteric infections, anticarcinogenic properties, immunologic enhancement, enhancement of short-chain fatty acid production, antiatherogenic and cholesterol-lowering attributes, regulatory role in allergy, protection against vaginal or urinary tract infections, increased nutritional value, maintenance of epithelial integrity and barrier, stimulation of repair mechanism in cells, and maintenance and reestablishment of well-balanced indigenous intestinal and respiratory microbial communities. Most of these attributes primarily focus on the effect of probiotic supplementation on the host. Hence, in most cases, it can be concluded that the ability of a probiotic to protect the host from infection is an indirect result of promoting overall health and well-being. However, probiotics also exert a direct effect on invading microorganisms. The direct modes of action resulting in the elimination of pathogens include inhibition of pathogen replication by producing antimicrobial substances like bacteriocins, competition for limiting resources in the host, antitoxin effect, inhibition of virulence, antiadhesive and antiinvasive effects, and competitive exclusion by competition for binding sites or stimulation of epithelial barrier function. Although much has been documented about the ability of probiotics to promote host health, there is limited discussion on the above mentioned effects of probiotics on pathogens. Being in an era of antibiotic resistance, a better understanding of this complex probiotic-pathogen interaction is critical for development of effective strategies to control infections. Therefore, this chapter will focus on the ability of probiotics to directly modulate the infectious nature of pathogens and the underlying mechanisms that mediate these effects.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillaceae/patogenicidade
16.
Food Microbiol ; 63: 72-83, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28040184

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of osmotic dehydration of Kalamata natural black olives as pre-fermentation treatment in combination with partial substitution of NaCl by monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the fermentation profile of olives. Osmotic dehydration was undertaken by immersing the olives in 70% (w/w) glucose syrup overnight at room temperature. Further on, three different mixtures of NaCl and MSG with/without prior osmotic dehydration of olives were investigated, namely (i) 6.65% NaCl - 0.35% MSG (5% substitution), (ii) 6.30% NaCl - 0.70% MSG (10% substitution), (iii) 5.95% NaCl - 1.05% MSG (15% substitution), and (iv) 7% NaCl without osmotic dehydration (control treatment). Changes in the microbial association (lactic acid bacteria [LAB], yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae), pH, titratable acidity, organic acids, sugars, and volatile compounds in the brine were analyzed for a period of 4 months. The final product was subjected to sensory analysis and the content of MSG in olives was determined. Results demonstrated that osmotic dehydration of olives prior to brining led to vigorous lactic acid processes as indicated by the obtained values of pH (3.7-4.1) and acidity (0.7-0.8%) regardless of the amount of MSG used. However, in non-osmotically dehydrated olives, the highest substitution level of MSG resulted in a final pH (4.5) that was beyond specification for this type of olives. MSG was degraded in the brines being almost completely converted to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the end of fermentation. Finally, the sensory assessment of fermented olives with/without osmotic dehydration and at all levels of MSG did not show any deviation compared to the control treatment.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Fermentação , Olea , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Glutamato de Sódio/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Enterobacteriaceae/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Olea/química , Olea/efeitos dos fármacos , Olea/microbiologia , Osmose , Sais , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Glutamato de Sódio/metabolismo , Paladar , Leveduras/fisiologia
17.
Gut Microbes ; 8(4): 311-322, 2017 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28080206

RESUMO

The existence of an implicit living microscopic world, composed primarily of bacteria, has been known for centuries. The exact mechanisms that govern the contribution of bacteria to human health and disease have only recently become the subject of intense research efforts. Within this very evident shift in paradigms, the rational design of probiotic formulations has led to the creation of an industry that seeks to progress the engineering of probiotic bacteria that produce metabolites that may enhance human host health and prevent disease. The promotion of probiotics is often made in the absence of quality scientific and clinically plausible data. The latest incursions into the probiotic market of claims have posited the amelioration of oxidative stress via potent antioxidant attributes or limiting the administration of probiotics to those species that do not produce D-Lactic acid (i.e., claims that D-Lactic acid acidosis is linked to chronic health conditions) or are strain-specific (shaping an industry point of difference) for appraising a therapeutic effect. Evidence-based research should guide clinical practice, as there is no place in science and medicine that supports unsubstantiated claims. Extravagant industry based notions continue to fuel the imprimatur of distrust and skepticism that is leveled by scientists and clinicians at an industry that is already rife with scientific and medical distrust and questionable views on probiotics. Ignoring scientifically discordant data, when sorting through research innovations and false leads relevant to the actions of probiotics, drives researcher discomfit and keeps the bar low, impeding the progress of knowledge. Biologically plausible posits are obligatory in any research effort; companies formulating probiotics often exhibit a lack of analytical understanding that then fuels questionable investigations failing to build on research capacity.


Assuntos
Acidose Láctica/tratamento farmacológico , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Probióticos/análise , Acidose Láctica/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Lactobacillaceae/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Food Microbiol ; 61: 126-135, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697162

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were to characterize the biofilm microbiota of 11 different farms (from A to K), producing PDO Ragusano cheese, and to investigate on its ability to generate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in milk samples inoculated with biofilm and incubated under Ragusano cheese making conditions. The biofilms were subjected to plate counting and PCR/T/DGGE analysis and the VOCs generated in incubated milk samples were evaluated through SmartNose, GC/O, and GC/MS. Streptococcus thermophilus was the dominant species both in biofilms and in incubated milks. Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus and Leuconostoc were also identified. Low levels of Pseudomonas spp. and yeasts counts were detected, whereas coliforms, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp., were never found. SmartNose and GC/O analyses were able to differentiate incubated milk samples on the basis of the odour compounds, highlighting that samples E and F overlapped and sample C was clearly separated from the others. These results complied with those acquired by GC/MS analysis, that detected in total 20 VOCs. Principal component analysis showed positive correlations (r > 0.6; P < 0.05) between some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and VOCs: such as Enterococcus hirae with alcohols, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus delbrueckii with aldehydes, and Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus hilgardii with ketones. This work demonstrates that biofilm represents an excellent source of LAB biodiversity, which contribute to generate VOCs during the production of PDO Ragusano cheese.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Queijo/microbiologia , Microbiota , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillaceae/genética , Lactobacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/fisiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus thermophilus/genética , Streptococcus thermophilus/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Madeira/microbiologia
19.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 48(3): 236-244, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615714

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria are known for their biotechnological potential. In various regions of Ecuador numerous indigenous biological resources are largely undocumented. In this study, we evaluated the potential probiotic characteristics and antagonistic in vitro properties of some lactic acid bacteria from native niches of the subtropical rain forests of Ecuador. These isolates were identified according to their morphological properties, standard API50CH fermentation profile and RAPD-DNA polymorphism pattern. The selected isolates were further evaluated for their probiotic potential. The isolates grew at 15°C and 45°C, survived at a pH ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 in the presence of 0.3% bile (>90%) and grew under sodium chloride conditions. All selected isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, amoxicillin and cefuroxime and some showed resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin and tetracycline. Moreover, the agar well diffusion assay showed that the supernatant of each strain at pH 3.0 and pH 4.0, but not at pH 7.0 exhibited increased antimicrobial activity (inhibition zone >15mm) against two foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the antagonistic activity against two foodborne pathogens and the probiotic in vitro potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from native biota of Ecuador.


Assuntos
Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Probióticos , Floresta Úmida , Antibiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Equador , Fermentação , Flores/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Lactobacillaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Tolerância ao Sal , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
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