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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 854989, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35425719

RESUMO

Background: Administration of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) to children with gastroenteritis is recommended by universal guidelines. Rotavirus (RV) causes diarrhea through combined cytotoxic and enterotoxic effects. Aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of efficacy of LGG in an in-vitro model of RV diarrhea in its viable form (LGG) and conditioned medium (mLGG). Methods: Ion secretion corresponding to the NSP4 enterotoxic effect, was evaluated by short circuit current (Isc) and the cytotoxic effect by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in Ussing chambers, upon exposure to RV in Caco-2 enterocyte monolayers treated or not with living probiotic or its culture supernatant. Mechanisms of enterotoxic and cytotoxic damage were evaluated including oxidative stress measured by reactive oxygen species, apoptosis evaluated by DAPI and nuclear staining, NFkß immunofluorescence. Results: RV induced Isc increase and TEER decrease, respectively indicating ion secretion and epithelial damage, the two established pathways of diarrhea. Both probiotic preparations reduced both diarrheal effects, but their potency was different. Live LGG was equally effective on both enterotoxic and cytotoxic effect whereas mLGG was highly effective on ion secretion and showed minimal protective effects on cytoskeleton, apoptosis and NFkß. Conclusions: LGG counteracts RV-induced diarrhea by inhibiting both cytotoxic and enterotoxic pathogenic mechanisms. Namely, LGG inhibits chloride secretion by specific moieties secreted in the medium with a direct pharmacologic-like action. This is considered a postbiotic effect. Subsequently, live bacteria exert a probiotic effect protecting the enterocyte structure.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Probióticos , Rotavirus , Apoptose , Células CACO-2 , Criança , Diarreia/terapia , Enterócitos , Humanos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
2.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334950

RESUMO

Depression is a common mood disorder that affects around 350 million people worldwide. We studied the effect of supplementation with Lactobacillus strains for the treatment of depression. Except for control group (n = 8), C57BL/6J mice were treated with Lactobacillus during six weeks of chronic unpredictable stress (depression group: n = 9, Lactobacillus intervention group: n = 7). L. paracasei CCFM1229 and L. rhamnosus CCFM1228 significantly reduced depressive behaviour in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test, significantly reduced anxiety behaviour in the open field test, and reduced anxiety behaviour in the marble burying test and light/dark box test. L. paracasei CCFM1229 and L. rhamnosus CCFM1228 significantly increased the brain serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations, and CCFM1229 significantly decreased the serum corticosterone concentration, all of which are closely associated with the relief of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, CCFM1229 and CCFM1228 were shown to regulate purine metabolism in mice, as indicated by decreases in brain xanthine oxidase activity and an increase in liver adenosine deaminase activity. Anxiety- and depression-related indicators were significantly associated with xanthine oxidase activity in the cerebral cortex. The strains CCFM1229 and CCFM1228 reduced anxiety- and depression-related behaviour in a mouse model of chronic stress-induced depression, which may be achieved by regulating the activity of brain xanthine oxidase.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus paracasei , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Animais , Ansiedade , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus paracasei/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e055214, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332040

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and/or cereal enriched with oat-derived beta-glucan (OBG) on metabolic and mental health outcomes when administered to adults with pre-diabetes. DESIGN: 2×2 factorial design randomised, parallel-groups placebo-controlled; double-blinded for probiotic, single-blinded for cereals. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults aged 18-80 years with pre-diabetes: glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 41-49 mmol/mol. INTERVENTIONS: Capsules containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001) (6×109 colony-forming units/day), or placebo capsules; and cereal containing 4 g/day OBG or calorie-matched control cereal, taken daily, for 6 months. Study groups were: (A) HN001 capsules+OBG cereal; (B) HN001 capsules+control cereal; (C) placebo capsules+OBG cereal and (D) placebo capsules+control cereal. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: HbA1c at 6 months. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, fasting lipids, blood pressure, body weight, waist circumference, body mass index and mental well-being. RESULTS: 153 participants were randomised. There was complete HbA1c outcome data available for 129 participants. At 6 months the mean (SD) HbA1c was 45.9 (4.4) mmol/mol, n=66 for HN001, and 46.7 (4.3) mmol/mol, n=63 for placebo capsules; 46.5 (4.0) mmol/mol, n=67 for OBG and 46.0 (4.6) mmol/mol n=62 for control cereal. The estimated difference between HN001-placebo capsules was -0.83, 95% CI -1.93 to 0.27 mmol/mol, p=0.63, and between OBG-control cereals -0.17, 95% CI -1.28 to 0.94 mmol/mol, p=0.76. There was no significant interaction between treatments p=0.79. There were no differences between groups or significant interactions between treatments for any of the secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence of clinical benefit from the supplementation with either HN001 and/or cereal containing 4 g OBG on HbA1c and all secondary outcomes relevant to adults with pre-diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian New Zealand Clincial Trials Registry number ACTRN12617000990325.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Estado Pré-Diabético , Probióticos , Adulto , Austrália , Glicemia/metabolismo , Cápsulas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prebióticos , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 809674, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310848

RESUMO

Escherichia coli counts as a major endometritis-causing pathogen among dairy cows, which lowered the economic benefits of dairy farming seriously. Probiotic consumption has been reported to impart beneficial effects on immunomodulation. However, the inflammatory regulation mechanism of probiotics on endometritis in dairy cows remains unexplored. The current work aimed to clarify the mechanism whereby Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (L. rhamnosus GR-1) resists bovine endometrial epithelial cells (BEECs) inflammatory injury induced by E. coli. The model of cellular inflammatory injury was established in the BEECs, which comes from the uterus of healthy dairy cows using E. coli. The outcome of L. rhamnosus GR-1 addition on inflammation was evaluated in BEECs with E. coli-induced endometritis. The underlying mechanisms of anti-inflammation by L. rhamnosus GR-1 were further explored in E. coli-stimulated BEECs. In accordance with the obtained results, the use L. rhamnosus GR-1 alone could not cause the change of inflammatory factors, while L. rhamnosus GR-1 could significantly alleviate the expression of E. coli-induced inflammatory factors. Based on further study, L. rhamnosus GR-1 significantly hindered the TLR4 and MyD88 expression stimulated by E. coli. Moreover, we observed that in BEECs, L. rhamnosus GR-1 could inhibit the E. coli-elicited expressions of pathway proteins that are associated with NF-κB and MAPKs. Briefly, L. rhamnosus GR-1 can effectively protect against E. coli-induced inflammatory response that may be closely related to the inhibition of TLR4 and MyD88 stimulating NF-κB and MAPKs.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus rhamnosus , NF-kappa B , Animais , Bovinos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
5.
Food Funct ; 13(8): 4331-4343, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302147

RESUMO

Depression remains one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and it has been confirmed that it is related to the dysfunction of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Manipulation of the gut microenvironment by probiotics might improve mental health and prevent stress-related psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) zz-1 could prevent the occurrence of depression and its potential mechanisms using a mouse model with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The results indicated that L. rhamnosus zz-1 intervention ameliorated CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors of mice with reduced body growth rate, lowered sucrose preference, increased immobility time, as well as decreased curiosity and mobility. Moreover, L. rhamnosus zz-1 significantly inhibited hormones released due to hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, alleviated CUMS-induced deficits of monoamine neurotransmitters, and increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB). These benefits were partially linked to the regulation of the intestinal microenvironment. L. rhamnosus zz-1 alleviated intestinal damage and reduced intestinal inflammation of the depressed mice. Meanwhile, L. rhamnosus zz-1 effectively adjusted the dysbiosis of mouse gut microbiota induced by CUMS, such as changes in the abundance of the Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group, Bacteroides, and Muribaculum. Taken together, these results demonstrated that L. rhamnosus zz-1 was effective in preventing depression from chronic stress, adding new evidence to support the mental benefits of probiotics.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Depressão/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3851478, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132375

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that forms ulcerations in the mucous membrane of the colon and rectum, in which gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in its pathogenesis. Agents modulating microbial dysbiosis caused by colitis can help in the remission of this disease. The current study describes the potential therapeutic effects of active metabolites from Lactobacillus rhamnosus and mare's milk which have potential therapeutic values on the intestinal microbiota and proinflammatory cytokines. The analysis of the V1-V3 16S rDNA site revealed significant changes in the intestinal microbiome composition before and after treatment in the treated group compared to the positive control group that was treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). So the effect of the study product on dextran sulfate sodium-induced dysbiosis was shown to be more potent than the positive control, 5-ASA. The level of proinflammatory cytokines also decreased under the influence of a biological product.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cavalos , Mesalamina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Pharmacol Res ; 177: 106090, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065201

RESUMO

Evidence reveals that gut dysbiosis is involved in bidirectional interactions in gut-brain axis and participates in the progress of multiple disorders like anxiety. Gut microbes in early life are crucial for establishment of host health. We aimed to investigate whether early life probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) colonization could relieve anxiety in adulthood through regulation of gut-brain axis. Live or fixed LGG was gavaged to C57BL/6 female mice from day 18 of pregnancy until natural birth, and newborn mice from day 1 to day 5 respectively. In this study, we found that live LGG could be effectively colonized in the intestine of offspring. LGG colonization increased intestinal villus length and colonic crypt depth, accompanied with barrier function protection before weaning. Microbiota composition by 16S rRNA sequencing showed that some beneficial bacteria, such as Akkermansia and Bifidobacteria, were abundant in LGG colonization group. The protective effect of LGG on gut microbiota persisted from weaning to adulthood. Intriguingly, behavioral results assessed by elevated plus mazed test and open field test demonstrated relief of anxiety-like behavior in adult LGG-colonized offspring. Mechanically, LGG colonization activated epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and enhanced serotonin transporter (SERT) expression and modulated serotonergic system in the intestine, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor and γ-aminobutyric acid receptor levels in the hippocampus and amygdala. Blocking EGFR blunted LGG-induced the increased SERT and zonula occludens-1 expression. Collectively, early life LGG colonization could protect intestinal barrier of offspring and modulate gut-brain axis in association with relief of anxiety-like behavior in adulthood.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Probióticos , Animais , Ansiedade , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/genética , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gravidez , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo
8.
Food Funct ; 13(3): 1218-1231, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019929

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the potential anti-aging mechanisms of Agrocybe cylindracea crude polysaccharides (APS), when used synergistically with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (APS + LGG) in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. In the Morris water maze test, APS + LGG showed a significantly higher memory and learning capacity compared to untreated, APS only treated and LGG treated mice. This was thought to be mediated by increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which decreased escape latency. In addition to this, in the aging mouse model, APS + LGG co-treatment markedly alleviated liver oxidation and metabolism by enhancing the antioxidant activity of enzymes; this decreased the lipid metabolism and peroxidation levels. Furthermore, high throughput sequencing analysis revealed that an APS + LGG supplemented feed increased the relative abundance of positive bacteria in the gut microbiota such as Alloprevotella and Parvibacter. Importantly, Alloprevotella and Parvibacter showed a negative relationship with low density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the Spearman correlation analysis. These results illustrate that APS, in combination with LGG, postponed aging related oxidative stress when used as a prebiotic. The proposed mechanism for this is the reduction in liver oxidation and lipid metabolism, as well as the regulation of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Agrocybe/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
9.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 66(2): e2100619, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806832

RESUMO

SCOPE: Many infants suffer from complementary feeding-induced diarrhea (CFID). Studies have shown that intestinal microbes can enhance the intestinal barrier and prevent diarrhea by producing indole derivatives that promote pregnane X receptor (PXR) expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the indole test and determination of the PXR concentration are performed on tryptophan broth cultures of 320-suspected Lactobacillus and Enterococcus strains. Four strains that produce indole derivatives that promote the expression of PXR are screened as potential functional probiotics. Both Lactobacillus rhamnosus MN-431 (L. rhamnosus MN-431) and Lactobacillus oris FN-448 (L. oris FN-448) can colonize the intestine of rat pups, and L. rhamnosus MN-431 can significantly decrease the incidence of diarrhea and intestinal permeability in rat pups. Using real-time qPCR and the analysis of the intestinal morphology using immunohistochemistry, it is observed that the metabolized tryptophan from L. rhamnosus MN-431 can reduce small intestinal mucosal damage by stimulating PXR/NF-κB signaling and activating PXR and aryl hydrocarbon receptor. The intestinal barrier is also enhanced by promoting the expression of tight junction proteins such as Occludin and zonula occludens-1 in baby rats. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that L. rhamnosus MN-431 can metabolize tryptophan to prevent infantile CFID by promoting the expression of PXR.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Probióticos , Animais , Diarreia/metabolismo , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Indóis/metabolismo , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ratos
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21691, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737363

RESUMO

We characterized two LysM domains of Limosilactobacillus fermentum, belonging to proteins Acglu (GenBank: KPH22907.1) and Pgb (GenBank: KPH22047.1) and bacterium like particles (BLP) derived from the immunomodulatory strain Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus IBL027 (BLPs027) as an antigen display platform. The fluorescence protein Venus fused to the novel LysM domains could bind to the peptidoglycan shell of lactobacilli and resisted harsh conditions such as high NaCl and urea concentrations. Acglu with five LysM domains was a better anchor than Pgb baring only one domain. Six-week-old BALB/c mice were nasally immunized with the complex Venus-Acglu-BLPs027 at days 0, 14 and 28. The levels of specific serum IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a and the levels of total immunoglobulins (IgT) and IgA in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) were evaluated ten days after the last boosting. Venus-Acglu-BLPs027, nasally administered, significantly increased specific BAL IgT and IgA, and serum IgG levels. In addition, spleen cells of mice immunized with Venus-Acglu-BLPs027 secreted TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-4 when stimulated ex vivo in a dose-dependent manner. We constructed a Gateway compatible destination vector to easily fuse the selected LysM domain to proteins of interest for antigen display to develop mucosal subunit vaccines.


Assuntos
Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Lactobacillus fermentum/imunologia , Lactobacillus fermentum/metabolismo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Feminino , Imunização/métodos , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Lactobacillus/imunologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/imunologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Vacinação
11.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1993583, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747333

RESUMO

Gut microbiota have myriad roles in host physiology, development, and immunity. Though confined to the intestinal lumen by the epithelia, microbes influence distal systems via poorly characterized mechanisms. Recent work has considered the role of extracellular vesicles in interspecies communication, but whether they are involved in systemic microbe-host interaction is unclear. Here, we show that distinctive nanoparticles can be isolated from mouse blood within 2.5 h of consuming Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus JB-1. In contrast to blood nanoparticles from saline-fed mice, they reproduced lipoteichoic acid-mediated immune functions of the original bacteria, including activation of TLR2 and increased IL-10 expression by dendritic cells. Like the fed bacteria, they also reduced IL-8 induced by TNF in an intestinal epithelial cell line. Though enriched for host neuronal proteins, these isolated nanoparticles also contained proteins and viral (phage) DNA of fed bacterial origin. Our data strongly suggest that oral consumption of live bacteria rapidly leads to circulation of their membrane vesicles and phages and demonstrate a nanoparticulate pathway whereby beneficial bacteria and probiotics may systemically affect their hosts.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Sangue/microbiologia , Sangue/virologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Bacteriófagos/genética , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C/genética
12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 9629102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As every organ within the body, the brain is also extremely susceptible to a plethora of noxious agents that change its chemistry. One component frequently found in current products against harmful species to crops is rotenone whose effect under prolonged exposure has been demonstrated to cause neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The latest reports have indeed revealed that rotenone promotes Parkinson's in humans, but studies aiming to show congruent effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio) are lacking. Material and Methods. In this context, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate how chronic administration of rotenone for 3 weeks impairs the locomotor activity and sociability and induces oxidative stress in zebrafish. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences following the analysis of their social interaction and locomotor tests (p > 0.05). However, several exceptions have been noted in the control, rotenone, and probiotics groups when we compared their locomotor activity during the pretreatment and treatment interval (p < 0.05). We further assessed the role of rotenone in disturbing the detoxifying system as represented by three enzymes known as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Despite the fact that there were no statistically significant changes within SOD and GPx levels between the control group and rotenone, probiotics, and rotenone + probiotics (p > 0.05), relevant changes have been observed between the analyzed groups (p < 0.05 and p < 0.005, respectively). On the other hand, significant differences (p < 0.05) have been observed for MDA when we analyzed the data between the control group and the other three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that rotenone can be successfully used to trigger Parkinson's disease-related symptomatology in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/microbiologia , Rotenona/efeitos adversos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Peixe-Zebra
13.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684320

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting inflammatory disease. Probiotics have a potential beneficial effect on the prevention of UC onset and relapse in clinical trials. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L. rhamnosus GG) have shown clinical benefits on UC patients, however, the precise mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of extracellular vesicles released from L. rhamnosus GG (LGG-EVs) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and propose the underlying mechanism of LGG-EVs for protecting against colitis. The results showed that LGG-EVs could prevent colonic tissue damage and shortening of the colon (p < 0.01), and ameliorate intestinal inflammation by inhibiting TLR4-NF-κB-NLRP3 axis activation. Consistently, the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-2) were suppressed effectively upon LGG-EVs treatment (p < 0.05). The 16S rRNA sequencing showed that LGG-EVs administration could reshape the gut microbiota in DSS-induced colitis mice, which further alters the metabolism pathways of gut microbiota. These findings propose a novel perspective of L. rhamnosus GG in attenuating inflammation mediated by extracellular vesicles and offer consideration for developing oral gavage of LGG-EVs for colitis therapies.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamação/microbiologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Animais , Biodiversidade , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/genética , Colite/microbiologia , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Vesículas Extracelulares/ultraestrutura , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Análise de Componente Principal
14.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684768

RESUMO

The enrichment of commonly consumed foods with bioactive components might be helpful in promoting health and reducing the risk of disease, so the enrichment of probiotic fermented milk with vitamin C can be considered appropriate. The effect of vitamin C addition depends on the source of origin (rosehip, acerola and ascorbic acid in powder form) on the growth and survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and the quality of fermented milk on the 1st and 21st day of storage was analyzed. The pH, total acidity, vitamin C, syneresis, color, texture profile and numbers of bacterial cells in fermented milk were determined. The organoleptic evaluation was also performed. The degradation of vitamin C in milk was shown to depend on its source. The lowest reduction of vitamin C was determined in milk with rosehip. The least stable was vitamin C naturally found in control milk. The addition of rosehip and acerola decreased syneresis and lightness of milk color, increasing the yellow and red color proportion. In contrast, milk with ascorbic acid was the lightest during the whole experimental period and was characterized by a very soft gel. The growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during fermentation was most positively affected by the addition of rosehip. However, the best survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was demonstrated in milk with acerola. On the 21st day of storage, the number of L. rhamnosus cells in the control milk and the milk with vitamin C was >8 log cfu g-1, so these milks met the criterion of therapeutic minimum. According to the assessors, the taste and odor contributed by the addition of rosehip was the most intense of all the vitamin C sources used in the study.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/análise , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/microbiologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Probióticos/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/isolamento & purificação , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Fermentação , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Malpighiaceae/química , Odorantes , Pós , Rosa/química , Paladar
15.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9632-9641, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664577

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on the antioxidative and antiapoptotic activities of intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). EPSs exhibited promising antioxidative activities, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical (˙OH) and superoxide anion radical (O2˙-) scavenging, as well as ferrous ion chelating ability. Moreover, EPSs of LGG could effectively alleviate the IPEC-J2 oxidative damage induced by H2O2 through the Bcl-2-associated (Bax)/B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways and up-regulated the intracellular tight junction (TJ)-related proteins. In addition, EPSs significantly improved the survival rates of H2O2-damaged IPEC-J2 cells and had no cytotoxic activity, suggesting that EPSs produced by LGG may be an effective drug for relieving oxidative stress. Our study provided a theoretical basis for exploration of the application of probiotic secondary metabolites in practice.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Mucosa Intestinal , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681658

RESUMO

The expansion of multiple drug resistant (MDR) strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae presents an immense threat for public health. Annually, this microorganism causes thousands of lethal nosocomial infections worldwide. Currently, it has been shown that certain strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can efficiently inhibit growth of K. pneumoniae and the formation of its biofilms; however, the active principle of such action remains unknown. In the current article, the growth inhibition of MDR K. pneumoniae by two LAB-Limosilactobacillus reuteri LR1 and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus F-is demonstrated, and the nature of this inhibition studied at the level of exoproteome. This article shows that the exoproteomes of studied LAB contains both classically and non-classically secreted proteins. While for L. reuteri LR1 the substantial portion of classically secreted proteins was presented by cell-wall-degrading enzymes, for L. rhamnosus F only one out of four classically secreted proteins was presented by cell-wall hydrolase. Non-classically secreted proteins of both LAB were primarily metabolic enzymes, for some of which a possible moonlighting functioning was proposed. These results contribute to knowledge regarding antagonistic interaction between LAB and pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms and set new perspectives for the use of LAB to control the spread of these microorganisms.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/metabolismo , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Klebsiella pneumoniae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus reuteri/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Probióticos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20659, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667205

RESUMO

Gut lactobacilli and bifidobacteria on the immune homeostasis. Therefore, to understand the mechanism in vivo, we selected human fecal Lactobacillus rhamnosus NK210 and Bifidobacterium longum NK219, which strongly suppressed the IFN-γ to IL-10 expression (IIE) ratio in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Thereafter, we examined their effects on the endotoxin, antibiotics, or antitumor drug-stimulated immune imbalance in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide and oral gavage of ampicillin increased IFN-γ and TNF-α expression in the spleen, colon, and hippocampus, while IL-10 expression decreased. However, intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide suppressed IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 expression. LPS exposure induced splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1 cells (sNK-C) and peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis against Candida albicans (pMA-P) activities, while cyclophosphamide and ampicillin treatments suppressed sNK-C and pMA-P activities. However, LPS, ampicillin, cyclophosphamide all increased IIE and TNF-α to IL-10 expression (TIE) ratios. Oral administration of NK210 and/or NK219 significantly reduced LPS-induced sNK-C, pMA-P, and IFN-γ expression, while cyclophosphamide- or ampicillin-suppressed sNK-C and pMA-P activities, cyclophosphamide-suppressed IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 expression, and ampicillin-suppressed IL-10 expression increased. Nevertheless, they suppressed LPS-, ampicillin-, or cyclophosphamide-induced IIE and TIE ratios, cognitive impairment, and gut dysbiosis. In particular, NK219, but not NK210, increased the IIE expression ratio in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced sNK-C and pMA-P activities in normal control mice, while cognitive function and gut microbiota composition were not significantly affected. These findings suggest that NK210, Lactobacillus sp, and NK219, Bifidobacterium additively or synergistically alleviate gut dysbiosis, inflammation, and cognitive impairment with immune imbalance by controlling IIE and TIE ratios.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum/metabolismo , Disbiose/terapia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Animais , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium longum/patogenicidade , Disfunção Cognitiva/microbiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Colite/microbiologia , Colite/terapia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interferon gama/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/patogenicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 165, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is the most widely used probiotic, but the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain unresolved. Previous studies typically inoculated LGG in hosts with established gut microbiota, limiting the understanding of specific impacts of LGG on host due to numerous interactions among LGG, commensal microbes, and the host. There has been a scarcity of studies that used gnotobiotic animals to elucidate LGG-host interaction, in particular for gaining specific insights about how it modifies the metabolome. To evaluate whether LGG affects the metabolite output of pathobionts, we inoculated with LGG gnotobiotic mice containing Propionibacterium acnes, Turicibacter sanguinis, and Staphylococcus aureus (PTS). RESULTS: 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples by Ion Torrent and MinION platforms showed colonization of germ-free mice by PTS or by PTS plus LGG (LTS). Although the body weights and feeding rates of mice remained similar between PTS and LTS groups, co-associating LGG with PTS led to a pronounced reduction in abundance of P. acnes in the gut. Addition of LGG or its secretome inhibited P. acnes growth in culture. After optimizing procedures for fecal metabolite extraction and metabolomic liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, unsupervised and supervised multivariate analyses revealed a distinct separation among fecal metabolites of PTS, LTS, and germ-free groups. Variables-important-in-projection scores showed that LGG colonization robustly diminished guanine, ornitihine, and sorbitol while significantly elevating acetylated amino acids, ribitol, indolelactic acid, and histamine. In addition, carnitine, betaine, and glutamate increased while thymidine, quinic acid and biotin were reduced in both PTS and LTS groups. Furthermore, LGG association reduced intestinal mucosal expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IL-1ß and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: LGG co-association had a negative impact on colonization of P. acnes, and markedly altered the metabolic output and inflammatory response elicited by pathobionts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Firmicutes/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vida Livre de Germes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Propionibacterium acnes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Propionibacterium acnes/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 350: 109229, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023682

RESUMO

Amidst rising demand for non-dairy probiotic foods, and growing interest in coffees with added functionalities, it would be opportune to ferment coffee brews with probiotics. However, challenges exist in maintaining probiotic viability in high-moisture food products. Here, we aimed to enhance the viability of the probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, in coffee brews by co-culturing with the probiotic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM-I745. The yeast significantly enhanced the viability of L. rhamnosus GG, as bacterial populations beyond 7 Log CFU/mL were maintained throughout 14 weeks of storage at 4 and 25 °C. In contrast, the single culture of L. rhamnosus GG suffered viability losses below 6 Log CFU/mL within 10 weeks at 4 °C, and 3 weeks at 25 °C. Growth and survival of S. boulardii CNCM-I745 remained unaffected by the presence of L. rhamnosus GG. Volatile profiles of coffee brews were altered by probiotic metabolic activities, but co-culturing led to suppressed generation of diacetyl and ethanol compared to single cultures. Probiotic fermentation did not alter principal coffee bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities; however, declines in peroxyl radical scavenging capacities were observed after ambient storage. Overall, we illustrate that yeasts are effective in enhancing probiotic bacterial viability in coffee brews, which may be useful in developing shelf stable probiotic food products.


Assuntos
Café/microbiologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Probióticos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces boulardii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reatores Biológicos , Café/metabolismo , Fermentação , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana , Saccharomyces boulardii/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fermento Seco/metabolismo
20.
Trends Microbiol ; 29(8): 747-761, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865678

RESUMO

Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (LGR-1) (previously classified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1) is the most researched probiotic strain for women's health. Its various urogenital health effects, including a reduction in the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis and urinary-tract infection, are well documented. The strain has also been safely used by HIV-positive subjects, a portion of whom have reported reduced diarrhea and increased CD4 counts. Unlike most probiotic strains used for urogenital health, LGR-1 has been extensively studied for its properties, including its genomic and metabolic traits and its surface properties. This review aims to highlight the totality of research performed with LGR-1, to act as a rigorous scientific benchmark for probiotic microbes, especially for application to women's health.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus rhamnosus/imunologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Vagina/microbiologia , Animais , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/genética , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana , Saúde da Mulher
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